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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29025166/is-alzheimer-s-disease-associated-with-previous-opioid-use
#1
Heidi Taipale, Aleksi Hamina, Pasi Lampela, Antti Tanskanen, Jari Tiihonen, Niina Karttunen, Anna-Maija Tolppanen, Sirpa Hartikainen
Objective: We investigated whether opioid use, duration of use, and cumulative dose are associated with an increased risk of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Methods: A Finnish nationwide nested case-control study, MEDALZ, included 70,718 individuals with AD and up to four age-, sex-, and region of residence-matched comparison individuals. The cohort included all Finnish persons with a clinically verified AD diagnosis during 2005 to 2011; the mean age was 80 years (SD = 7 years), and 65% were women...
August 28, 2017: Pain Medicine: the Official Journal of the American Academy of Pain Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28992662/sample-preparation-method-for-the-combined-extraction-of-ethyl-glucuronide-and-drugs-of-abuse-in-hair
#2
Ulf Christian Juhl Meier, Thomas Briellmann, Eva Scheurer, Franz Dussy
In hair analysis often little hair sample is available while the analysis of a multitude of structurally diverse substances with different concentration ranges is demanded. Often, the analysis of the different substances requires different sample preparation methods, increasing the amount of required hair sample. When segmental hair analysis is necessary, the amount of needed hair sample is further increased. Therefore, the required sample amount for a full analysis can quickly exceed the available hair sample...
October 9, 2017: Drug Testing and Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28985334/simultaneous-quantitation-of-methamphetamine-ketamine-opiates-and-their-metabolites-in-urine-by-spe-and-lc-ms-ms
#3
Chu-An Yang, Hsiu-Chuan Liu, Dong-Liang Lin, Ray H Liu, You-Zung Hsieh, Shu-Pao Wu
Heroin, methamphetamine and ketamine have been the most commonly abused drugs in Taiwan. The presence of these drugs and their metabolites in postmortem specimens has been routinely monitored in our laboratory mostly by gas chromatographic-mass spectrometric methods. This study aimed to evaluate a more effective approach to simultaneously quantify these analytes (i.e., amphetamine, methamphetamine, 3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine, 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA), morphine, codeine, 6-acetylmorphine, 6-acetylcodeine, ketamine and norketamine) in postmortem urine and blood specimens by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS-MS)...
July 18, 2017: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28973785/quantification-of-morphine-codeine-and-thebaine-in-home-brewed-poppy-seed-tea-by-lc-ms-ms
#4
Deborah Powers, Stephen Erickson, Madeleine J Swortwood
Recently, medical examiners reported two cases of a 21-year-old male and 24-year-old male with high amounts of morphine in their blood at autopsy. It was suspected that the decedents ingested lethal amounts of morphine from home-brewed poppy seed tea. No studies to date have investigated opium alkaloid content extracted from poppy seeds by home-brewing methods. Various poppy seed products were purchased from online sources and extracted with four home-brewing methods representative of recipes found on drug user forums...
October 3, 2017: Journal of Forensic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28972499/impact-of-pharmacy-reform-on-the-dynamics-of-the-use-of-drugs-and-psychoactive-substances-according-to-the-2013-2016-clinical-data-from-the-center-for-mental-health-and-prevention-of-addiction
#5
L Kiladze, Kh Todadze, T Balkhamishvili, E Gadelia, G Lezhava
Use of medications without doctor's prescription widely established in Georgia had negative impact on the health of the population and on the whole social situation. The use of home-made drugs "Krokodil", "Jeff" and "Vint" produced from the preparations bought without prescriptions (Codeine, Ephedrine), became a special matter of concern. Psychoactive substances became available for teenagers causing damage to their central nervous system and formation of drug-addiction in them. Due to the situation Georgian Government took a number of legislative measures, particularly, it set Criminal Liability for illegal circulation of pharmaceutical products containing Codeine and Ephedrine and Administrative Measures for issuing the psychoactive substances without prescription...
