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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28160345/does-exposure-to-opioid-substitution-treatment-in-prison-reduce-the-risk-of-death-after-release-a-national-prospective-observational-study-in-england
#1
John Marsden, Garry Stillwell, Hayley Jones, Alisha Cooper, Brian Eastwood, Michael Farrell, Tim Lowden, Nino Maddalena, Chris Metcalfe, Jenny Shaw, Matthew Hickman
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: People with opioid use disorder (OUD) in prison face an acute risk of death after release. We estimated whether prison-based opioid substitution treatment (OST) reduces this risk. DESIGN: Prospective observational cohort study using prison healthcare, national community drug misuse treatment and deaths registers. SETTING: Recruitment at 39 adult prisons in England (32 male; 7 female) accounting for 95% of OST treatment in England during study planning...
February 4, 2017: Addiction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28152635/self-poisoning-with-baclofen-in-alcohol-dependent-patients-national-reports-to-french-poison-control-centers-2008-2013
#2
Fanny Pelissier, Luc de Haro, Florence Cardona, Cyndie Picot, Emmanuel Puskarczyk, Jean-Marc Sapori, Christine Tournoud, Nicolas Franchitto
BACKGROUND: Alcohol use disorders are frequently associated with self-intoxication in attempted suicide. In France since 2008, the off-label use of baclofen for treatment of alcohol dependence has greatly increased, leading to temporary regulation of use of the drug. At the request of the national authorities, the French Poison Control Centers carried out a retrospective survey to give an overview of baclofen exposure in this population. METHODS: A retrospective study was carried out from January 2008 to December 2013, focusing on baclofen exposures in alcohol-dependent patients managed by the nine national French Poison Control Centers...
February 3, 2017: Clinical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28135844/morbidity-and-mortality-associated-with-medications-used-in-the-treatment-of-depression-an-analysis-of-cases-reported-to-u-s-poison-control-centers-2000-2014
#3
J Craig Nelson, Daniel A Spyker
OBJECTIVE: The authors sought to determine the relative morbidity and mortality associated with drugs used to treat depression and to examine specific clinical effects associated with serious outcomes. METHOD: The National Poison Data System, which receives exposure reports from regional poison centers serving the United States, Puerto Rico, and the District of Columbia, was queried for single drug exposures in individuals 12 years and older during the period 2000-2014...
January 31, 2017: American Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28127666/examining-fatal-opioid-overdoses-in-marion-county-indiana
#4
Bradley Ray, Kenna Quinet, Timothy Dickinson, Dennis P Watson, Alfarena Ballew
Drug-related overdoses are now the leading injury-related death in the USA, and many of these deaths are associated with illicit opioids and prescription opiate pain medication. This study uses multiple sources of data to examine accidental opioid overdoses across 6 years, 2010 through 2015, in Marion County, IN, an urban jurisdiction in the USA. The primary sources of data are toxicology reports from the county coroner, which reveal that during this period, the most commonly detected opioid substance was heroin...
January 26, 2017: Journal of Urban Health: Bulletin of the New York Academy of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28036135/circumstances-surrounding-non-fatal-opioid-overdoses-attended-by-ambulance-services
#5
Desiree Madah-Amiri, Thomas Clausen, Lars Myrmel, Guttorm Brattebø, Philipp Lobmaier
INTRODUCTION AND AIMS: Opioid overdose fatalities are a significant concern globally. Non-fatal overdoses have been described as a strong predictor for future overdoses, and are often attended by the ambulance services. This paper explores characteristics associated with non-fatal overdoses and aims to identify possible trends among these events in an urban area in Norway. DESIGN AND METHODS: This is a retrospective analysis of non-fatal overdoses from Bergen ambulance services from 2012 to 2013...
