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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081042/detection-of-hydrocodone-and-morphine-as-metabolites-in-oral-fluid-by-lc-ms-ms-in-patients-prescribed-codeine
#1
Robert E West, Maria G Guevara, Charles Mikel, Ruben Gamez
A retrospective analysis of oral fluid drug testing results using LC-MS/MS was performed to determine the prevalence rates in oral fluid for codeine (COD) and 3 COD metabolites-morphine (MOR), norhydrocodone (NHC), and hydrocodone (HCOD). Oral fluid samples were collected using Quantisal oral fluid collection device (Immunalysis Inc.) and submitted to Millennium Health, LLC for the routine drug analysis by LC-MS/MS. Consistent with previously published literature, COD was the primary analyte detected in oral fluid after the use of COD...
February 2017: Therapeutic Drug Monitoring
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070817/medicines-containing-codeine-perspectives-of-medical-professionals-in-the-republic-of-ireland
#2
M Foley, T Carney, R Harris, E Fitzpatrick, A Rapca-Veillet, M C Van Hout
AIMS: The aim of the study was to examine prescribing professional's perceptions on prescribed and OTC medicines, containing codeine in the Republic of Ireland. A secondary aim was to examine perceptions on codeine dependence, screening and treatment. METHODS: A cross-sectional study of a nationally representative group of prescribing professionals was conducted using a questionnaire containing a number of open and closed ended items. Data were analysed using SPSS version 21 and content analysis techniques...
January 9, 2017: Irish Journal of Medical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28035699/lack-of-respiratory-depression-in-paracetamol-codeine-combination-overdoses
#3
Simon P E Heppell, Geoffrey K Isbister
BACKGROUND: Codeine containing analgesics are commonly taken in overdose, but the frequency of respiratory depression is unknown. We investigated whether paracetamol-codeine combination overdoses caused respiratory depression more than paracetamol alone. METHODS: We reviewed deliberate self-poisoning admissions with paracetamol (>2 g) and paracetamol-codeine combinations presenting to a tertiary toxicology unit (1987-2013). Demographic information, clinical effects, treatment (naloxone, length of stay[LOS], mechanical ventilation) were extracted from a prospective database...
December 30, 2016: British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28027389/paracetamol-acetaminophen-with-or-without-codeine-or-dihydrocodeine-for-neuropathic-pain-in-adults
#4
REVIEW
Philip J Wiffen, Roger Knaggs, Sheena Derry, Peter Cole, Tudor Phillips, R Andrew Moore
BACKGROUND: Paracetamol, either alone or in combination with codeine or dihydrocodeine, is commonly used to treat chronic neuropathic pain. This review sought evidence for efficacy and harm from randomised double-blind studies. OBJECTIVES: To assess the analgesic efficacy and adverse events of paracetamol with or without codeine or dihydrocodeine for chronic neuropathic pain in adults. SEARCH METHODS: We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE, and Embase from inception to July 2016, together with reference lists of retrieved papers and reviews, and two online study registries...
27, 2016: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28025374/effect-of-local-anesthetic-concentration-0-2-vs-0-1-ropivacaine-on-pulmonary-function-and-analgesia-after-ultrasound-guided-interscalene-brachial-plexus-block-a-randomized-controlled-study
#5
Andrew K Wong, Lauren Georgiades Keeney, Liting Chen, Rebekah Williams, Jiabin Liu, Nabil M Elkassabany
OBJECTIVE: This study aims to assess diaphragmatic excursion and measure pulmonary functions as measures of the degree to which the phrenic nerve is blocked after ISB with two different concentrations of ropivacaine: 0.2% and 0.1%. DESIGN: Randomized, double-blinded study. SETTING AND PATIENTS: Ambulatory surgical facility. SUBJECTS: Fifty patients undergoing shoulder arthroscopy for rotator cuff repair. METHODS: Patients were randomized to receive ultrasound-guided ISB with 20 mL of either 0...
December 2016: Pain Medicine: the Official Journal of the American Academy of Pain Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28025373/trends-in-opioid-analgesic-use-in-encounters-involving-physician-trainees-in-u-s-emergency-departments
#6
Maryann Mazer-Amirshahi, Peter M Mullins, Christie Sun, Jesse M Pines, Lewis S Nelson, Jeanmarie Perrone
BACKGROUND: Opioid analgesic use has increased dramatically in emergency departments (EDs), but the relative contribution of physician trainees has not been explored. We assessed trends in opioid utilization focusing on ED encounters where a physician trainee was involved. METHODS: We studied ED visits from the National Hospital Ambulatory Medical Care Survey, 2001-2011. Adult ED visits in which an opioid was administered in the ED or prescribed at discharge were stratified by whether or not there was trainee involvement...