September 2017: Georgian Medical News
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28964282/adherence-to-swedish-guidelines-for-pain-treatment-in-relation-to-pediatric-tonsil-surgery-a-survey-of-the-multidisciplinary-team
#6
F Alm, M Jaensson, S Lundeberg, E Ericsson
BACKGROUND: Pain management in children after tonsil surgery is essential, and optimal pain treatment has been discussed for many years. Data from the National Tonsil Register in Sweden (NTRS) and a national mapping have demonstrated the need for national pain treatment guidelines for pediatric tonsil surgery. As a result, Swedish national guidelines, together with updated patient information on the website tonsilloperation.se, were developed and implemented in 2013. OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to evaluate the professionals' opinions of and adherence to pain treatment guidelines for pediatric tonsil surgery patients in a two-year follow-up...
October 2017: International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28961427/comparison-of-clinical-efficacies-of-preoperatively-initiated-naproxen-sodium-codeine-phosphate-in-combination-diclofenac-potassium-and-benzydamine-hydrochloride-for%C3%A2-pain-edema-and-trismus-after%C3%A2-extraction-of-impacted-lower%C3%A2-third-molar-a-randomized-double
#7
Levent Cigerim, Cennet Neslihan Eroglu
PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to compare the clinical efficacies of naproxen sodium-codeine phosphate in combination, benzydamine hydrochloride, and diclofenac potassium for pain, edema, and trismus after lower third molar extraction. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Ninety healthy volunteers in whom impacted third molar extraction was indicated were randomly distributed into 3 groups. One hour before the tooth-extraction process, patients were administered one of the following drugs: naproxen sodium, 550 mg, and codeine phosphate, 30 mg, in a tablet; diclofenac potassium, 50 mg, in a coated pill; or benzydamine hydrochloride, 50 mg, in a coated pill...
September 8, 2017: Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28960752/evaluation-of-the-quality-consistency-of-powdered-poppy-capsule-extractive-by-an-averagely-linear-quantified-fingerprint-method-in-combination-with-antioxidant-activities-and-two-compounds-analyses
#8
Yujing Zhang, Guoxiang Sun, Zhifei Hou, Bo Yan, Jing Zhang
A novel averagely linear quantified fingerprint method was proposed and successfully applied to monitor the quality consistency of alkaloids in powdered poppy capsule extractive. Averagely linear quantified fingerprint method provided accurate qualitative and quantitative similarities for chromatographic fingerprints of Chinese herbal medicines. The stability and operability of the averagely linear quantified fingerprint method were verified by the parameter r. The average linear qualitative similarity SL (improved based on conventional qualitative "Similarity") was used as a qualitative criterion in the averagely linear quantified fingerprint method, and the average linear quantitative similarity PL was introduced as a quantitative one...
September 27, 2017: Journal of Separation Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28955222/improved-prediction-of-endoxifen-metabolism-by-cyp2d6-genotype-in-breast-cancer-patients-treated-with-tamoxifen
#9
Werner Schroth, Stefan Winter, Thomas Mürdter, Elke Schaeffeler, Diana Eccles, Bryony Eccles, Balram Chowbay, Chiea C Khor, Arafat Tfayli, Nathalie K Zgheib, Michel Eichelbaum, Matthias Schwab, Hiltrud Brauch
Purpose: Prediction of impaired tamoxifen (TAM) to endoxifen metabolism may be relevant to improve breast cancer treatment, e.g., via TAM dose increase. The polymorphic cytochrome P450 2D6 (CYP2D6) strongly determines an individual's capacity for endoxifen formation, however, CYP2D6 phenotype assignments inferred from genotype widely differ between studies. Thus, we modeled plasma endoxifen predictability depending on variable CYP2D6 genotype groupings. Methods: CYP2D6 diplotype and metabolite plasma concentrations were assessed in 908 pre- and post-menopausal estrogen receptor (ER)-positive, TAM treated early breast cancer patients of Caucasian (N = 678), Middle-Eastern Arab (N = 77), and Asian (N = 153) origin...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28953949/effect-of-tramadol-as-an-adjuvant-to-local-anesthetics-for-brachial-plexus-block-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#10
Hye Won Shin, Bum Jun Ju, Yoo Kyung Jang, Hae Seun You, Hyun Kang, Ji Yong Park
BACKGROUND: Tramadol, a 4-phenyl-piperidine analog of codeine, has a unique action in that it has a central opioidergic, noradrenergic, serotonergic analgesic, and peripheral local anesthetic (LA) effect. Many studies have reported contradictory findings regarding the peripheral analgesic effect of tramadol as an adjuvant to LA in brachial plexus block (BPB). This meta-analysis aimed to evaluate the effects of tramadol as an adjunct to LA in BPB during shoulder or upper extremity surgery...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28943040/treatment-of-musculo-skeletal-pain-in-haemophilia
#11
REVIEW
E Carlos Rodriguez-Merchan
Musculo-skeletal pain treatment is inadequate in many haemophilic patients. Analgesics are used only by 36% of adult patients. FVIII/FIX intravenous infusion is mainly used to lessen pain, followed in frequency by usage of NSAIDS (primarily COX-2 inhibitors). In about 30% of patients, pain continues after infusion of F VIII/IX. In acute haemarthroses pain treatment must continue until total disappearance (checked by ultrasonography) and include haematologic treatment, short-term rest of the involved joint, cryotherapy, joint aspiration and analgesic medication (paracetamol in mild pain, metamizole for more intense pain, and in a few precise patients, soft opioids such as codeine or tramadol)...
