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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917739/do-cognitive-and-physical-functions-age-in-concert-from-age-70-to-76-evidence-from-the-lothian-birth-cohort-1936
#1
Stuart J Ritchie, Elliot M Tucker-Drob, John M Starr, Ian J Deary
The present study concerns the relation of mental and bodily characteristics to one another during ageing. The 'common cause' theory of ageing proposes that declines are shared across multiple, seemingly-disparate functions, including both physical and intellectual abilities. The concept of 'reserve' suggests that healthier cognitive (and perhaps bodily) functions from early in life are protective against the effects of senescence across multiple domains. In three waves of physical and cognitive testing data from the longitudinal Lothian Birth Cohort 1936 (n = 1,091 at age 70 years; n = 866 at 73; n = 697 at 76), we used multivariate growth curve modeling to test the 'common cause' and 'reserve' hypotheses...
December 5, 2016: Spanish Journal of Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913407/whole-brain-analysis-reveals-increased-neuroanatomical-asymmetries-in-dementia-for-hippocampus-and-amygdala
#2
Christian Wachinger, David H Salat, Michael Weiner, Martin Reuter
Structural magnetic resonance imaging data are frequently analysed to reveal morphological changes of the human brain in dementia. Most contemporary imaging biomarkers are scalar values, such as the volume of a structure, and may miss the localized morphological variation of early presymptomatic disease progression. Neuroanatomical shape descriptors, however, can represent complex geometric information of individual anatomical regions and may demonstrate increased sensitivity in association studies. Yet, they remain largely unexplored...
December 2016: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911923/morphology-and-hydraulic-architecture-of-vitis-vinifera-l-cv-syrah-and-torront%C3%A3-s-riojano-plants-are-unaffected-by-variations-in-red-to-far-red-ratio
#3
Carina Verónica González, María Florencia Jofré, Hernán F Vila, Markus Stoffel, Rubén Bottini, Carla Valeria Giordano
Plants have evolved an array of specific photoreceptors to acclimate to the light environment. By sensing light signals, photoreceptors modulate plant morphology, carbon- and water-physiology, crop yield and quality of harvestable organs, among other responses. Many cultural practices and crop management decisions alter light quantity and quality perceived by plants cultivated in the field. Under full sunlight, phytochromes perceive high red to far red ratios (R:FR; 1.1), whereas overhead or lateral low R:FR (below 1...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902374/structures-and-serospecificity-of-threonine-containing-o-polysaccharides-of-two-clinical-isolates-belonging-to-the-genus-proteus-and-their-classification-into-o11-subserogroups
#4
Dominika Drzewiecka, Nikolay P Arbatsky, Anna N Kondakova, Alexander S Shashkov, Yuriy A Knirel
Two clinical isolates from Polish patients, Proteus mirabilis 9B-m and Proteus genomospecies 3J-r, were found to be serologically related to P mirabilis O11. However, serological studies involving ELISA and Western blotting methods, using lipopolysaccharides (LPSs) extracted from the strains as antigens and native or adsorbed rabbit polyclonal O antisera, specific to the studied strains, revealed slight differences in the cross-reactivity and specificity of the two studied Proteus isolates, when compared to P...
November 2016: Journal of Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893844/the-florida-harvester-ant-pogonomyrmex-badius-relies-on-germination-to-consume-large-seeds
#5
Walter R Tschinkel, Christina L Kwapich
The Florida harvester ant, Pogonomyrmex badius, is one of many ant species and genera that stores large numbers of seeds in damp, underground chambers for later consumption. A comparison of the sizes of seeds recovered from storage chambers with those of seed husks discarded following consumption revealed that the used seeds are far smaller than stored seeds. This difference in use-rate was confirmed in field and laboratory colonies by offering marked seeds of various sizes and monitoring the appearance of size-specific chaff...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27892396/a-topography-of-free-kicks-in-soccer
#6
Daniel Link, Otto Kolbinger, Hendrik Weber, Michael Stöckl
This study investigates the spatial relationship of performance variables for soccer free kicks. In order to suggest ways in which players might optimise their performance, we collected data from free kicks (<35 m to goal line) of two German Bundesliga seasons (2013/14, 2014/15) (n = 1624). In the analysis, we applied the ISO-map approach using colour gradients to visualise the mean values of a variable on a 2D-map of the pitch. Additionally, variograms were used to describe the degree of spatial dependence of the free kick variables...
December 2016: Journal of Sports Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888345/robust-thalamic-nuclei-segmentation-method-based-on-local-diffusion-magnetic-resonance-properties
#7
Giovanni Battistella, Elena Najdenovska, Philippe Maeder, Naghmeh Ghazaleh, Alessandro Daducci, Jean-Philippe Thiran, Sébastien Jacquemont, Constantin Tuleasca, Marc Levivier, Meritxell Bach Cuadra, Eleonora Fornari
The thalamus is an essential relay station in the cortical-subcortical connections. It is characterized by a complex anatomical architecture composed of numerous small nuclei, which mediate the involvement of the thalamus in a wide range of neurological functions. We present a novel framework for segmenting the thalamic nuclei, which explores the orientation distribution functions (ODFs) from diffusion magnetic resonance images at 3 T. The differentiation of the complex intra-thalamic microstructure is improved by using the spherical harmonic (SH) representation of the ODFs, which provides full angular characterization of the diffusion process in each voxel...
