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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29659361/-one-hundred-years-after-the-spanish-flu
#1
Isabel A Lüthy, Viviana Ritacco, Isabel N Kantor
The "Spanish" flu pandemic, which occurred a century ago, is considered the most devastating in human history. An estimated one third of world population fell ill with flu and more than 2.5% of them died. The course of the epidemic had two main waves (1918 and 1919) and showed an unusual W-shaped morbidity/mortality distribution. Death was not a direct outcome of flu itself but rather a consequence of secondary bacterial bronchopneumonia, for which antibiotics had not yet been discovered. Pre-existing pulmonary tuberculosis was also accountable for increased flu death rates during the pandemic...
2018: Medicina
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29627712/accurate-identification-of-opioid-overdose-deaths-using-coronial-data
#2
Amanda Roxburgh, Jennifer L Pilgrim, Wayne D Hall, Lucinda Burns, Louisa Degenhardt
INTRODUCTION: Defining drug-related mortality is complex as these deaths can include a wide range of diseases and circumstances. This paper outlines a method to identify deaths that are directly due to fatal opioid toxicity (i.e. overdose), utilising coronial data. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The National Coronial Information System (NCIS), an online coronial database containing information on all deaths that are reported to a coroner in Australia, is used to develop methods to more accurately identify opioid overdose deaths...
March 26, 2018: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29626744/opioids-in-oral-fluid-of-spanish-drivers
#3
Francisco Herrera-Gómez, Mercedes García-Mingo, Mónica Colás, Juan Carlos González-Luque, F Javier Álvarez
BACKGROUND: Driving under the influence of certain drugs is not allowed, and roadside drug testing is being considered an important tool for deterring driving under the influence of them. This study aimed to assess the presence and concentration of opioids, as well as their combined use with other drugs (laboratory confirmation after the on-road screening) in Spanish drivers between 2011 and 2016. METHODS: In Spain, mandatory roadside breath alcohol and oral fluid drug testing (screening) are carried out by the Traffic Police using Dräger Alcotest® 6810 device, and Dräger DrugTest® 5000, DrugWipe® , or Alere™ DDS® 2 Mobile Test System...
March 29, 2018: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29613851/an-innovative-solution-to-detect-classify-and-report-illicit-online-marketing-and-sales-of-controlled-substances-via-twitter-project-finalist-at-hhs-opioid-code-a-thon
#4
Tim Mackey, Janani Kalyanam, Josh Klugman, Ella Kuzmenko, Rashmi Gupta
BACKGROUND: On December 6-7, 2017, the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services hosted its first Code-a-Thon event aimed at leveraging technology and data-driven solutions to help combat the opioid epidemic. Authors, comprised of an interdisciplinary team from academia, the private sector, and the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, participated in the Code-a-Thon as part of the "Prevention" track. OBJECTIVE: To develop and deploy a methodology using machine learning to accurately detect the marketing and sale of opioids by illicit online sellers via Twitter as part of participation at the HHS Opioid Code-a-Thon event...
March 27, 2018: Journal of Medical Internet Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29611611/benzodiazepine-prescriptions-on-merchant-ships-without-a-doctor-on-board-analysis-from-medical-records-of-centro-internazionale-radio-medico-cirm
#5
Giulio Nittari, Graziano Pallotta, Marzio Di Canio, Enea Traini, Francesco Amenta
BACKGROUND: Benzodiazepines are drugs widely used for the treatment of anxiety and insomnia. The present study has analysed the prescriptions of this class of drugs among sailing seafarers, to evaluate the appropriateness of prescribed therapies. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This study assessed the benzodiazepine prescriptions made by Centro Internazionale Radio Medico (CIRM) doctors from 2011 to 2015. A total of 17,844 medical records were examined. Analysis considered the prescriptions of benzodiazepines in monotherapy, or in association with other drugs...