December 2016: Pain Medicine: the Official Journal of the American Academy of Pain Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28004502/a-false-comfort-with-codeine
#7
EDITORIAL
Kenneth R Goldschneider
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2017: Paediatric Anaesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28004499/codeine-an-old-drug-with-new-precautions
#8
EDITORIAL
Patrick K Birmingham
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2017: Paediatric Anaesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27995749/evaluation-of-sample-injection-precision-in-respect-to-sensitivity-in-capillary-electrophoresis-using-various-injection-modes
#9
Krzesimir Ciura, Aleksandra Pawelec, Magdalena Buszewska-Forajta, Michał Jan Markuszewski, Joanna Nowakowska, Adam Prahl, Bartosz Wielgomas, Szymon Dziomba
A comparative study was conducted to assess the injection precision in CE for cationic analytes (arecoline, codeine, papaverine). The precision was measured in respect to methods sensitivity in various injection modes in CE: standard hydrodynamic injection (3.45 kPa for 6 s), large volume sample stacking (3.45 kPa for 40 s) and field-amplified sample injection (10 kV for 65 s). All measurements were conducted for aqueous solutions of standards to minimize the errors linked to the sample preparation step. The methods were submitted to precision assessment at three concentration levels: at the limit of quantification, three-fold and ten-fold of limit of quantification...
December 20, 2016: Journal of Separation Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27977852/unequivocal-evidence-supporting-the-segregated-flow-intestinal-model-that-discriminates-intestine-versus-liver-first-pass-removal-in-pbpk-modeling
#10
K Sandy Pang, Qi Joy Yang, Keumhan Noh
Merits of the segregated flow model (SFM), highlighting the intestine as an inert serosa and active enterocyte c regions, with a smaller fractional (fQ  < 0.3) intestinal flow (QI ) perfusing the enterocyte region, were described. Less drug in the circulation reaches the enterocytes due to the lower flow (fQ QI ) in comparison to drug absorbed from the gut lumen, fostering the idea of route-dependent intestinal removal. The SFM was superior over the traditional model (TM), which views the serosa and enterocytes as a well-mixed tissue perfused by 100% QI ...
December 15, 2016: Biopharmaceutics & Drug Disposition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27973259/impact-of-safety-related-regulation-on-use-of-codeine-in-taiwanese-children
#11
C Lin, C Wang, W Huang, W Ke, P Chao, W Chen, F Hsiao
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2016: Value in Health: the Journal of the International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27971650/the-hector-study-health-economics-study-of-codeine-and-tramadol-non-responders-a-sub-population-analysis
#12
R D Pockett, C J O'Leary, T G Winfield, P Anderson, A Nasser, D Ansell
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2016: Value in Health: the Journal of the International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27935150/trends-in-potentially-inappropriate-medication-prescribing-to-nursing-home-patients-comparison-of-three-cross-sectional-studies
#13
Kjell H Halvorsen, Geir Selbaek, Sabine Ruths
PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to examine trends in potentially inappropriate medication (PIM) prescribing in Norwegian nursing homes. METHODS: Patients aged ≥70 years were included from three cross-sectional studies conducted in 1997, 2005 and 2011. PIMs were analyzed according to the Norwegian General Practice-Nursing Home criteria (NORGEP-NH), use of single substances to avoid, combinations to avoid, and deprescribing items. Associations between sample and use of PIMs were examined by logistic regression, adjusted for age, gender, and ward...
December 9, 2016: Pharmacoepidemiology and Drug Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27925239/physiologically-based-pharmacokinetic-modeling-revealed-minimal-codeine-intestinal-metabolism-in-first-pass-removal-in-rats
#14
Keumhan Noh, Shu Chen, Qi J Yang, K Sandy Pang
The physiologically-based model with segregated flow to the intestine (SFM-PBPK; partial, lower flow to enterocyte region vs. greater flow to serosal region) was found to describe first-pass glucuronidation of morphine (M) to morphine-3β-glucuronide (MG) in rats after intraduodenal (ID) and intravenous (IV) administration better than the traditional model (TM), for which a single intestinal flow perfused the whole of the intestinal tissue. The SFM described a greater extent of intestinal M glucuronidation for ID vs...