November 25, 2016: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886438/self-assembly-of-bolaamphiphilic-molecules
#8
REVIEW
Prabhu Dhasaiyan, Bhagavatula L V Prasad
The current buzzword in science and technology is self-assembly and molecular self-assembly is one of the most prominent fields as far as research in chemical and biological sciences is concerned. Generally, self-assembly of molecules occurs through weak non-covalent interactions like hydrogen bonding, π-π stacking, hydrophobic effects, etc. Inspired by many natural systems consisting of self-assembled structures, scientists have been trying to understand their formation and mimic such processes in the laboratory to create functional "smart" materials, which respond to temperature, light, pH, electromagnetic field, mechanical stress, and/or chemical stimuli...
November 25, 2016: Chemical Record: An Official Publication of the Chemical Society of Japan ... [et Al.]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27878065/corticobulbar-tract-involvement-in-neuropsychiatric-systemic-lupus-erythematosus-a-case-report
#9
Ho Kyun Kim, Mun Han, Hui Joong Lee
A 36-year-old woman, diagnosed with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), showed bulbar symptoms including impaired memory, slurred speech and swallowing difficulty 7 days before admission. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed symmetric confluent hyperintensities in the bilateral cerebral white matter on T2 weighted imaging (T2-WI), extended into the genu of the internal capsule and the crus cerebri of the midbrain. MR spectroscopy showed increased choline and decreased N-acetyl aspartate (NAA) peak and positron emission computed tomography (PET CT) showed decreased fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) uptake on the lateral portion of the frontal lobe, suggesting demyelination of the white matter...
July 2016: Iranian Journal of Radiology: a Quarterly Journal Published By the Iranian Radiological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27871718/aza%C3%A3-%C3%A3-n-s-disease-a-19th-century-epidemic-of-neurolathyrism-in-spain
#10
REVIEW
S Giménez-Roldán, P S Spencer
The cultivation and consumption of grasspea (Lathyrus sativus) in Spain probably dates back centuries, especially during times of famine when the neurotoxic potential of this legume was expressed in the form of a spastic paraparesis known as neurolathyrism. Little known outside the country, the epidemic of neurolathyrism in the years following the Spanish Civil War (1936-1939) came to affect more than a thousand people. In late 1872, during the Six Years Revolutionary Term, young Alejandro San Martín Satrústegui (1847-1908), then editor of the popular weekly El Siglo Médico, travelled to Azañón, a remote village in the province of Guadalajara, to clarify a so-far unknown disease...
November 18, 2016: Revue Neurologique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27865119/does-haptic-steering-guidance-instigate-speeding-a-driving-simulator-study-into-causes-and-remedies
#11
T Melman, J C F de Winter, D A Abbink
An important issue in road traffic safety is that drivers show adverse behavioral adaptation (BA) to driver assistance systems. Haptic steering guidance is an upcoming assistance system which facilitates lane-keeping performance while keeping drivers in the loop, and which may be particularly prone to BA. Thus far, experiments on haptic steering guidance have measured driver performance while the vehicle speed was kept constant. The aim of the present driving simulator study was to examine whether haptic steering guidance causes BA in the form of speeding, and to evaluate two types of haptic steering guidance designed not to suffer from BA...
November 16, 2016: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27857748/correction-prospects-for-bone-marrow-cell-therapy-in-amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis-how-far-are-we-from-a-clinical-treatment
#12
(no author information available yet)
[This corrects the article on p. 1216 in vol. 11, PMID: 27651758.].
September 2016: Neural Regeneration Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27847508/root-system-architecture-and-abiotic-stress-tolerance-current-knowledge-in-root-and-tuber-crops
#13
REVIEW
M A Khan, Dorcus C Gemenet, Arthur Villordon
The challenge to produce more food for a rising global population on diminishing agricultural land is complicated by the effects of climate change on agricultural productivity. Although great progress has been made in crop improvement, so far most efforts have targeted above-ground traits. Roots are essential for plant adaptation and productivity, but are less studied due to the difficulty of observing them during the plant life cycle. Root system architecture (RSA), made up of structural features like root length, spread, number, and length of lateral roots, among others, exhibits great plasticity in response to environmental changes, and could be critical to developing crops with more efficient roots...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27844032/predicting-disease-progression-in-amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis
#14
Albert A Taylor, Christina Fournier, Meraida Polak, Liuxia Wang, Neta Zach, Mike Keymer, Jonathan D Glass, David L Ennist
OBJECTIVE: It is essential to develop predictive algorithms for Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) disease progression to allow for efficient clinical trials and patient care. The best existing predictive models rely on several months of baseline data and have only been validated in clinical trial research datasets. We asked whether a model developed using clinical research patient data could be applied to the broader ALS population typically seen at a tertiary care ALS clinic. METHODS: Based on the PRO-ACT ALS database, we developed random forest (RF), pre-slope, and generalized linear (GLM) models to test whether accurate, unbiased models could be created using only baseline data...