2018: International Maritime Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29611249/association-rules-method-and-big-data-evaluating-frequent-medication-combinations-associated-with-fractures-in-older-adults
#6
Prasad S Nishtala, Te-Yuan Chyou, Fabian Held, David G Le Couteur, Danijela Gnjidic
BACKGROUND: The association rules method is a novel methodology to ascertain patterns of medication use and combinations associated with adverse drug events. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this case-crossover study was to apply the association rules method to ascertain medication combinations contributing to the risk of fractures in older adults. METHODS: A nationwide representative sample of New Zealanders aged ≥65 years was sourced from the pharmaceutical collection...
April 2, 2018: Pharmacoepidemiology and Drug Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29609613/use-of-analgesics-in-france-following-dextropropoxyphene-withdrawal
#7
E Van Ganse, M Belhassen, M Ginoux, E Chrétien, C Cornu, C Ecoffey, F Aubrun
BACKGROUND: In 2009, the European Medicines Agency recommended withdrawal of dextropropoxyphene (DXP); in March 2011 it was withdrawn from the market in France. Up until that time the combination dextropropoxyphene-paracetamol (DXP/PC) was widely used for analgesia. At withdrawal, French regulators recommended that DXP/PC be replaced by other step 2 analgesics, i.e. tramadol, codeine, or opium-containing drugs, or by PC for a weak level of pain. To investigate prescribing behaviours after DXP/PC withdrawal, dispensations of analgesics before and after withdrawal were analysed...
April 2, 2018: BMC Health Services Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29607619/identification-and-metabolite-profiling-of-alkaloids-in-aerial-parts-of-papaver-rhoeas-by-liquid-chromatography-coupled-with-quadrupole-time-of-flight-tandem-mass-spectrometry
#8
Jae-Hyeon Oh, In Jin Ha, Min Young Lee, Eun-Ok Kim, Dain Park, Jun-Hee Lee, Seok-Geun Lee, Do-Wan Kim, Tae-Ho Lee, Eui-Ju Lee, Chang-Kug Kim
Papaver plants can produce diverse bioactive alkaloids. Papaver rhoeas Linnaeus (common poppy or corn poppy) is an annual flowering medicinal plant used for treating cough, sleep disorder, and as a sedative, pain relief, and food. It contains various powerful alkaloids like rhoeadine, benzylisoquinoline, and proaporphine. To investigate and identify alkaloids in the aerial parts of Papaver rhoeas, samples were collected at different growth stages and analyzed using liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry...
April 2, 2018: Journal of Separation Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29587814/a-comparative-analysis-of-pharmacists-perspectives-on-codeine-use-and-misuse-a-three-country-survey
#9
Tara Carney, John Wells, Charles D H Parry, Padraig McGuinness, Richard Harris, Marie Claire Van Hout
BACKGROUND: The misuse of codeine is of increasing concern in a number of countries, particularly as this relates to over -the-counter pain and cough relief medication, and is also supplied as a prescription medicine. The study aimed to obtain and analyse the opinions and experience of pharmacy staff with regard to codeine misuse. METHODS: A cross-sectional web-based survey of pharmacy staff's perspectives on this issue was administered through professional or regulatory bodies and completed by samples drawn in South Africa (n = 124), Ireland (n = 464) and the United Kingdom (n = 129)...
March 27, 2018: Substance Abuse Treatment, Prevention, and Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29579266/time-dependent-postmortem-redistribution-of-opioids-in-blood-and-alternative-matrices
#10
Lana Brockbals, Sandra N Staeheli, Dominic Gascho, Lars C Ebert, Thomas Kraemer, Andrea E Steuer
Forensic postmortem case interpretation can be challenging, in particular due to postmortem redistribution (PMR) phenomena. Recent studies have shown that computed tomography (CT)-guided collection of biopsy samples using a robotic arm (virtobot) provides a valuable tool for systematic studies on time-dependent PMR. Utilizing this strategy, several cases involving opioid use such as methadone, fentanyl, tramadol, codeine, oxycodone and hydrocodone were evaluated for time-dependent concentration changes and potential redistribution mechanisms...
