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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28882143/characteristics-of-persons-who-inject-drugs-and-who-witness-opioid-overdoses-in-vietnam-a-cross-sectional-analysis-to-inform-future-overdose-prevention-programs
#1
N A Blackburn, K E Lancaster, T V Ha, C A Latkin, W C Miller, C Frangakis, V A Chu, T Sripaipan, V M Quan, N L Minh, P T Vu, V F Go
BACKGROUND: Persons who use opioids have a high risk of overdose and associated mortality. In Vietnam, little is known about the characteristics of this population and the persons who are witness to those overdoses. One approach to combatting fatal overdose has been the use of peer interventions in which a friend or injecting partner administers overdose reversal medication, but availability in Vietnam of these medications is limited to pilot programs with aims to expand in the future (Le Minh and V...
September 7, 2017: Harm Reduction Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28861516/cannabis-as-a-substitute-for-opioid-based-pain-medication-patient-self-report
#2
Amanda Reiman, Mark Welty, Perry Solomon
Introduction: Prescription drug overdoses are the leading cause of accidental death in the United States. Alternatives to opioids for the treatment of pain are necessary to address this issue. Cannabis can be an effective treatment for pain, greatly reduces the chance of dependence, and eliminates the risk of fatal overdose compared to opioid-based medications. Medical cannabis patients report that cannabis is just as effective, if not more, than opioid-based medications for pain. Materials and Methods: The current study examined the use of cannabis as a substitute for opioid-based pain medication by collecting survey data from 2897 medical cannabis patients...
2017: Cannabis and Cannabinoid Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28860946/increases-in-united-states-life-expectancy-through-reductions-in-injury-related-death
#3
REVIEW
Scott R Kegler, Grant T Baldwin, Rose A Rudd, Michael F Ballesteros
BACKGROUND: During the previous century the average lifespan in the United States (US) increased by over 30 years, with much of this increase attributed to public health initiatives. This report examines further gains that might be achieved through reduced occurrence of injury-related death. METHODS: US life tables and injury death rate data were used to estimate potential increases in life expectancy assuming various reductions in the rate of fatal injuries. Corresponding numbers of deaths potentially averted annually were also estimated; unit (per death) medical and lifetime work loss costs were employed to estimate total costs potentially averted annually...
2017: Population Health Metrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28859050/overdose-deaths-related-to-fentanyl-and-its-analogs-ohio-january-february-2017
#4
Raminta Daniulaityte, Matthew P Juhascik, Kraig E Strayer, Ioana E Sizemore, Kent E Harshbarger, Heather M Antonides, Robert R Carlson
Ohio is experiencing unprecedented loss of life caused by unintentional drug overdoses (1), with illicitly manufactured fentanyl (IMF) emerging as a significant threat to public health (2,3). IMF is structurally similar to pharmaceutical fentanyl, but is produced in clandestine laboratories and includes fentanyl analogs that display wide variability in potency (2); variations in chemical composition of these drugs make detection more difficult. During 2010-2015, unintentional drug overdose deaths in Ohio increased 98%, from 1,544 to 3,050...
September 1, 2017: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28854976/increases-in-united-states-life-expectancy-through-reductions-in-injury-related-death
#5
REVIEW
Scott R Kegler, Grant T Baldwin, Rose A Rudd, Michael F Ballesteros
BACKGROUND: During the previous century the average lifespan in the United States (US) increased by over 30 years, with much of this increase attributed to public health initiatives. This report examines further gains that might be achieved through reduced occurrence of injury-related death. METHODS: US life tables and injury death rate data were used to estimate potential increases in life expectancy assuming various reductions in the rate of fatal injuries. Corresponding numbers of deaths potentially averted annually were also estimated; unit (per death) medical and lifetime work loss costs were employed to estimate total costs potentially averted annually...
August 30, 2017: Population Health Metrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816830/fatal-cerebral-edema-seizures-and-hyponatremia-after-trazodone-overdose
#6
Jose David Avila
Trazodone is a serotonin antagonist and reuptake inhibitor that is widely used for the treatment of depression and insomnia. Fatal overdose is rare and usually occurs when combined with other drugs or alcohol. Only a few lethal cases of pure trazodone overdose have been reported, all attributed to cardiotoxicity. We reported a 37-year-old woman who presented after ingesting 6.45 g of trazodone in a suicidal attempt. She was hyponatremic because of the syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion and, shortly after, had a seizure and developed fatal cerebral edema...
September 2017: Clinical Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28799198/does-paying-service-providers-by-results-improve-recovery-outcomes-for-drug-misusers-in-treatment-in-england
#7
Andrew Jones, Matthias Pierce, Matt Sutton, Thomas Mason, Tim Millar
AIM: To compare drug recovery outcomes in commissioning areas included in a 'payment by results' scheme with all other areas. DESIGN: Observational and data linkage study of the National Drug Treatment Monitoring System, Office for National Statistics mortality database, and Police National Computer criminal records, for two years before and after introduction of the scheme. Pre-post controlled comparison compared outcomes in participating versus non-participating areas following adjustment for drug use, functioning and drug treatment status...
