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M Mofizul Islam, Ian S McRae, Soumya Mazumdar, Paul Simpson, Dennis Wollersheim, Kaniz Fatema, Tony Butler
BACKGROUND: Patterns of opioid dispensing often exhibit substantial temporal and geographical variability, which has implications for public health policy decisions and interventions. The study examined recent trends in prescription opioid dispensing and identified high dispensing areas and factors associated with the doses dispensed. METHODS: Three years (1 January 2013-31 December 2015) of dispensing data of prescription opioids in local government areas (LGAs) for New South Wales (NSW), Australia's most populous state, were analyzed...
June 18, 2018: BMC Pharmacology & Toxicology
Zohra Chadli, Chayma Ladhari, Emna Kerkeni, Amira Djobbi, Nadia B Fredj, Amel Chaabane, Naceur A Boughattas, Karim Aouam
Recent studies have suggested an association between mutations in the IL-36RN gene and the onset of pustular generalized. In the literature, only one case of acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis (AGEP) induced by codeine in a patient with IL36RN mutation has been reported. Herein, we reported an unusual case of AGEP caused by codeine in a patient with a history of psoriasis and confirmed by an oral provocation test. In this case, we have shown that the IL36RN gene mutation is not a constant condition in drug-induced AGEP...
June 19, 2018: Pharmacogenomics
Dimitri Poddighe, Ilaria Brambilla, Amelia Licari, Gian Luigi Marseglia
BACKGROUND: Acute pain is one of the major complaints reported in pediatric emergency departments and general wards. Recently, both the US Food and Drug Administration and European Medicine Agency emitted some warnings regarding the use of opioids, including codeine, in children. OBJECTIVE: The aims of this study were summarizing the main pharmacological aspects of ibuprofen, discussing the current evidence about the use of ibuprofen in different and specific clinical settings, and providing a comparison with acetaminophen and/or codeine, according to available studies...
June 14, 2018: Pediatric Emergency Care
Boel Niklasson, Catarina Arnelo, Susanne Georgsson Öhman, Märta Segerdahl, Agneta Blanck
Background and aims The present randomized open label parallel group study was conducted to evaluate if an oral oxycodone (OXY) regimen can be at least equally effective and as safe for postoperative analgesia after caesarean section (CS) as a standard of care program using nurse-administered intravenous morphine (IVM), followed by oral codeine. Methods Eighty women (40 + 40) were scheduled for elective CS under spinal anaesthesia. All patients received postoperative multimodal analgesic therapy, including ibuprofen and paracetamol...
December 29, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Pain
Liu Yang, Yufei Chen, Lei Wang
OBJECTIVE: To establish the detection method for poppy codeine in seasoning power based on the loop-mediated isothermal amplification of DNA( LAMP). METHODS: Establishment of the LAMP reaction system and detection of 8 commercially seasoning powders by the specificity test, optimum temperature test and sensitivity test of DNA samples of 12 poppies seeds, 11 spices leaves or seeds and 1 corn poppy seeds based on the specific genes sequence of codeine. RESULTS: The DNA samples of the 12 poppies and the corn poppy showed the specific reaction, the optimum temperature was 66 ℃ and the minimum detectable concentration was 9 pg/μL, and the sensitivity was 100 times larger than that of PCR...
September 2017: Wei Sheng Yan Jiu, Journal of Hygiene Research
Tomi Ashaye, Natalia Hounsome, Dawn Carnes, Stephanie J C Taylor, Kate Homer, Sandra Eldridge, Anne Spencer, Anisur Rahman, Jens Foell, Martin R Underwood
OBJECTIVE: To establish the level of opioid prescribing for patients with chronic musculoskeletal pain in a sample of patients from primary care and to estimate prescription costs. DESIGN: Secondary data analyses from a two-arm pragmatic randomised controlled trial (COPERS) testing the effectiveness of group self-management course and usual care against relaxation and usual care for patients with chronic musculoskeletal pain (ISRCTN 24426731). SETTING: 25 general practices and two community musculoskeletal services in the UK (London and Midlands)...
June 6, 2018: BMJ Open
Mahdi Rezaei, Mohammad Reza Naghavi, Abdolhadi Hosseinzadeh, Alireza Abasi, Jaber Nasiri
Here, a comprehensive endeavor is made to simultaneously scrutinize spatiotemporal oscillations of three imperative morphinan alkaloids (i.e. thebaine, codeine, and morphine) alongside dynamic transcriptional patterns of TYDC, SalAT, COR, T6ODM, and CODM genes in different tissues of Papaver somniferum (i.e. root, bottom part of stem, upper part of stem, leaf, capsule wall, and capsule content) over five distinguished ontogenic stages (i.e. rosette, bud initiation, pendulous bud, flowering, and lancing). Apart from bottom stem and leaf, the maximum thebaine content occurred in lancing stage, while its minimum content did not follow a systematic rhythm, either among six tissues or five various sampling times...