March 20, 2018: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29579082/prepex-circumcision-surveillance-adverse-events-and-analgesia-for-device-removal
#11
Limakatso Lebina, Minja Milovanovic, Kennedy Otwombe, Pattamukkil Abraham, Mmatsie Manentsa, Susan Nzenze, Neil Martinson
BACKGROUND: The PrePex medical male circumcision (MMC) device is relatively easy to place and remove with some training. PrePex has been evaluated in several countries to assess feasibility and acceptability. However, several studies have reported pain associated with removal. OBJECTIVE: To assess safety of PrePex and whether analgesia administered prior to removal reduces pain experienced by participants. METHODS: A multi-site non-randomized, prospective cohort study in which adult (18-45 years old) males requesting PrePex device male circumcision, were enrolled in six South African clinics from July 2014 to March 2015...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29574346/evaluation-of-three-rapid-oral-fluid-test-devices-on-the-screening-of-multiple-drugs-of-abuse-including-ketamine
#12
Magdalene H Y Tang, C K Ching, Simon Poon, Suzanne S S Chan, W Y Ng, M Lam, C K Wong, Ronnie Pao, Angus Lau, Tony W L Mak
Rapid oral fluid testing (ROFT) devices have been extensively evaluated for their ability to detect common drugs of abuse; however, the performance of such devices on simultaneous screening for ketamine has been scarcely investigated. The present study evaluated three ROFT devices (DrugWipe® 6S, Ora-Check® and SalivaScreen® ) on the detection of ketamine, opiates, methamphetamine, cannabis, cocaine and MDMA. A liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LCMS) assay was firstly established and validated for confirmation analysis of the six types of drugs and/or their metabolites...
March 12, 2018: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29567260/ultra-sensitive-electrochemical-sensing-of-acetaminophen-and-codeine-in-biological-fluids-using-cuo-cufe-2-o-4-nanoparticles-as-a-novel-electrocatalyst
#13
Foroozan Hasanpour, Masoumeh Taei, Somayeh Tahmasebi
Copper ferrite-copper oxide (CuO-CuFe2 O4 ) nanoparticles as a semiconductor composite with p-n junction were synthesized by co-precipitation reaction. Then, a novel CuO-CuFe2 O4 carbon paste modified electrode was fabricated which displays an effectual electrocatalytic response to the oxidation of acetaminophen (AC) and codeine (CO). A linear range of 0.01-1.5 μmol L-1 and 0.06-10.0 μmol L-1 with the detection limits of 0.007 μmol L-1 and 0.01 μmol L-1 were achieved for AC and CO, respectively...
April 2018: Journal of Food and Drug Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29565665/rising-trends-of-prescription-opioid-sales-in-contemporary-brazil-2009-2015
#14
Noa Krawczyk, M Claire Greene, Rafaela Zorzanelli, Francisco I Bastos
OBJECTIVES: To present and discuss recent patterns of prescription opioid sales throughout Brazil. METHODS: We graphed linear trends of opioid prescriptions sold from registered pharmacies across Brazil from 2009 to 2015. We then calculated the change in rate of prescriptions sold per 1000 persons in 2015 compared with 2009. RESULTS: Opioid sales increased across Brazil from 1 601 043 prescriptions in 2009 to 9 045 945 prescriptions in 2015, corresponding to a 465% increase in 6 years...
March 22, 2018: American Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29564281/a-case-report-of-over-the-counter-codeine-dependence-as-consequence-of-self-medication-for-premature-ejaculation
#15
Sethulakshmi Sreevalsam Anil, Badr Ratnakaran, Nisha Suresh
Over-the-counter (OTC) opioid abuse, including codeine, has been a growing problem around the world. Although the majority of the abusers use it for recreational purposes, many become dependent on it after having used it a medication for pain or cough. We present a case of codeine dependence where the initial prescribed use had been as a cough medication, but the subsequent abuse of it occurred the following self-medication for premature ejaculation. There is growing need for awareness among doctors and pharmacists of OTC abuse of opioids and for preventive interventions such as restricting supply, audit of pharmacies, training pharmacists, and counter staff and dispensing knowledge about proper use of opioid-containing medications to patients...
