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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907848/fatal-and-non-fatal-overdose-after-narcology-hospital-discharge-among-russians-living-with-hiv-aids-who-inject-drugs
#1
Alexander Y Walley, Debbie M Cheng, Emily K Quinn, Elena Blokhina, Natalia Gnatienko, Christine E Chaisson, Evgeny Krupitsky, Philip O Coffin, Jeffrey H Samet
OBJECTIVES: Among Russians living with HIV/AIDS who inject drugs, we examined the incidence of fatal and non-fatal overdoses following discharge from a narcology hospital and the associations with more advanced HIV infection. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study of data collected at baseline, 3 and 6 months from HIV-infected patients with a history of injection drug use who were not treated with anti-retroviral therapy. Participants were recruited between 2012-2014 from a narcology (addiction) hospital in St...
November 28, 2016: International Journal on Drug Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27830905/-drug-safety-associated-with-the-change-of-digitalis-drug-in-norway
#2
Christian Haga, Mimi Stokke Opdal, Silja Skogstad Tuv, Per Henrik Zahl, Hanne Stenberg-Nilsen
BACKGROUND In 2011, following a period with delivery problems, the only registered digitoxin drug in Norway was replaced with digoxin. As a result, approximately 21 000 patients had to replace digitoxin with digoxin. There are important pharmacokinetic differences between digitoxin and digoxin (the general term for both drugs is digitalis), which must be taken into account when changing therapy. The aim of this study was to investigate compliance of drug security, during the transition from digitoxin to digoxin in Norway...
November 2016: Tidsskrift for Den Norske Lægeforening: Tidsskrift for Praktisk Medicin, Ny Række
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27784226/evidence-of-2-populations-of-mephedrone-abusers-by-hair-testing-application-to-4-forensic-expertises
#3
Pascal Kintz
New psychoactive substances are conquering the drug scene. Among these substances, cathinone derivatives have been observed since late in the year 2000. At that time, an increasing use of the synthetic cathinone mephedrone (4-methylmethcathinone) started to be observed, particularly among night clubbers. Although these new psychoactive drugs showed an appearance of safety, a growing amount of experiences on their secondary effects has been reported. Mephedrone for example is known to induce psychosis. Given the potential negative effects of mephedrone, the laboratory was asked to test for the drug in hair, a cumulative matrix that can document single, occasional or repetitive abuse of xenobiotics...
October 26, 2016: Current Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27760420/risks-of-metformin-in-type-2-diabetes-and-chronic-kidney-disease-lessons-learned-from-taiwanese-data
#4
Connie M Rhee, Csaba P Kovesdy, Kamyar Kalantar-Zadeh
Like other biguanide agents, metformin is an anti-hyperglycemic agent with lower tendency towards hypoglycemia compared to other anti-diabetic drugs. Given its favorable effects on serum lipids, obese body habitus, cardiovascular disease, and mortality, metformin is recommended as the first-line pharmacologic agent for type 2 diabetes in the absence of contraindications. However, as metformin accumulation may lead to type B non-hypoxemic lactic acidosis, especially in the setting of kidney injury, chronic kidney disease, and overdose, regulatory agencies such as the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) have maintained certain restrictions regarding its use in kidney dysfunction...
October 20, 2016: Nephron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27717590/endotracheal-intubation-after-acute-drug-overdoses-incidence-complications-and-risk-factors
#5
Angela Hua, Stephen Haight, Robert S Hoffman, Alex F Manini
BACKGROUND: Drug overdose is the leading cause of injury-related fatality in the United States, and respiratory failure remains a major source of morbidity and mortality. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to identify the incidence and risk factors for endotracheal intubation after acute drug overdose. METHODS: This secondary data analysis was performed on a 5-year prospective cohort at two urban tertiary-care hospitals. The present study analyzed adult patients with suspected acute drug overdose to derive independent clinical predictors of endotracheal intubation...
October 4, 2016: Journal of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27641627/mechanisms-of-tramadol-related-neurotoxicity-in-the-rat-does-diazepam-tramadol-combination-play-a-worsening-role-in-overdose
#6
Camille Lagard, Lucie Chevillard, Isabelle Malissin, Patricia Risède, Jacques Callebert, Laurence Labat, Jean-Marie Launay, Jean-Louis Laplanche, Bruno Mégarbane
Poisoning with opioid analgesics including tramadol represents a challenge. Tramadol may induce respiratory depression, seizures and serotonin syndrome, possibly worsened when in combination to benzodiazepines. Our objectives were to investigate tramadol-related neurotoxicity, consequences of diazepam/tramadol combination, and mechanisms of drug-drug interactions in rats. Median lethal-doses were determined using Dixon-Bruce's up-and-down method. Sedation, seizures, electroencephalography and plethysmography parameters were studied...