June 2018: Journal of Biosciences
M Lundborg, C L Wennberg, A Narangifard, E Lindahl, L Norlén
Understanding and predicting permeability of compounds through skin is of interest for transdermal delivery of drugs and for toxicity predictions of chemicals. We show, using a new atomistic molecular dynamics model of the skin's barrier structure, itself validated against near-native cryo-electron microscopy data from human skin, that skin permeability to the reference compounds benzene, DMSO (dimethyl sulfoxide), ethanol, codeine, naproxen, nicotine, testosterone and water can be predicted. The permeability results were validated against skin permeability data in the literature...
June 1, 2018: Journal of Controlled Release: Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society
Aniruddha Basu, Jayant Mahadevan, Dhruva Ithal, Sowmya Selvaraj, Prabhat Kumar Chand, Pratima Murthy
Tapentadol is a centrally acting opioid analgesic which has partial opioid agonistic and norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor action similar to its nearest congener and tramadol though with a relatively higher μ-affinity. It has abuse potential, is a scheduled drug, yet currently is not known to be an opioid widely misused in India. However, under the current drug abuse legislation in India, where common prescription opioids such as dextropropoxyphene have been banned, tapentadol may take the center stage of pharmaceutical opioid abuse in the near future...
January 2018: Indian Journal of Pharmacology
Jason L Vassy, Annjanette Stone, John T Callaghan, Margaret Mendes, Laurence J Meyer, Victoria M Pratt, Ronald M Przygodzki, Maren T Scheuner, Jessica Wang-Rodriguez, Steven A Schichman
PURPOSE: The Veterans Health Administration (VHA) Clinical Pharmacogenetics Subcommittee is charged with making recommendations about whether specific pharmacogenetic tests should be used in healthcare at VHA facilities. We describe a process to inform VHA pharmacogenetic testing policy. METHODS: After developing consensus definitions of clinical validity and utility, the Subcommittee identified salient drug-gene pairs with potential clinical application in VHA...
June 1, 2018: Genetics in Medicine: Official Journal of the American College of Medical Genetics
Suzanne Nielsen, Tim MacDonald, Jacinta L Johnson
OBJECTIVES: Codeine dependence is a significant public health problem, motivating the recent rescheduling of codeine in Australia (1 February 2018). To provide information for informing clinical responses, we undertook a systematic review of what is known about identifying and treating codeine dependence. STUDY DESIGN: Articles published in English that described people who were codeine-dependent or a clinical approach to treating people who were codeine-dependent, without restriction on year of publication, were reviewed...
June 4, 2018: Medical Journal of Australia
Monica J Alexander, Mathew V Kiang, Magali Barbieri
BACKGROUND: Recent research on the US opioid epidemic has focused on the white or total population and has largely been limited to data after 1999. However, understanding racial differences in long-term trends by opioid type may contribute to improving interventions. METHODS: Using multiple cause of death data, we calculated age-standardized opioid mortality rates, by race and opioid type, for the US resident population from 1979 to 2015. We analyzed trends in mortality rates using joinpoint regression...
May 29, 2018: Epidemiology
Xue Chen, Jillian M Hagel, Limei Chang, Joseph E Tucker, Stacey A Shiigi, Yuora Yelpaala, Hsiang-Yun Chen, Rodrigo Estrada, Jeffrey Colbeck, Maria Enquist-Newman, Ana B Ibáñez, Guillaume Cottarel, Genevieve M Vidanes, Peter J Facchini
The ultimate step in the formation of thebaine, a pentacyclic opiate alkaloid readily converted to the narcotic analgesics codeine and morphine in the opium poppy, has long been presumed to be a spontaneous reaction. We have detected and purified a novel enzyme from opium poppy latex that is capable of the efficient formation of thebaine from (7S)-salutaridinol 7-O-acetate at the expense of labile hydroxylated byproducts, which are preferentially produced by spontaneous allylic elimination. Remarkably, thebaine synthase (THS), a member of the pathogenesis-related 10 protein (PR10) superfamily, is encoded within a novel gene cluster in the opium poppy genome that also includes genes encoding the four biosynthetic enzymes immediately upstream...