October 2017: Journal of Family Medicine and Primary Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29559422/representations-of-codeine-misuse-on-instagram-content-analysis
#16
Roy Cherian, Marisa Westbrook, Danielle Ramo, Urmimala Sarkar
BACKGROUND: Prescription opioid misuse has doubled over the past 10 years and is now a public health epidemic. Analysis of social media data may provide additional insights into opioid misuse to supplement the traditional approaches of data collection (eg, self-report on surveys). OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to characterize representations of codeine misuse through analysis of public posts on Instagram to understand text phrases related to misuse. METHODS: We identified hashtags and searchable text phrases associated with codeine misuse by analyzing 1156 sequential Instagram posts over the course of 2 weeks from May 2016 to July 2016...
March 20, 2018: JMIR Public Health and Surveillance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29559326/canadian-trends-in-carpal-tunnel-surgery
#17
Blair Peters, Jennifer L Giuffre
PURPOSE: Treatment patterns of carpal tunnel surgery by members of the American Society of Surgery of the Hand (ASSH) have recently been published. The majority of cases in this study were performed in the general operating room with intravenous (IV) sedation or a Bier block. Patients were most commonly prescribed hydrocodone for postoperative pain. The majority of carpal tunnel releases at our center are performed under local anesthesia alone, with plain acetaminophen (Tylenol) or codeine prescribed for postoperative pain...
March 17, 2018: Journal of Hand Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29556967/lethal-endomyocarditis-caused-by-chronic-krokodil-intoxication
#18
Antonella Sorrentino, Silvia Trotta, Anna Pia Colucci, Lucia Aventaggiato, Andrea Marzullo, Biagio Solarino
"Krokodil" is a home-made opioid drug obtained by synthesizing desomorphine from codeine and combining it with other low-cost additives. Initially introduced in the former Soviet countries, it was then imported to Western Europe as a heroin substitute. To our knowledge, this is the first report of an Italian case of lethal krokodil abuse, that occurred in a 39-year-old man, who died suddenly after transportation to the Emergency Department (ED) for hyperthermia associated with sweating, dyspnoea and tachycardia...
March 19, 2018: Forensic Science, Medicine, and Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29556194/when-the-safe-alternative-is-not-that-safe-tramadol-prescribing-in-children
#19
REVIEW
Frédérique Rodieux, Laszlo Vutskits, Klara M Posfay-Barbe, Walid Habre, Valérie Piguet, Jules A Desmeules, Caroline F Samer
Children represent a vulnerable population in which management of nociceptive pain is complex. Drug responses in children differ from adults due to age-related differences. Moreover, therapeutic choices are limited by the lack of indication for a number of analgesic drugs due to the challenge of conducting clinical trials in children. Furthermore the assessment of efficacy as well as tolerance may be complicated by children's inability to communicate properly. According to the World Health Organization, weak opioids such as tramadol and codeine, may be used in addition to paracetamol and ibuprofen for moderate nociceptive pain in both children and adults...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29554298/development-of-a-quantitative-lc-ms-ms-assay-for-codeine-morphine-6-acetylmorphine-hydrocodone-hydromorphone-oxycodone-and-oxymorphone-in-neat-oral-fluid
#20
Megan Grabenauer, Katherine N Moore, Nichole D Bynum, Robert M White, John M Mitchell, Eugene D Hayes, Ronald Flegel
Recent advances in analytical capabilities allowing for the identification and quantification of drugs and metabolites in small volumes at low concentrations have made oral fluid a viable matrix for drug testing. Oral fluid is an attractive matrix option due to its relative ease of collection, reduced privacy concerns for observed collections and difficulty to adulterate. The work presented here details the development and validation of a liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS-MS) method for the quantification of codeine, morphine, 6-acetylmorphine, hydrocodone, hydromorphone, oxycodone and oxymorphone in neat oral fluid...
March 15, 2018: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
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