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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890824/evaluating-a-switch-from-meconium-to-umbilical-cord-tissue-for-newborn-drug-testing-a-retrospective-study-at-an-academic-medical-center
#1
Kendra L Palmer, Kelly E Wood, Matthew D Krasowski
BACKGROUND: The objective of this study was to compare detection rates of newborn drug exposure at an academic medical center transitioning from meconium to umbilical cord tissue toxicology testing. METHODS: We performed an Institutional Review Board-approved retrospective chart review on all newborns (n=2072) for whom newborn drug testing was ordered at our academic medical center between June 2012 and August 2015 (in August 2013, umbilical cord tissue became the preferred specimen)...
November 24, 2016: Clinical Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27884570/a-gc-ms-method-for-the-detection-and-quantitation-of-ten-major-drugs-of-abuse-in-human-hair-samples
#2
A Orfanidis, O Mastrogianni, A Koukou, G Psarros, H Gika, G Theodoridis, N Raikos
A sensitive analytical method has been developed in order to identify and quantify major drugs of abuse (DOA), namely morphine, codeine, 6-monoacetylmorphine, cocaine, ecgonine methyl ester, benzoylecgonine, amphetamine, methamphetamine, methylenedioxymethamphetamine and methylenedioxyamphetamine in human hair. Samples of hair were extracted with methanol under ultrasonication at 50°C after a three step rinsing process to remove external contamination and dirt hair. Derivatization with BSTFA was selected in order to increase detection sensitivity of GC/MS analysis...
November 10, 2016: Journal of Chromatography. B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881622/stability-of-21-cocaine-opioid-and-benzodiazepine-drug-analytes-in-spiked-meconium-at-three-temperatures
#3
Fang Wu, Stephanie J Marin, Gwendolyn A McMillin
In this study, the stability of 21 cocaine, opioid and benzodiazepine analytes in spiked meconium was investigated at three storage temperatures: 4°C, room temperature (RT), and 37°C (body temperature). The drugs/metabolites included were hydrocodone, hydromorphone, codeine, morphine, 6-acetylmorphine (6-AM), oxycodone, oxymorphone, cocaine, cocaethylene, benzoylecgonine, m-hydroxybenzoylecgonine, diazepam, oxazepam, temazepam, nordiazepam, chlordiazepoxide, lorazepam, alprazolam, alpha-hydroxyalprazolam, clonazepam, 7-aminoclonazepam, midazolam, alpha-hydroxymidazolam and zolpidem...
November 22, 2016: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27867512/a-service-improvement-project-to-review-prescribing-information-provided-by-general-practitioners-for-new-referrals-to-a-uk-national-health-service-hospital-pain-clinic-potential-implications-of-cyp2d6-enzyme-inhibition
#4
Helen Radford, Pauline Fitzgerald, Stephen Martin, Mark I Johnson
INTRODUCTION: Chronic pain is often managed using co-prescription of analgesics and adjuvants, with concomitant medication prescribed for comorbidities. Patients may have suboptimal response to some analgesics or be at risk of drug interactions or adverse drug reactions (ADRs) due to polypharmacy affecting CYP2D6 enzyme activity. The aim of the service improvement project was to determine the proportion of patients referred to a specialist pain service in the UK National Health Service (NHS) by general practitioners (GPs) who may be at risk of suboptimal analgesic response or ADRs due to CYP2D6 inhibition through polypharmacy...
November 2016: British Journal of Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27865914/analgesia-following-adenotonsillar-surgery-in-children-is-oramorph-required-in-addition-to-paracetamol-and-ibuprofen
#5
R Wei Chern Gan, T Kamani, M Daniel
BACKGROUND: Recent advice against codeine use in children prompted our unit to prescribe Oramorph as required, in addition to regular paracetamol and ibuprofen, as post-(adeno)tonsillectomy analgesia. This study investigated whether Oramorph was in fact required. METHODS: Following (adeno)tonsillectomy, parents were telephoned and asked whether they used Oramorph. RESULTS: Of 56 children studied, 41 (73.2%) were given Oramorph. In the 15 (26...
November 16, 2016: European Annals of Otorhinolaryngology, Head and Neck Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27855095/psychotropic-drug-use-and-alcohol-consumption-among-older-adults-in-germany-results-of-the-german-health-interview-and-examination-survey-for-adults-2008-2011
#6
Yong Du, Ingrid-Katharina Wolf, Hildtraud Knopf
OBJECTIVES: The use and combined use of psychotropic drugs and alcohol among older adults is a growing public health concern and should be constantly monitored. Relevant studies are scarce in Germany. Using data of the most recent national health survey, we analyse prevalence and correlates of psychotropic drug and alcohol use among this population. METHODS: Study participants were people aged 60-79 years (N=2508) of the German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Adults 2008-2011...