August 10, 2017: Addiction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797652/geographic-variation-in-opioid-and-heroin-involved-drug-poisoning-mortality-rates
#8
Christopher J Ruhm
INTRODUCTION: An important barrier to formulating effective policies to address the rapid rise in U.S. fatal overdoses is that the specific drugs involved are frequently not identified on death certificates. This analysis supplies improved estimates of state opioid and heroin involved drug fatality rates in 2014, and changes from 2008 to 2014. METHODS: Reported mortality rates were calculated directly from death certificates and compared to corrected rates that imputed drug involvement when no drug was specified...
August 1, 2017: American Journal of Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28767538/two-fatal-intoxications-due-to-tramadol-alone-autopsy-case-reports-and-review-of-the-literature
#9
Sara Gioia, Massimo Lancia, Mauro Bacci, Fabio Suadoni
Since tramadol was marketed, it has been widely prescribed as a pain killer because of its relatively safe profile among opioids.Nevertheless, intoxication can occur: overdose can lead to fatal outcomes mostly in association with other drugs, via the potential interaction with serotonergic antidepressant medications, as well as the potential for increased central nervous system (CNS) depression.Fatal outcomes only attributable to tramadol are a rare entity. In this case report, 2 fatal cases are described due to tramadol stand-alone intoxication with peculiar characteristics...
August 1, 2017: American Journal of Forensic Medicine and Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28762157/risk-markers-for-fatal-and-non-fatal-prescription-drug-overdose-a-meta-analysis
#10
REVIEW
Joanne E Brady, Rebecca Giglio, Katherine M Keyes, Charles DiMaggio, Guohua Li
BACKGROUND: Drug overdose is a public health crisis in the United States, due in part to the unintended consequences of increases in prescribing of opioid analgesics. Many clinicians evaluate risk markers for opioid-related harms when prescribing opioids for chronic pain; however, more data on predictive risk markers are needed. Risk markers are attributes (modifiable and non-modifiable) that are associated with increased probability of an outcome. This review aims to identify risk markers associated with fatal and non-fatal prescription drug overdose by synthesizing findings in the existing peer-reviewed and grey literature...
December 2017: Injury Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28739777/establishment-of-a-comprehensive-drug-overdose-fatality-surveillance-system-in-kentucky-to-inform-drug-overdose-prevention-policies-interventions-and-best-practices
#11
Sarah L Hargrove, Terry L Bunn, Svetla Slavova, Dana Quesinberry, Tracey Corey, William Ralston, Michael D Singleton, Van Ingram
BACKGROUND: According to the National Center for Health Statistics, Kentucky had the third highest drug overdose fatality rate in the nation in 2015 at 29.9 drug overdose fatalities per 100 000 population. OBJECTIVE: The elevated drug overdose fatality rate necessitated the development and implementation of a comprehensive multisource drug overdose fatality surveillance system (DOFSS). METHODS: DOFSS stakeholder work group members and data sources were identified, and memorandums of understanding were established...
July 24, 2017: Injury Prevention: Journal of the International Society for Child and Adolescent Injury Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28738683/state-prescription-drug-monitoring-programs-and-fatal-drug-overdoses
#12
Young Hee Nam, Dennis G Shea, Yunfeng Shi, John R Moran
OBJECTIVES: To examine the impact of prescription drug monitoring programs (PDMPs) on drug overdose deaths. STUDY DESIGN: We used variation in the timing of state PDMP legislation and implementation to estimate the impact of these programs on drug overdose mortality rates across all drug categories from 1999 to 2014 and separately for each category from 1999 to 2010. Data used include US all-jurisdiction mortality data, estimated population data, and sociodemographic data from the CDC and the US Census Bureau...
May 2017: American Journal of Managed Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735777/heroin-and-fentanyl-overdoses-in-kentucky-epidemiology-and-surveillance
#13
Svetla Slavova, Julia F Costich, Terry L Bunn, Huong Luu, Michael Singleton, Sarah L Hargrove, Jeremy S Triplett, Dana Quesinberry, William Ralston, Van Ingram
BACKGROUND: The study aims to describe recent changes in Kentucky's drug overdose trends related to increased heroin and fentanyl involvement, and to discuss future directions for improved drug overdose surveillance. METHODS: The study used multiple data sources (death certificates, postmortem toxicology results, emergency department [ED] records, law enforcement drug submissions, and prescription drug monitoring records) to describe temporal, geographic, and demographic changes in drug overdoses in Kentucky...
June 27, 2017: International Journal on Drug Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729056/discovery-and-structure-activity-relationship-of-auriculatone-a-potent-hepatoprotective-agent-against-acetaminophen-induced-liver-injury
#14
Meng Zhou, Min Wang, Rui-Feng Zhong, Xiang-Ming Liao, Lian-Li Deng, Guo-Bo Xu, Xun He, Jing Li, Yong-Jun Li, Ting Liu, Yong-Lin Wang, Shang-Gao Liao
Acetaminophen (APAP, paracetamol) overdose has been the most frequent cause of drug-induced liver failure. APAP-induced liver toxicity can be fatal in many cases even with treatment of the clinically used N-acetylcysteine (NAC), and the need for novel therapeutic agents is apparent. Through evaluating the hepatoprotective effects of the co-occurring substances present in oleanolic acid tablets which have been used in China for decades as an adjuvant therapy for acute and chronic hepatitis, auriculatone was found to protect HL-7702 cells from APAP-induced liver injury comparable to NAC at the concentration of 10μM...