December 30, 2016: Drug and Alcohol Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28009694/can-emergency-department-hospital-discharge-and-death-data-be-used-to-monitor-burden-of-drug-overdose-in-rhode-island
#6
Yongwen Jiang, James V McDonald, Jennifer Koziol, Meghan McCormick, Samara Viner-Brown, Nicole Alexander-Scott
CONTEXT: Drug overdoses are a growing public health problem in the United States. Rhode Island is also confronted with a serious epidemic of drug overdose deaths and ranks sixth worst in the United States for age-adjusted drug overdose death rate. OBJECTIVE: To monitor trends of drug overdose-related emergency department (ED) visits, hospitalizations, and deaths and classify the drug overdoses by demographics, discharge status, intent, and specific drug involved to plan for health care resource allocation, mental health services, drug abuse treatment, prevention, and policies...
December 22, 2016: Journal of Public Health Management and Practice: JPHMP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27992785/identification-of-novel-psychoactive-substances-25b-nbome-and-4-cmc-in-biological-material-using-hplc-q-tof-ms-and-their-quantification-in-blood-using-uplc-ms-ms-in-case-of-severe-intoxications
#7
Marek Wiergowski, Justyna Aszyk, Michał Kaliszan, Kamila Wilczewska, Jacek Sein Anand, Agata Kot-Wasik, Zbigniew Jankowski
This paper describes cases of poisoning caused by new psychoactive substances such as: 25B-NBOMe (2-(4-bromo-2,5-dimethoxyphenyl)-N-[(2-methoxyphenyl)methyl]ethanamine) and 4-CMC (1-(4-chlorophenyl)-2-(methylamino)-1-propanone). The analytical procedure includes rapid and selective method for the extraction and determination of 4-CMC and 25B-NBOMe in blood samples using UPLC-MS/MS technique. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report, that involves a fully validated method for quantification of new-designer drug - 4-CMC in postmortem blood samples...
January 15, 2017: Journal of Chromatography. B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27976363/acute-skin-and-hair-symptoms-followed-by-severe-delayed-eye-complications-in-subjects-using-the-synthetic-opioid-mt-45
#8
A Helander, M Bradley, A Hasselblad, L Norlén, I Vassilaki, M Bäckberg, J Lapins
BACKGROUND: The introduction of unclassified new psychoactive substances (NPS) on the recreational drugs market through open online sale ('legal highs' or 'Internet drugs') continues unabated and represents a growing health hazard. The use of NPS has resulted in numerous, severe, adverse events and fatalities, due to unintended overdose or unknown toxic side-effects. OBJECTIVES: To try to find a possible common underlying cause for the skin-hair-eye symptoms complex observed in three men...
December 14, 2016: British Journal of Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917016/the-portapotty-experiment-neoliberal-approaches-to-the-intertwined-epidemics-of-opioid-related-overdose-and-hiv-hcv-and-why-we-need-cultural-anthropologists-in-the-south-bronx
#9
Brett Wolfson-Stofko, Ric Curtis, Faustino Fuentes, Ed Manchess, Alexis Del Rio-Cumba, Alex S Bennett
The following report from the field focuses on the authors' collective efforts to operate an ad hoc safer injection facility (SIF) out of portapotties (portable toilets) in an area of the South Bronx that has consistently experienced some of the highest overdose morbidity and mortality rates in New York City over the past decade (New York City Department of Health and Mental Hygiene, 2011, 2015, 2016). Safer injection facilities (also known as supervised injection facilities, drug consumption rooms, etc.) operating outside the US provide a legal, hygienic, and supervised environment for individuals to use drugs in order to minimize the likelihood of fatal overdose and the spread of blood-borne infections while reducing public injection...
December 2016: Dialectical Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907848/fatal-and-non-fatal-overdose-after-narcology-hospital-discharge-among-russians-living-with-hiv-aids-who-inject-drugs
#10
Alexander Y Walley, Debbie M Cheng, Emily K Quinn, Elena Blokhina, Natalia Gnatienko, Christine E Chaisson, Evgeny Krupitsky, Philip O Coffin, Jeffrey H Samet
OBJECTIVES: Among Russians living with HIV/AIDS who inject drugs, we examined the incidence of fatal and non-fatal overdoses following discharge from a narcology hospital and the associations with more advanced HIV infection. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study of data collected at baseline, 3 and 6 months from HIV-infected patients with a history of injection drug use who were not treated with anti-retroviral therapy. Participants were recruited between 2012-2014 from a narcology (addiction) hospital in St...