November 1, 2016: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27631755/state-medical-marijuana-laws-and-the-prevalence-of-opioids-detected-among-fatally-injured-drivers
#7
June H Kim, Julian Santaella-Tenorio, Christine Mauro, Julia Wrobel, Magdalena Cerdà, Katherine M Keyes, Deborah Hasin, Silvia S Martins, Guohua Li
OBJECTIVES: To assess the association between medical marijuana laws (MMLs) and the odds of a positive opioid test, an indicator for prior use. METHODS: We analyzed 1999-2013 Fatality Analysis Reporting System (FARS) data from 18 states that tested for alcohol and other drugs in at least 80% of drivers who died within 1 hour of crashing (n = 68 394). Within-state and between-state comparisons assessed opioid positivity among drivers crashing in states with an operational MML (i...
November 2016: American Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27630172/the-long-term-co-occurrence-of-psychiatric-illness-and-behavioral-problems-following-child-sexual-abuse
#8
Nina L Papalia, Stefan Luebbers, James Rp Ogloff, Margaret Cutajar, Paul E Mullen
OBJECTIVES: There is a growing body of research investigating the relationship between child sexual abuse and a range of adverse outcomes. However, very little is known about the long-term co-occurrence of psychiatric disorders and behavioral problems among this vulnerable population, or the interaction between characteristics of the abuse, such as the nature and timing of the child sexual abuse, and the extent of subsequent adversities. This study aimed to determine the rate and co-occurrence of mental health morbidity, criminal justice system contact, and fatal self-harm among medically confirmed victims of child sexual abuse, and to identify abuse variables associated with a greater likelihood of cumulative adverse experiences...
September 14, 2016: Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27623005/the-economic-burden-of-prescription-opioid-overdose-abuse-and-dependence-in-the-united-states-2013
#9
Curtis S Florence, Chao Zhou, Feijun Luo, Likang Xu
IMPORTANCE: It is important to understand the magnitude and distribution of the economic burden of prescription opioid overdose, abuse, and dependence to inform clinical practice, research, and other decision makers. Decision makers choosing approaches to address this epidemic need cost information to evaluate the cost effectiveness of their choices. OBJECTIVE: To estimate the economic burden of prescription opioid overdose, abuse, and dependence from a societal perspective...
October 2016: Medical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27620940/location-of-fatal-prescription-opioid-related-deaths-in-12-states-2008-2010-implications-for-prevention-programs
#10
Keith W Easterling, Karin A Mack, Christopher M Jones
INTRODUCTION: Prescription opioid pain reliever overdose is a major public health issue in the United States. To characterize the location of drug-related deaths, we examined fatal prescription opioid and illicit drug-related deaths reported in 12 states. METHODS: Data are from the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration's Drug Abuse Warning Network (DAWN). Medical examiners or coroners in 12 states (MA, MD, ME, NH, NM, OK, OR, RI, UT, VA, VT, WV) reported details of state-wide drug-related mortality during 2008-2010...
September 2016: Journal of Safety Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27591717/post-mortem-concentrations-of-drugs-determined-in-femoral-blood-in-single-drug-fatalities-compared-with-multi-drug-poisoning-deaths
#11
Alan Wayne Jones, Anita Holmgren, Johan Ahlner
BACKGROUND: Reference concentrations of drugs in post-mortem femoral blood furnishes useful information when poisoning (intoxication) deaths are investigated. However, few publications compare the concentrations of drugs in single-drug fatalities with multi-drug intoxications. This article attempts to fill this gap in knowledge. METHODS: We searched a national forensic toxicology database (TOXBASE) and found N=13,963 deaths attributed by pathologists to intoxication by drugs (poisoning)...
October 2016: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27570623/a-case-of-iloperidone-overdose-in-a-27-year-old-man-with-cocaine-abuse
#12
Jin Amon, Elsa Stephen, Rif S El-Mallakh
INTRODUCTION: Iloperidone is a recently introduced antipsychotic medication. It is approved for the treatment of schizophrenia. There are no published reports of iloperidone overdosage, but there are eight cases that have been reported to the US Food and Drug Administration. CASE REPORT: A case of a 27-year-old man who took 84 mg of iloperidone while also smoking cocaine is described. He developed a prolonged QTc (527 ms) without arrhythmias and respiratory failure with mandated respiratory support...
2016: SAGE open medical case reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27568509/awareness-and-attitudes-toward-intranasal-naloxone-rescue-for-opioid-overdose-prevention
#13
Harshal Kirane, Michael Ketteringham, Sewit Bereket, Richie Dima, Ann Basta, Sonia Mendoza, Helena Hansen
Opioid overdose prevention is a pressing public health concern and intranasal naloxone rescue kits are a useful tool in preventing fatal overdose. We evaluated the attitudes, knowledge, and experiences of patients and providers related to overdose and naloxone rescue. Over a six month period, patients and providers within a large community hospital in Staten Island were recruited to complete tailored questionnaires for their respective groupings. 100 patients and 101 providers completed questionnaires between August, 2014 and January, 2015...