December 7, 2016: Biopharmaceutics & Drug Disposition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922762/nonchemotherapy-drug-induced-agranulocytosis-in-children-detected-by-a-prospective-pharmacovigilance-program
#15
Nicolás Medrano-Casique, Hoi Y Tong, Alberto M Borobia, Antonio J Carcas, Jesús Frías, Elena Ramírez
OBJECTIVES: A prospective evaluation of nonchemotherapy drug-induced agranulocytosis (DIA) cases, which are infrequent in the pediatric population. We characterize agranulocytosis cases and assess lab test differences between drug- and nondrug-induced agranulocytosis. METHODS: Through our Prospective Pharmacovigilance Program from Laboratory Signals at Hospital we detected pediatric agranulocytosis cases from July 2007 to December 2010. This program estimates the incidence, drug causality, clinical features, outcomes of DIA pediatric cases, and assesses laboratory differences with respect to non-DIA...
October 2016: Pediatric Hematology and Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890824/evaluating-a-switch-from-meconium-to-umbilical-cord-tissue-for-newborn-drug-testing-a-retrospective-study-at-an-academic-medical-center
#16
Kendra L Palmer, Kelly E Wood, Matthew D Krasowski
BACKGROUND: The objective of this study was to compare detection rates of newborn drug exposure at an academic medical center transitioning from meconium to umbilical cord tissue toxicology testing. METHODS: We performed an Institutional Review Board-approved retrospective chart review on all newborns (n=2072) for whom newborn drug testing was ordered at our academic medical center between June 2012 and August 2015 (in August 2013, umbilical cord tissue became the preferred specimen)...
November 24, 2016: Clinical Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27884570/a-gc-ms-method-for-the-detection-and-quantitation-of-ten-major-drugs-of-abuse-in-human-hair-samples
#17
A Orfanidis, O Mastrogianni, A Koukou, G Psarros, H Gika, G Theodoridis, N Raikos
A sensitive analytical method has been developed in order to identify and quantify major drugs of abuse (DOA), namely morphine, codeine, 6-monoacetylmorphine, cocaine, ecgonine methyl ester, benzoylecgonine, amphetamine, methamphetamine, methylenedioxymethamphetamine and methylenedioxyamphetamine in human hair. Samples of hair were extracted with methanol under ultrasonication at 50°C after a three step rinsing process to remove external contamination and dirt hair. Derivatization with BSTFA was selected in order to increase detection sensitivity of GC/MS analysis...
November 10, 2016: Journal of Chromatography. B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881622/stability-of-21-cocaine-opioid-and-benzodiazepine-drug-analytes-in-spiked-meconium-at-three-temperatures
#18
Fang Wu, Stephanie J Marin, Gwendolyn A McMillin
In this study, the stability of 21 cocaine, opioid and benzodiazepine analytes in spiked meconium was investigated at three storage temperatures: 4°C, room temperature (RT), and 37°C (body temperature). The drugs/metabolites included were hydrocodone, hydromorphone, codeine, morphine, 6-acetylmorphine (6-AM), oxycodone, oxymorphone, cocaine, cocaethylene, benzoylecgonine, m-hydroxybenzoylecgonine, diazepam, oxazepam, temazepam, nordiazepam, chlordiazepoxide, lorazepam, alprazolam, alpha-hydroxyalprazolam, clonazepam, 7-aminoclonazepam, midazolam, alpha-hydroxymidazolam and zolpidem...
November 22, 2016: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27867512/a-service-improvement-project-to-review-prescribing-information-provided-by-general-practitioners-for-new-referrals-to-a-uk-national-health-service-hospital-pain-clinic-potential-implications-of-cyp2d6-enzyme-inhibition
#19
Helen Radford, Pauline Fitzgerald, Stephen Martin, Mark I Johnson
INTRODUCTION: Chronic pain is often managed using co-prescription of analgesics and adjuvants, with concomitant medication prescribed for comorbidities. Patients may have suboptimal response to some analgesics or be at risk of drug interactions or adverse drug reactions (ADRs) due to polypharmacy affecting CYP2D6 enzyme activity. The aim of the service improvement project was to determine the proportion of patients referred to a specialist pain service in the UK National Health Service (NHS) by general practitioners (GPs) who may be at risk of suboptimal analgesic response or ADRs due to CYP2D6 inhibition through polypharmacy...
November 2016: British Journal of Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27865914/analgesia-following-adenotonsillar-surgery-in-children-is-oramorph-required-in-addition-to-paracetamol-and-ibuprofen
#20
R Wei Chern Gan, T Kamani, M Daniel
BACKGROUND: Recent advice against codeine use in children prompted our unit to prescribe Oramorph as required, in addition to regular paracetamol and ibuprofen, as post-(adeno)tonsillectomy analgesia. This study investigated whether Oramorph was in fact required. METHODS: Following (adeno)tonsillectomy, parents were telephoned and asked whether they used Oramorph. RESULTS: Of 56 children studied, 41 (73.2%) were given Oramorph. In the 15 (26...
November 16, 2016: European Annals of Otorhinolaryngology, Head and Neck Diseases
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