October 8, 2016: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27842790/otolaryngology-concerns-for-illicit-and-prescription-drug-use
#7
REVIEW
Nathan J Gonik, Martin H Bluth
Concern for illicit and restricted drug use in otolaryngology is similar to other surgical specialties with a few notable exceptions. Many illicit drugs are consumed transnasally. Repeated nasal exposure to stimulants or narcotics can cause local tissue destruction that can present as chronic rhinosinusitis or nasoseptal perforation. Further, the Food and Drug Administration has taken a stance against codeine for pediatric patients undergoing adenotonsillectomy. They have identified an increased risk of death postoperatively with these medications...
December 2016: Clinics in Laboratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27842443/clinical-update-on-benefit-versus-risks-of-oral-paracetamol-alone-or-with-codeine-still-a-good-option
#8
Hans Georg Kress, Gerald Untersteiner
BACKGROUND: After decades of worldwide use of paracetamol/acetaminophen as a popular and apparently safe prescription and over-the-counter medicine, the future role of this poorly understood analgesic has been seriously questioned by recent concerns about prenatal, cardiovascular (CV) and hepatic safety, and also about its analgesic efficacy. At the same time the usefulness of codeine in combination products has come under debate. METHODS: Based on a PubMed database literature search on the terms efficacy, safety, paracetamol, acetaminophen, codeine and their combinations up to and including June 2016, this clinical update reviews the current evidence of the benefit and risks of oral paracetamol alone and with codeine for mild-to-moderate pain in adults, and compares the respective efficacy and safety profiles with those of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs)...
November 15, 2016: Current Medical Research and Opinion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27836577/chronic-use-of-opioids-before-and-after-total-knee-arthroplasty-a-retrospective-cohort-study
#9
Craig A Hansen, Maria C S Inacio, Nicole L Pratt, Elizabeth E Roughead, Stephen E Graves
BACKGROUND: Opioids are commonly used for the management of preoperative and postoperative pain among patients undergoing total knee arthroplasty (TKA). There is limited literature on the chronic use of opioids pre-TKA and post-TKA. The aim of this study was to characterize the use of opioids in TKA patients before and after surgery and identify risk factors of chronic opioid use. METHODS: Opioid use among 15,020 patients undergoing TKA (01/01/2001-31/12/2012) was examined...
October 4, 2016: Journal of Arthroplasty
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27832755/experience-of-the-use-of-ketamine-to-manage-opioid-withdrawal-in-an-addicted-woman-a-case-report
#10
Laurence Lalanne, Chloe Nicot, Jean-Philippe Lang, Gilles Bertschy, Eric Salvat
BACKGROUND: Opioids are good painkillers, but many patients treated with opioids as painkillers developed a secondary addiction. These patients need to stop misusing opioids, but the mild-to-severe clinical symptoms associated with opioid withdrawal risk increasing their existing pain. In such cases, ketamine, which is used by anaesthetists and pain physicians to reduce opioid medication, may be an effective agent for managing opioid withdrawal. CASE PRESENTATION: We describe the case of a woman who developed a severe secondary addiction to opioids in the context of lombo-sciatic pain...
November 10, 2016: BMC Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27829853/tighter-regulations-needed-for-over-the-counter-codeine-in-canada
#11
Jesse I J MacKinnon
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2016: Canadian Pharmacists Journal: CPJ, Revue des Pharmaciens du Canada: RPC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27810130/-surgical-methods-of-abortion
#12
T Linet
OBJECTIVE: A state of the art of surgical method of abortion focusing on safety and practical aspects. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A systematic review of French-speaking or English-speaking evidence-based literature about surgical methods of abortion was performed using Pubmed, Cochrane and international recommendations. RESULTS: Surgical abortion is efficient and safe regardless of gestational age, even before 7 weeks gestation (EL2). A systematic prophylactic antibiotics should be preferred to a targeted antibiotic prophylaxis (grade A)...
October 31, 2016: Journal de Gynécologie, Obstétrique et Biologie de la Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27806253/best-practices-and-innovations-for-managing-codeine-misuse-and-dependence
#13
Ian J Norman, Michael Bergin, Charles D Parry, Marie Claire Van Hout
PURPOSE: Promoting and ensuring safe use of codeine containing medicines remains a public health issue given the rise in reporting of misuse and dependence particularly in countries where available over-the-counter (OTC). The aim of this unique study was to identify best practices in management of opioid abuse and dependence, particularly codeine, and innovations to meet challenges surrounding safe and compliant use, patient awareness-raising, reducing health harms and enhancing successful treatment of dependence...
July 2016: Journal of Pharmacy & Pharmaceutical Sciences: a Publication of the Canadian Society for Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27799763/prescription-of-opioids-for-breathlessness-in-end-stage-copd-a-national-population-based-study
#14
Zainab Ahmadi, Eva Bernelid, David C Currow, Magnus Ekström
BACKGROUND: Low-dose opioids can relieve breathlessness but may be underused in late-stage COPD due to fear of complications, contributing to poor symptom control. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to study the period prevalence and indications of opioids actually prescribed in people with end-stage COPD. METHODS: The study was a longitudinal, population-based study of patients starting long-term oxygen therapy (LTOT) for COPD between October 1, 2005 and June 30, 2009 in Sweden...
