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Y N Wang, H T Wang
Objective: To observe the process of nasal mucosa injury and repair induced by nasal decongestants in guinea pigs Methods: Sixty-five male guinea pigs were randomly divided into 4groups by digital random method.The guinea pigs in Group A (20 guinea pigs)were treated with 2 sprays of 0.1% Naphazoline 6 times a day for 2 weeks; Group B (20 guinea pigs)with 2 drops of 1% Ephedrine 6 times a day for 2 weeks; Group C(20 guinea pigs) with 2 sprays of Naphazolin hydrochloride and Chlorphenamine Maleate Nasal Spray 8 times a day for 2 weeks...
June 7, 2018: Zhonghua Er Bi Yan Hou Tou Jing Wai Ke za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Otorhinolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery
Marcella Aquino, Greg Rosner
Systemic contact dermatitis (SCD) traditionally refers to a skin condition where an individual who is cutaneously sensitized to an allergen will subsequently react to that same allergen or a cross reacting allergen via a different route. It occurs to allergens including metals, medications, and foods. The exact pathophysiology underlying this disease remains unknown, although it appears to be mediated by type 4 hypersensitivity reactions and possibly type 3 hypersensitivity reactions. The p-I concept (pharmacologic interaction with immunoreceptors) hypothesized that drugs are able to bind directly to a T cell receptor without first being presented by MHC (major histocompatibility complex) molecules and without prior metabolism, which would help explain why SCD can be seen on first exposure to medications...
May 15, 2018: Clinical Reviews in Allergy & Immunology
Domenico Motola, Monia Donati, Chiara Biagi, Elisabetta Calamelli, Francesca Cipriani, Mauro Melis, Luca Monaco, Alberto Vaccheri, Giampaolo Ricci
PURPOSE: H1-antihistamines are commonly used in infants and children for the relief of histamine-mediated symptoms in a variety of conditions. Little is known about their safety profile in these patients. We performed a comparative analysis of the safety profiles of H1-antihistamines using data from the WHO database (VigiBase). METHODS: We selected adverse drug reaction (ADR) reports on H1-antihistamines in children (0-16 years) up to June 2014 from VigiBase. ADRs were codified according to MedDRA terminology...
October 2017: Pharmacoepidemiology and Drug Safety
C Crawford, M Anderson, G Cooper, G Jackson, J Thompson, A Vale, Shl Thomas, M Eddleston, D N Bateman
BACKGROUND: Accidental drug overdose is a common problem in young children. We examined the influence of formulation and dose in enquiries for different gastro-oesophageal reflux disease treatments in children under 5 years to the UK's National Poisons Information Service. METHODS: Overdose characteristics with ranitidine, omeprazole or domperidone were compared with those of metoclopramide and the H-1 antagonist chlorphenamine, for the period 1 July 2007 to 30 June 2015...
April 2018: Human & Experimental Toxicology
Viet Anh Pham Ba, Dong-Guk Cho, Daesan Kim, Haneul Yoo, Van-Thao Ta, Seunghun Hong
We demonstrated the quantitative electrophysiological monitoring of histamine and anti-histamine drug effects on live cells via reusable sensor platforms based on carbon nanotube transistors. This method enabled us to monitor the real-time electrophysiological responses of a single HeLa cell to histamine with different concentrations. The measured electrophysiological responses were attributed to the activity of histamine type 1 receptors on a HeLa cell membrane by histamine. Furthermore, the effects of anti-histamine drugs such as cetirizine or chlorphenamine on the electrophysiological activities of HeLa cells were also evaluated quantitatively...
August 15, 2017: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
Jeff Aston, Natasha Patel, Justin Smuels, Teena Aujla, Georgia Malesi, Chi Huynh, Keith Wilson, David Terry
AIM: To identify what medicines related information children/young people or their parents/carers are able to recall following an out-patient clinic appointment. METHOD: A convenience sample of patients' prescribed at least one new long-term (>6 weeks) medicine were recruited from a single UK paediatric hospital out-patient pharmacy.A face-to-face semi-structured questionnaire was administered to participants when they presented with their prescription. The questionnaire included the following themes: names of the medicines, therapeutic indication, dose regimen, duration of treatment and adverse effects...
September 2016: Archives of Disease in Childhood
Alvaro Passi, Paula Margozzini, Eduardo Valenzuela, Trinidad Hoyl, Pedro Paulo Marín, Marcela Carrasco, Ricardo Olea, Homero Gac
BACKGROUND: Inappropriate medication use in older people is an important source of adverse events and complications. AIM: To determine the frequency of inappropriate medication use in the general population. MATERIAL AND METHODS: As part of the 2010 Chilean National Health Survey, 1,048 persons aged 65 years or more were interviewed about medication use. The information obtained was analyzed using standardized Beer’s criteria, adapted for the Chilean population, to define inappropriate medication use...