September 19, 2017: Blood Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936010/dextromethorphan-in-cough-syrup-the-poor-man-s-psychosis
#12
Bridgette Martinak, Ramy A Bolis, Jeffrey Ryne Black, Rachel E Fargason, Badari Birur
Dextromethorphan (3-methoxy-N-methylmorphinan), also known as "DXM" and "the poor man's PCP," is a synthetically produced drug that is available in more than 140 over-the-counter cough and cold preparations. Dextromethorphan (DXM) has overtaken codeine as the most widely used cough suppressant due to its availability, efficacy, and safety profile at directed doses. However, DXM is subject to abuse. When consumed at inappropriately high doses (over 1500 mg/day), DXM can induce a state of psychosis characterized by Phencyclidine (PCP)-like psychological symptoms, including delusions, hallucinations, and paranoia...
September 15, 2017: Psychopharmacology Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28925091/counting-the-cost-of-over-the-counter-codeine-containing-analgesic-misuse-a-retrospective-review-of-hospital-admissions-over-a-5-year-period
#13
Deanna Mill, Jacinta L Johnson, Victoria Cock, Emily Monaghan, Elizabeth D Hotham
INTRODUCTION AND AIMS: Combination analgesics containing codeine (CACC) are currently available over-the-counter (OTC) in many countries following a pharmacist's advice. Published case reports detail life-threatening morbidities associated with OTC-CACC misuse, although the cost of treating such patients has not been quantified. This study aims to: (i) identify and detail patients admitted to an Australian tertiary teaching hospital over a 5 year period with sequelae of OTC-CACC misuse; and (ii) estimate the costs of identified hospital admissions...
September 18, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923194/the-association-between-insomnia-and-prescription-opioid-use-results-from-a-community-sample-in-northeast-florida
#14
Mirsada Serdarevic, Vicki Osborne, Catherine W Striley, Linda B Cottler
OBJECTIVE: The current analysis examines whether opioid use is associated with insomnia in a community sample, as the consequences of the growing epidemic of prescription opioid use continue to cause public health concern. STUDY DESIGN: A cross-sectional study including 8433 members in a community outreach program, HealthStreet, in Northeast Florida. METHODS: Community Health Workers (CHWs) assessed health information, including use of opioids (i...
October 2017: Sleep Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917762/full-validation-of-a-method-for-the-determination-of-drugs-of-abuse-in-non-mineralized-dental-biofilm-using-liquid-chromatography-tandem-mass-spectrometry-and-application-to-postmortem-samples
#15
Kerstin Henkel, Markus J Altenburger, Volker Auwärter, Merja A Neukamm
Alternative matrices play a major role in postmortem forensic toxicology, especially if common matrices (like body fluids or hair) are not available. Incorporation of illicit and medicinal drugs into non-mineralized dental biofilm (plaque) seems likely but has not been investigated so far. Analysis of plaque could therefore extend the spectrum of potentially used matrices in postmortem toxicology. For this reason, a rapid, simple and sensitive method for the extraction, determination and quantification of ten drugs of abuse from plaque using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) was developed and fully validated...