2016: International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27795670/analgesic-effect-of-dexamethasone-after-arthroscopic-knee-surgery-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#15
Jairo Moyano, Maria García, Maria Caicedo
Background. Dexamethasone is sometimes used as a coanalgesic because of its anti-inflammatory properties. Objective. To evaluate opioid use, postoperative pain intensity, and side effects after a single dose of dexamethasone in patients undergoing arthroscopic knee surgery. Methods. In this randomized controlled study patients were randomized to receive either 10 mg of intravenous dexamethasone (DM group) or 0.9% normal saline (NS group) during the intraoperative period. Primary outcomes were pain intensity and total morphine and codeine use after surgery...
2016: Pain Research & Management: the Journal of the Canadian Pain Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27779367/codeine-use-among-children-in-the-united-states-a-nationally-representative-study-from-1996-to-2013
#16
Margaret J Livingstone, Cornelius B Groenewald, Jennifer A Rabbitts, Tonya M Palermo
BACKGROUND: Concerns regarding the safety of codeine have been raised. Cases of life-threatening respiratory depression and death in children have been attributed to codeine's polymorphic metabolic pathway. International health agencies recommend restricted use of codeine in children. Despite these recommendations, the epidemiology of codeine use among children remains unknown. AIMS: Our objective was to examine patterns of codeine use in the US among children. METHODS: A cross-sectional analysis of children of age 0-17 years from 1996 to 2013 in the US was performed...
October 25, 2016: Paediatric Anaesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27779356/oral-morphine-dosing-predictions-based-on-single-dose-in-healthy-children-undergoing-surgery
#17
Joy M Dawes, Erin M Cooke, Jacqueline A Hannam, Katherine A Brand, Pamela Winton, Ricardo Jimenez-Mendez, Katarina Aleksa, Gillian R Lauder, Bruce C Carleton, Gideon Koren, Michael J Rieder, Brian J Anderson, Carolyne J Montgomery
BACKGROUND: Oral morphine has been proposed as an effective and safe alternative to codeine for after-discharge pain in children following surgery but there are few data guiding an optimum safe oral dose. AIMS: The aim of this study was to characterize the absorption pharmacokinetics of enteral morphine in order to simulate time-concentration profiles in children given common oral morphine dose regimens. METHODS: Children (2-6 years, n = 34) undergoing elective surgery and requiring opioid analgesia were randomized to receive preoperative oral morphine (100 mcg·kg(-1) , 200 mcg·kg(-1) , 300 mcg·kg(-1) )...
October 25, 2016: Paediatric Anaesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27776785/has-the-rescheduling-of-hydrocodone-changed-ed-prescribing-practices
#18
Elizabeth C Oehler, Rachel L Day, David B Robinson, Lawrence H Brown
OBJECTIVE: The objective was to examine the effect of hydrocodone-containing product (HCP) rescheduling on the proportion of prescriptions for HCPs given to patients discharged from the emergency department (ED). METHODS: Electronic queries of ED records were used to identify patients aged 15 years and older discharged with a pain-related prescription in the 12 months before and after HCP rescheduling. Prescriptions were classified as HCPs; other Schedule II medications (eg, oxycodone products); other Schedule III medications (eg, codeine products); and non-Schedule II/III products (eg, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs)...
September 3, 2016: American Journal of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27775894/a-book-type-dried-plasma-spot-card-for-automated-flow-through-elution-coupled-with-on-line-spe-lc-ms-ms-bioanalysis-of-opioids-and-stimulants-in-blood
#19
Imelda Ryona, Jack Henion
Despite many benefits including simple point-of-care sample collection, reduced costs, and simplified shipping and storage, dried blood spot (DBS) techniques have faced adoption resistance such as the hematocrit (Hct) effects and the established preference for bioanalysis of plasma rather than whole blood. One way to potentially circumvent these challenges is to adopt the concept of a dried plasma spot (DPS) technique. One approach to accomplishing this is through an on-card red blood cell (RBC) filtration to generate plasma from whole blood without the need for centrifugation...
October 24, 2016: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27770685/immobilized-aptamer-paper-spray-ionization-source-for-ion-mobility-spectrometry
#20
Tahereh Zargar, Taghi Khayamian, Mohammad T Jafari
A selective thin-film microextraction based on aptamer immobilized on cellulose paper was used as a paper spray ionization source for ion mobility spectrometry (PSI-IMS), for the first time. In this method, the paper is not only used as an ionization source but also it is utilized for the selective extraction of analyte, based on immobilized aptamer. This combination integrates both sample preparation and analyte ionization in a Whatman paper. To that end, an appropriate sample introduction system with a novel design was constructed for the paper spray ionization source...
October 17, 2016: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
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