November 2016: Annals of Clinical and Translational Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27843411/water-adsorption-on-bimetallic-ptru-pt-111-surface-alloys
#15
Julia M Fischer, David Mahlberg, Tanglaw Roman, Axel Groß
The adsorption of water on bimetallic PtRu/Pt(111) surface alloys has been studied based on periodic density functional theory calculations including dispersion corrections. The Ru atoms of the PtRu surface alloy interact more strongly with water than Pt atoms, as far as both single water molecules and ice-like hexagonal structures are concerned. Within the surface alloy layer, the lateral ligand effect reducing the local reactivity of the surface atoms with increasing Ru content is more dominant than the opposing geometric effect due to the tensile strain...
October 2016: Proceedings. Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27837570/the-importance-of-the-patients-deemed-not-guilty-by-reason-of-insanity-for-the-psychiatric-reform
#16
EDITORIAL
Athanasios Douzenis
According to the Greek Penal Law if someone "because of a morbid disturbance of his mental functioning" (article 34) is acquitted of a crime or misdemeanour that the law punishes with more than 6 months imprisonment, then the court orders that this individual should be kept in a public psychiatric institution if the court reaches the conclusion that this person poses a threat to public safety.1 Individuals who have broken the law and deemed "not guilty by reason of insanity" are treated in psychiatric units of Psychiatric Hospitals according to the article 69 of the Penal Code...
July 2016: Psychiatrikē, Psychiatriki
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27836693/should-the-position-of-the-patellar-component-replicate-the-vertical-median-ridge-of-the-native-patella
#17
Rae Hyeong Lee, Hae Won Jeong, Jin Kyu Lee, Choong Hyeok Choi
BACKGROUND: In total knee arthroplasty (TKA), the position of the patellar component can affect patellar tracking. However, the patellar component cannot always replicate the original high point of the patella because of anatomical variance. This study investigated whether altering the highest point of the patella can affect outcomes of primary TKA, especially in patients having a patella with a far-medialized median ridge. METHODS: A retrospective review was performed for 177 knees (143 patients) treated with primary TKA between July 2011 and March 2014...
November 8, 2016: Knee
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27833633/occurrence-and-distribution-of-phytochemicals-in-the-leaves-of-17-in-vitro-cultured-hypericum-spp-adapted-to-outdoor-conditions
#18
Andrea Kucharíková, Souvik Kusari, Selahaddin Sezgin, Michael Spiteller, Eva Čellárová
A plethora of plants belonging to the genus Hypericum have been investigated so far owing to the biological efficacies of pharmacologically important secondary metabolites produced by several Hypericum species. However, there is currently a dearth of information about the localization (accumulation) of these compounds in the plants in situ. In particular, the biosynthetic and ecological consequence of acclimatization of in vitro cultured Hypericum spp. to outdoor conditions is not fully known. Herein, we report an application of matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization high-resolution mass spectrometry (MALDI-HRMS) to reveal the distribution of major naphthodianthrones hypericin, pseudohypericin, protohypericin, and their proposed precursor emodin as well as emodin anthrone, along with the phloroglucinol derivative hyperforin, the flavonoids quercetin, quercitrin, rutin and hyperoside (and/or isoquercitrin), and chlorogenic acid in Hypericum leaves...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27829385/complete-response-of-extramedullary-relapse-in-breast-of-acute-t-lymphoblastic-leukemia-after-bone-marrow-transplantation-to-chemoradiotherapy-a-case-report-and-literature-review
#19
Bailong Liu, Bin Liu, Xu Wang, Liang Guo, Xiaoliang Liu, Wei Han, Lihua Dong, Min Liu
BACKGROUND: Relapse of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) occurring in the breast after allografting is extremely rare, with only 22 reported cases in the literature thus far. Further, the lack of a systemic analysis provides little information about this entity. We present a case of isolated extramedullary relapse from acute T lymphoblastic leukemia (ATLL) after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). CASE PRESENTATION: A 32-year-old Chinese woman diagnosed with ATLL with myeloid antigen expression received HSCT from her human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-matched sister and presented with two lesions in her right breast 6 months later...
November 9, 2016: BMC Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27828484/spectrally-resolved-far-fields-of-terahertz-quantum-cascade-lasers
#20
Martin Brandstetter, Sebastian Schönhuber, Michael Krall, Martin A Kainz, Hermann Detz, Tobias Zederbauer, Aaron M Andrews, Gottfried Strasser, Karl Unterrainer
We demonstrate a convenient and fast method to measure the spectrally resolved far-fields of multimode terahertz quantum cascade lasers by combining a microbolometer focal plane array with an FTIR spectrometer. Far-fields of fundamental TM0 and higher lateral order TM1 modes of multimode Fabry-Pérot type lasers have been distinguished, which very well fit to the results obtained by a 3D finite-element simulation. Furthermore, multimode random laser cavities have been investigated, analyzing the contribution of each single laser mode to the total far-field...
October 31, 2016: Optics Express
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