January 2017: International Journal on Drug Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27830905/-drug-safety-associated-with-the-change-of-digitalis-drug-in-norway
#11
Christian Haga, Mimi Stokke Opdal, Silja Skogstad Tuv, Per Henrik Zahl, Hanne Stenberg-Nilsen
BACKGROUND In 2011, following a period with delivery problems, the only registered digitoxin drug in Norway was replaced with digoxin. As a result, approximately 21 000 patients had to replace digitoxin with digoxin. There are important pharmacokinetic differences between digitoxin and digoxin (the general term for both drugs is digitalis), which must be taken into account when changing therapy. The aim of this study was to investigate compliance of drug security, during the transition from digitoxin to digoxin in Norway...
November 2016: Tidsskrift for Den Norske Lægeforening: Tidsskrift for Praktisk Medicin, Ny Række
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27784226/evidence-of-2-populations-of-mephedrone-abusers-by-hair-testing-application-to-4-forensic-expertises
#12
Pascal Kintz
New psychoactive substances are conquering the drug scene. Among these substances, cathinone derivatives have been observed since late in the year 2000. At that time, an increasing use of the synthetic cathinone mephedrone (4-methylmethcathinone) started to be observed, particularly among night clubbers. Although these new psychoactive drugs showed an appearance of safety, a growing amount of experiences on their secondary effects has been reported. Mephedrone for example is known to induce psychosis. Given the potential negative effects of mephedrone, the laboratory was asked to test for the drug in hair, a cumulative matrix that can document single, occasional or repetitive abuse of xenobiotics...
October 26, 2016: Current Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27760420/risks-of-metformin-in-type-2-diabetes-and-chronic-kidney-disease-lessons-learned-from-taiwanese-data
#13
Connie M Rhee, Csaba P Kovesdy, Kamyar Kalantar-Zadeh
Like other biguanide agents, metformin is an anti-hyperglycemic agent with lower tendency towards hypoglycemia compared to other anti-diabetic drugs. Given its favorable effects on serum lipids, obese body habitus, cardiovascular disease, and mortality, metformin is recommended as the first-line pharmacologic agent for type 2 diabetes in the absence of contraindications. However, as metformin accumulation may lead to type B non-hypoxemic lactic acidosis, especially in the setting of kidney injury, chronic kidney disease, and overdose, regulatory agencies such as the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) have maintained certain restrictions regarding its use in kidney dysfunction...
2017: Nephron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27717590/endotracheal-intubation-after-acute-drug-overdoses-incidence-complications-and-risk-factors
#14
Angela Hua, Stephen Haight, Robert S Hoffman, Alex F Manini
BACKGROUND: Drug overdose is the leading cause of injury-related fatality in the United States, and respiratory failure remains a major source of morbidity and mortality. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to identify the incidence and risk factors for endotracheal intubation after acute drug overdose. METHODS: This secondary data analysis was performed on a 5-year prospective cohort at two urban tertiary-care hospitals. The present study analyzed adult patients with suspected acute drug overdose to derive independent clinical predictors of endotracheal intubation...
January 2017: Journal of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27641627/mechanisms-of-tramadol-related-neurotoxicity-in-the-rat-does-diazepam-tramadol-combination-play-a-worsening-role-in-overdose
#15
Camille Lagard, Lucie Chevillard, Isabelle Malissin, Patricia Risède, Jacques Callebert, Laurence Labat, Jean-Marie Launay, Jean-Louis Laplanche, Bruno Mégarbane
Poisoning with opioid analgesics including tramadol represents a challenge. Tramadol may induce respiratory depression, seizures and serotonin syndrome, possibly worsened when in combination to benzodiazepines. Our objectives were to investigate tramadol-related neurotoxicity, consequences of diazepam/tramadol combination, and mechanisms of drug-drug interactions in rats. Median lethal-doses were determined using Dixon-Bruce's up-and-down method. Sedation, seizures, electroencephalography and plethysmography parameters were studied...