January 1, 2018: Talanta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28901724/codeine-influences-the-serum-and-urinary-profile-of-endogenous-androgens-but-does-not-interact-with-the-excretion-rate-of-administered-testosterone
#16
M Lehtihet, A Andersson, A Börjesson, J Schulze, A Rane, M Ericsson, L Ekström
Today's doping tests involve longitudinal monitoring of urinary steroids including the testosterone glucuronide and epitestosterone glucuronide ratio (T/E) in an athlete biological passport (ABP). The aim of this study was to investigate the possible influence of short term use of codeine on the urinary excretion of androgen metabolites included in the steroidal module of the passport prior to and after the co-administration with testosterone. The study was designed as an open study with the subjects being their own control...
September 13, 2017: Drug Testing and Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28887789/deaths-from-opioid-overdosing-implications-of-coroners-inquest-reports-2008-2012-and-annual-rise-in-opioid-prescription-rates-a-population-based-cohort-study
#17
Elspeth E Shipton, Ashleigh J Shipton, Jonathan A Williman, Edward A Shipton
INTRODUCTION: In the late 1990s multiple physicians and advocacy organizations promoted increased use of opioids for the treatment of acute, chronic and cancer pain. There has been an exponential growth in opioid prescribing in the last 20 years in the United States of America, in Australia, and in other developed Western countries. There are negative consequences associated with the liberal use of opioids. The primary aim of this population-based cohort study is to investigate the opioid-related death rate in New Zealand between 1 January 2008 and 31 December 2012...
September 8, 2017: Pain and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28867701/a-metabolic-study-on-the-biochemical-effects-of-chiral-illegal-drugs-in-rats-using-1-h-nmr-spectroscopy
#18
Kiyoshi Fukuhara, Akiko Ohno, Ruri Kikura-Hanajiri
 Considering the pharmacological effects of chiral drugs, enantiopure drugs may differ from their racemic mixture formulation in efficacy, potency, or adverse effects. Levomethorphan (LVM) and Dextromethorphan (DXM) act on the central nervous system and exhibit different pharmacological features. LVM, the l-stereoisomer of methorphan, shows many similarities to opiates such as heroin, morphine and codeine, including the potential for addiction, while the d-stereoisomer, DXM, does not have the same opioid effect...
2017: Yakugaku Zasshi: Journal of the Pharmaceutical Society of Japan
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28866005/discrete-memory-impairments-in-largely-pure-chronic-users-of-mdma
#19
Michael D Wunderli, Matthias Vonmoos, Marina Fürst, Katrin Schädelin, Thomas Kraemer, Markus R Baumgartner, Erich Seifritz, Boris B Quednow
Chronic use of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, "ecstasy") has repeatedly been associated with deficits in working memory, declarative memory, and executive functions. However, previous findings regarding working memory and executive function are inconclusive yet, as in most studies concomitant stimulant use, which is known to affect these functions, was not adequately controlled for. Therefore, we compared the cognitive performance of 26 stimulant-free and largely pure (primary) MDMA users, 25 stimulant-using polydrug MDMA users, and 56 MDMA/stimulant-naïve controls by applying a comprehensive neuropsychological test battery...
August 30, 2017: European Neuropsychopharmacology: the Journal of the European College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28864284/evaluation-of-caffeine-versus-codeine-for-pain-and-swelling-management-after-implant-surgeries-a-triple-blind-clinical-trial
#20
Sahand Samieirad, Hadi Afrasiabi, Elahe Tohidi, Mohsen Qolizade, Baratollah Shaban, Maryam Asadat Hashemipour, Isa Doaltian Shirvan
INTRODUCTION: There are controversies in recent studies over the application of NSAIDs for controlling pain and swelling after implant surgeries for osseointegration. The aim of this study was to compare caffeine-containing versus codeine-containing analgesics in relation to their anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects after dental implant surgeries. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 80 patients (40 in each group) were selected as the final sample size. Forty drug packs, which were formulated and made by the consultant pharmacist, each containing 10 capsules of acetaminophen caffeine (consisting of 300 mg of acetaminophen and 20 mg of caffeine), and another 40 packs, each containing 10 capsules of acetaminophen codeine (consisting of 300 mg acetaminophen and 20 mg codeine) were prepared...
October 2017: Journal of Cranio-maxillo-facial Surgery
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