May 28, 2018: Nature Chemical Biology
Ana M Peiró
Pain is an unpleasant feeling usually resulting from tissue damage that can persist along weeks, months, or even years after the injury, turning into pathological chronic pain, the leading cause of disability. Currently, pharmacology interventions are usually the first-line therapy but there is a highly variable analgesic drug response. Pharmacogenetics (PGx) offers a means to identify genetic biomarkers that can predict individual analgesic response opening doors to precision medicine. PGx analyze the way in which the presence of variations in the DNA sequence (single-nucleotide polymorphisms, SNPs) could be responsible for portions of the population reaching different levels of pain relief (phenotype) due to gene interference in the drug mechanism of action (pharmacodynamics) and/or its concentration at the place of action (pharmacokinetics)...
2018: Advances in Pharmacology
Deanna Mill, Jessica Dawson, Jacinta Lee Johnson
Lactose intolerance is exceedingly common, reportedly affecting up to 70% of the world's population, leading to both abdominal and systemic symptoms. Current treatment focuses predominantly on restricting dietary consumption of lactose. Given lactose is one of the most commonly used excipients in the pharmaceutical industry, consideration must be given to the lactose content and therefore safety of pharmaceutical preparations prescribed for patients with lactose intolerance. This article summarizes the current literature examining the likelihood of inducing adverse effects through the administration of lactose-containing pharmaceutical preparations in patients reporting lactose intolerance, describes how to assess this risk on an individual patient basis and reviews suitable analgesic options for this population...
May 2018: Therapeutic Advances in Drug Safety
Olivia M Dong, Amy Li, Oscar Suzuki, Akinyemi Oni-Orisan, Ricardo Gonzalez, George A Stouffer, Craig R Lee, Tim Wiltshire
AIM: To determine the projected impact of a multigene pharmacogenetic (PGx) test on medication prescribing. MATERIALS & METHODS: A retrospective analysis was conducted with 122 cardiac catheterization laboratory patients undergoing angiography for eligibility of potential PGx-guided interventions that could have occurred if multigene PGx information was pre-emptively available at the time of the procedure. Medication data and presence of actionable at-risk genotypes were used to determine eligibility of a PGx intervention...
May 25, 2018: Pharmacogenomics
(no author information available yet)
Pain and fatigue are the most common problems reported by women in the early postpartum period. Pain can interfere with a woman's ability to care for herself and her infant. Untreated pain is associated with a risk of greater opioid use, postpartum depression, and development of persistent pain. Nonpharmacologic and pharmacologic therapies are important components of postpartum pain management. Because 81% of women in the United States initiate breastfeeding during the postpartum period, it is important to consider the drug effects of all prescribed medications on the mother-infant dyad...
May 17, 2018: Obstetrics and Gynecology
Mehran Dastmalchi, Limei Chang, Miguel A Torres, Kenneth K S Ng, Peter J Facchini
Codeinone reductase (COR) catalyzes the reversible NADPH-dependent reduction of codeinone to codeine as the penultimate step of morphine biosynthesis in opium poppy (Papaver somniferum). COR also irreversibly reduces neopinone, which forms by spontaneous isomerization in aqueous solution from codeinone, to neopine. In a parallel pathway involving 3-O-desmethylated analogs, COR converts morphinone to morphine, and neomorphinone to neomorphine. Similar to neopine, neomorphine formation by COR is irreversible...
May 19, 2018: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
Ersilia Lucenteforte, Laura Vagnoli, Alessandra Pugi, Giada Crescioli, Niccolò Lombardi, Roberto Bonaiuti, Maurizio Aricò, Sabrina Giglio, Andrea Messeri, Alessandro Mugelli, Alfredo Vannacci, Valentina Maggini
BACKGROUND: Inter-patient variability in response to opioids is well known but a comprehensive definition of its pathophysiological mechanism is still lacking and, more importantly, no studies have focused on children. The STOP Pain project aimed to evaluate the risk factors that contribute to clinical response and adverse drug reactions to opioids by means of a systematic review and a clinical investigation on paediatric oncological patients. METHODS: We conducted a systematic literature search in EMBASE and PubMed up to the 24th of November 2016 following Cochrane Handbook and PRISMA guidelines...
May 18, 2018: BMC Cancer
Aisha Khan, Dilawar Farhan Shams, Waliullah Khan, Aamir Ijaz, Muhammad Qasim, Maryam Saad, Ayesha Hafeez, Shams Ali Baig, Nisar Ahmed
This study investigated the occurrence of four non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and four benzodiazepines/anti-depressants (ADs) in municipal wastewater in Mardan city, Pakistan, and in River Kabul and River Indus receiving untreated sewage. Liquid chromatography with a triple quadrupole tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) was used for the analysis of paracetamol, diclofenac, ibuprofen, and codeine (NSAIDs) and diazepam, bromazepam, lorazepam, and temazepam (ADs). Except codeine and lorazepam, all the target compounds were observed in sewage and surface water in various concentrations...
May 4, 2018: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
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