October 2016: Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27547470/loperamide-induced-life-threatening-ventricular-arrhythmia
#14
Ankit Upadhyay, Vijaykumar Bodar, Mohammad Malekzadegan, Sharanjit Singh, William Frumkin, Aditya Mangla, Kaushik Doshi
Loperamide is over-the-counter antidiarrheal agent acting on peripherally located μ opioid receptors. It is gaining popularity among drug abusers as opioid substitute. We report a case of a 46-year-old male that was presented after cardiac arrest. After ruling out ischemia, cardiomyopathy, pulmonary embolism, central nervous system pathology, sepsis, and other drug toxicity, we found out that patient was using around 100 mg of Loperamide to control his chronic diarrhea presumably because of irritable bowel syndrome for last five years and consumed up to 200 mg of Loperamide daily for last two days before the cardiac arrest...
2016: Case Reports in Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27546909/determination-of-mdpbp-in-postmortem-blood-samples-by-gas-chromatography-coupled-with-mass-spectrometry
#15
Marek Wiergowski, Mateusz K Woźniak, Marzena Kata, Marek Biziuk
ABSTRACT: MDPBP (1-(3,4-methylenedioxyphenyl)-2-(1-pyrrolidinyl)-1-butanone) is a new psychoactive substance sold on the black market. It has been a controlled drug of abuse in Poland and China since 2015 as some toxic and fatal cases connected with use of synthetic cathinone derivatives were observed. The fatal case outlined here concerns a 19-year-old man, who was found dead with an envelope containing white powder lying nearby the cadaver. The analyses of the powder revealed a presence of MDPBP...
2016: Monatshefte Für Chemie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27507658/recognition-and-response-to-opioid-overdose-deaths-new-mexico-2012
#16
Benjamin Levy, Bridget Spelke, Leonard J Paulozzi, Jeneita M Bell, Kurt B Nolte, Sarah Lathrop, David E Sugerman, Michael Landen
PURPOSE: Drug overdose deaths are epidemic in the U.S. Prescription opioid pain relievers (OPR) and heroin account for the majority of drug overdoses. Preventing death after an opioid overdose by naloxone administration requires the rapid identification of the overdose by witnesses. This study used a state medical examiner database to characterize fatal overdoses, evaluate witness-reported signs of overdose, and identify opportunities for intervention. METHODS: We reviewed all unintentional drug overdose deaths that occurred in New Mexico during 2012...
October 1, 2016: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27497336/medicolegal-aspects-of-pma-related-deaths
#17
Sebastian Rojek, Filip Bolechała, Karol Kula, Martyna Maciów-Głąb, Małgorzata Kłys
Unlike amphetamine, amphetamine-like substances accessible on the drug market are less expensive and more easily available; they also produce hallucinogenic effects expected by the users. Such properties render them more attractive as compared to amphetamine. On the other hand, the knowledge of the toxicity of these compounds is very limited, what in consequence generates problems that create ever-expanding research areas, including analytical, clinical and medicolegal issues, thus leading to development of systemic databases...
July 2016: Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27497332/an-autopsy-case-of-acetyl-fentanyl-intoxication-caused-by-insufflation-of-designer-drugs
#18
Izumi Takase, Takako Koizumi, Ihoko Fujimoto, Aya Yanai, Tatsuya Fujimiya
We present a fatal case of intoxication due to insufflation of acetyl fentanyl. His blood concentration of acetyl fentanyl was 270ng/mL, and the manner of death was classified as an accident. This is the first report of an autopsy case of acetyl fentanyl delivered by insufflation, rather than intravenous administration. He had been snoring loudly for at least 12h prior to death, and transport to a hospital during this time and treatment with naloxone may have saved his life. In this sense, it can be said that his death was preventable...
July 2016: Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27473400/protocol-of-the-impact-of-alternative-social-assistance-disbursement-on-drug-related-harm-tasa-study-a-randomized-controlled-trial-to-evaluate-changes-to-payment-timing-and-frequency-among-people-who-use-illicit-drugs
#19
Lindsey Richardson, Allison Laing, M-J Milloy, Russ Maynard, Bohdan Nosyk, Brandon Marshall, Eric Grafstein, Patricia Daly, Evan Wood, Julio Montaner, Thomas Kerr
BACKGROUND: Government social assistance payments seek to alleviate poverty and address survival needs, but their monthly disbursement may cue increases in illicit drug use. This cue may be magnified when assistance is disbursed simultaneously across the population. Synchronized payments have been linked to escalations in drug use and unintended but severe drug-related harms, including overdose, as well as spikes in demand for health, social, financial and police services. METHODS/DESIGN: The TASA study examines whether changing payment timing and frequency can mitigate drug-related harm associated with synchronized social assistance disbursement...
2016: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27471990/ocfentanil-overdose-fatality-in-the-recreational-drug-scene
#20
Vera Coopman, Jan Cordonnier, Marc De Leeuw, Vincent Cirimele
This paper describes the first reported death involving ocfentanil, a potent synthetic opioid and structure analogue of fentanyl abused as a new psychoactive substance in the recreational drug scene. A 17-year-old man with a history of illegal substance abuse was found dead in his home after snorting a brown powder purchased over the internet with bitcoins. Acetaminophen, caffeine and ocfentanil were identified in the powder by gas chromatography mass spectrometry and reversed-phase liquid chromatography with diode array detector...
September 2016: Forensic Science International
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