August 15, 2017: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727520/undocumented-immigration-drug-problems-and-driving-under-the-influence-in-the-united-states-1990-2014
#15
Michael T Light, Ty Miller, Brian C Kelly
OBJECTIVES: To examine the influence of undocumented immigration in the United States on 4 different metrics of drug and alcohol problems: drug arrests, drug overdose fatalities, driving under the influence (DUI) arrests, and DUI deaths. METHODS: We combined newly developed state-level estimates of the undocumented population between 1990 and 2014 from the Center for Migration Studies with arrest data from the Federal Bureau of Investigation Uniform Crime Reports and fatality information from the Fatality Analysis Reporting System and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Underlying Cause of Death database...
September 2017: American Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723266/age-of-initiation-psychopathology-and-other-substance-use-are-associated-with-time-to-use-disorder-diagnosis-in-persons-using-opioids-nonmedically
#16
Ty S Schepis, Jahn K Hakes
BACKGROUND: Nonmedical use of prescription opioids (NMUPO) is an ongoing public health challenge, as NMUPO is associated with psychopathology, other drug use, and fatal overdose. These concomitant risks are greatest in those with opioid use disorder (OUD), but the development of NMUPO-related use disorder is poorly understood. The primary aim of this study was to establish factors associated with the development of and time to OUD among persons engaged in NMUPO. METHODS: Data were from wave 1 of the National Epidemiologic Study on Alcohol and Related Conditions, with 1755 participants endorsing lifetime NMUPO...
July 19, 2017: Substance Abuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718908/death-from-butane-inhalation-abuse-in-teenagers-two-new-case-studies-and-review-of-the-literature
#17
Véronique Alunni, Yvan Gaillard, François Castier, Marie-Dominique Piercecchi-Marti, Gérald Quatrehomme
The ready availability of butane makes butane abuse frequent. Fatalities are rare. This study presents two cases of death by butane overdose. The postmortem analyses were carried out using headspace gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. It revealed femoral blood butane concentrations of 18 and 22 mg/L, respectively, as well as specific combinations of adjuvants in each victim. In one of the victims, brain and fatty tissue also contained butane, pointing to chronic consumption. The originality of this study is to show that the identification of specific combinations of adjuvants can be helpful for identifying the brand of deodorant used...
July 18, 2017: Journal of Forensic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28692407/overdose-history-is-associated-with-postdetoxification-treatment-preference-for-persons-with-opioid-use-disorder
#18
Michael D Stein, Jessica N Flori, Megan M Risi, Micah T Conti, Bradley J Anderson, Genie L Bailey
BACKGROUND: Without aftercare treatment, persons discharged from short-term inpatient detoxification for opioid use disorder are at high risk of relapse. In previous work, those who were recently homeless or had pending legal problems were more likely to prefer residential treatment for aftercare. Here, based on clinical experience, the authors hypothesize that a particular clinical factor, surviving an opioid overdose, will be associated with aftercare preference. METHODS: Between May and December 2015, the authors surveyed consecutive persons seeking inpatient opioid detoxification...
July 10, 2017: Substance Abuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28690895/discrimination-between-drug-abuse-and-medical-therapy-case-report-of-a-tranylcypromine-overdose-related-fatality
#19
Maryam Akhgari, Farzaneh Jokar, Afshar Etemadi-Aleagha, Ali Ghasemi
Tranylcypromine is an effective antidepressant from the class of monoamine oxidase inhibitors and is structurally related to amphetamine. However, reports differ regarding the potential metabolism of tranylcypromine to amphetamine and methamphetamine within the human body. We report a 25-year-old woman with severe depression who died due to a fatal tranylcypromine overdose in 2016. She had been prescribed tranylcypromine one day previously and had no history of previous suicide attempts or substance abuse. The body was transferred to a forensic medicine department in Tehran, Iran for the autopsy...
May 2017: Sultan Qaboos University Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28656354/nonfatal-and-fatal-intoxications-with-pure-caffeine-report-of-three-different-cases
#20
Jan Magdalan, Marcin Zawadzki, Rafał Skowronek, Magdalena Czuba, Barbara Porębska, Tomasz Sozański, Paweł Szpot
Caffeine is not usually perceived as a drug by most people because it is found in many foods and drinks, including caffeinated energy drinks, as well as in over the counter analgesics and cold preparations. Recently in Poland it has become increasingly common to take pure caffeine, bought through online stores, as a psychoanaleptic. This creates a much higher risk of severe and even fatal poisoning in comparison with the risk associated with the abuse of food products and non-prescription medicines containing low doses of caffeine...
June 27, 2017: Forensic Science, Medicine, and Pathology
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