November 1, 2016: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27631755/state-medical-marijuana-laws-and-the-prevalence-of-opioids-detected-among-fatally-injured-drivers
#16
June H Kim, Julian Santaella-Tenorio, Christine Mauro, Julia Wrobel, Magdalena Cerdà, Katherine M Keyes, Deborah Hasin, Silvia S Martins, Guohua Li
OBJECTIVES: To assess the association between medical marijuana laws (MMLs) and the odds of a positive opioid test, an indicator for prior use. METHODS: We analyzed 1999-2013 Fatality Analysis Reporting System (FARS) data from 18 states that tested for alcohol and other drugs in at least 80% of drivers who died within 1 hour of crashing (n = 68 394). Within-state and between-state comparisons assessed opioid positivity among drivers crashing in states with an operational MML (i...
November 2016: American Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27630172/the-long-term-co-occurrence-of-psychiatric-illness-and-behavioral-problems-following-child-sexual-abuse
#17
Nina L Papalia, Stefan Luebbers, James Rp Ogloff, Margaret Cutajar, Paul E Mullen
OBJECTIVES: There is a growing body of research investigating the relationship between child sexual abuse and a range of adverse outcomes. However, very little is known about the long-term co-occurrence of psychiatric disorders and behavioral problems among this vulnerable population, or the interaction between characteristics of the abuse, such as the nature and timing of the child sexual abuse, and the extent of subsequent adversities. This study aimed to determine the rate and co-occurrence of mental health morbidity, criminal justice system contact, and fatal self-harm among medically confirmed victims of child sexual abuse, and to identify abuse variables associated with a greater likelihood of cumulative adverse experiences...
September 14, 2016: Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27623005/the-economic-burden-of-prescription-opioid-overdose-abuse-and-dependence-in-the-united-states-2013
#18
Curtis S Florence, Chao Zhou, Feijun Luo, Likang Xu
IMPORTANCE: It is important to understand the magnitude and distribution of the economic burden of prescription opioid overdose, abuse, and dependence to inform clinical practice, research, and other decision makers. Decision makers choosing approaches to address this epidemic need cost information to evaluate the cost effectiveness of their choices. OBJECTIVE: To estimate the economic burden of prescription opioid overdose, abuse, and dependence from a societal perspective...
October 2016: Medical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27620940/location-of-fatal-prescription-opioid-related-deaths-in-12-states-2008-2010-implications-for-prevention-programs
#19
Keith W Easterling, Karin A Mack, Christopher M Jones
INTRODUCTION: Prescription opioid pain reliever overdose is a major public health issue in the United States. To characterize the location of drug-related deaths, we examined fatal prescription opioid and illicit drug-related deaths reported in 12 states. METHODS: Data are from the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration's Drug Abuse Warning Network (DAWN). Medical examiners or coroners in 12 states (MA, MD, ME, NH, NM, OK, OR, RI, UT, VA, VT, WV) reported details of state-wide drug-related mortality during 2008-2010...
September 2016: Journal of Safety Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27591717/post-mortem-concentrations-of-drugs-determined-in-femoral-blood-in-single-drug-fatalities-compared-with-multi-drug-poisoning-deaths
#20
Alan Wayne Jones, Anita Holmgren, Johan Ahlner
BACKGROUND: Reference concentrations of drugs in post-mortem femoral blood furnishes useful information when poisoning (intoxication) deaths are investigated. However, few publications compare the concentrations of drugs in single-drug fatalities with multi-drug intoxications. This article attempts to fill this gap in knowledge. METHODS: We searched a national forensic toxicology database (TOXBASE) and found N=13,963 deaths attributed by pathologists to intoxication by drugs (poisoning)...
October 2016: Forensic Science International
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