April 2016: Revista Médica de Chile
Ilka Ute Emmerich
In 2015, four newly developed active pharmaceutical ingredients for horses and food-producing animals were released on the German market for veterinary drug products. These were the bisphosphonate Clodronic Acid (Osphos®), the 5-hydroxytryptamine (2A) receptor antagonist Ketanserin (Vulketan®), the aminoglycoside antibiotic Paromomycin (Parofor®) and the antibiotic Thiamphenicol (TAF Spray®) from the fenicole group. With Chlorphenamine, a temporary not available active ingredient was reapproved in a new drug...
June 16, 2016: Tierärztliche Praxis. Ausgabe G, Grosstiere/Nutztiere
H Yokoyama, K Iinuma
Experimental studies have indicated that the central histaminergic neuron system plays an important role in the inhibition of seizures through stimulation of histamine H1 receptors, especially in the developmental period. This has therapeutic implications for currently available drugs that act at histamine receptors. H1 receptor antagonists, including classical antihistamines and anti-allergy drugs, occasionally induce convulsions in healthy children and patients with epilepsy. In particular, promethazine, carbinoxamine, mepyramine (pyrilamine) and ketotifen should be used with caution in these patients...
May 1996: CNS Drugs
Jiaquan Chen, Yingxiang Du, Fenxia Zhu, Bin Chen, Qi Zhang, Shuaijing Du, Ping Li
It has been reported that chiral dual system is able to improve the enantioseparation of enantiomers in many cases. Currently, the dual systems involved in CE chiral separation are mostly dual CDs systems, and the polysaccharides-based chiral dual system was reported in only one paper. To the best of our knowledge, the use of chondroitin sulfate C (CSC)-based dual system for enantiomeric separation has not been reported previously. Herein, four CSC-based chiral dual systems, namely CSC/glycogen, CSC/chondroitin sulfate A (CSA), CSC/hydroxypropyl-β-CD (HP-β-CD), as well as CSC/β-CD (β-CD), were evaluated for the first time for their enantioseparation capability by CE in this paper...
February 2015: Electrophoresis
Andrew Tabner, Carl McQueen, Susanne Hewitt
A 21-year-old man presented to the emergency department with a 36 h history of a painful, itchy maculopapular rash and associated vesicles to his arms and neck. He had no history of exposure to new chemicals or hygiene products and no significant medical history. His physiological observations were normal and systemic examination was unremarkable. On close inspection the rash was noted to be present only on areas of skin exposed while wearing a polo shirt. On further questioning it transpired that he had been gardening 12 h prior to the development of the rash...
November 19, 2014: BMJ Case Reports
Xiaoyan Zhang, Caixia Li, Zhiyuan Gong
Previously we have developed a transgenic zebrafish line (LiPan) with liver-specific red fluorescent protein (DsRed) expression under the fabp10a promoter. Since red fluorescence in the liver greatly facilitates the observation of liver in live LiPan fry, we envision that the LiPan zebrafish may provide a useful tool in analyses of hepatotoxicity based on changes of liver red fluorescence intensity and size. In this study, we first tested four well-established hepatotoxins (acetaminophen, aspirin, isoniazid and phenylbutazone) in LiPan fry and demonstrated that these hepatotoxins could significantly reduce both liver red fluorescence and liver size in a dosage-dependent manner, thus the two measurable parameters could be used as indicators of hepatotoxicity...
2014: PloS One
Giuseppe Fanetti, Laura A M Ferrari, Filippo Pietrantonio, Roberto Buzzoni
Oxaliplatin, a platinum analogue employed in the treatment of colorectal cancer and various other neoplasms, is characterized by a broad range of adverse events. Peripheral neuropathy is probably the most peculiar and clinically relevant toxicity associated with its use and can be distinguished into two types: acute and chronic neurotoxicity.We report a case of acute reversible bilateral palpebral ptosis and dyspnea without bronchospasm or laryngospasm which occurred at the end of the third administration of adjuvant oxaliplatin by infusion for stage III colon cancer in a 54-year-old woman...
September 2013: Tumori
Paulo Dornelles Picon, Marisa Boff Costa, Rafael da Veiga Picon, Lucia Costa Cabral Fendt, Maurício Leichter Suksteris, Indara Carmanim Saccilotto, Alicia Dorneles Dornelles, Luis Felipe Carissimi Schmidt
BACKGROUND: The common cold and other viral airway infections are highly prevalent in the population, and their treatment often requires the use of medications for symptomatic relief. Paracetamol is as an analgesic and antipyretic; chlorphenamine is an antihistamine; and phenylephrine, a vasoconstrictor and decongestant. This randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial sought to evaluate the efficacy and safety of a fixed-dose combination of paracetamol, chlorphenamine and phenylephrine in the symptomatic treatment of the common cold and flu-like syndrome in adults...
November 22, 2013: BMC Infectious Diseases
Ying Ding, Kai Huang, Lan Chen, Jie Yang, Wen-Yan Xu, Xue-Jiao Xu, Ru Duan, Jing Zhang, Qing He
A sensitive and accurate HPLC-MS/MS method was developed for the simultaneous determination of dextromethorphan, dextrorphan and chlorphenamine in human plasma. Three analytes were extracted from plasma by liquid-liquid extraction using ethyl acetate and separated on a Kromasil 60-5CN column (3 µm, 2.1 × 150 mm) with mobile phase of acetonitrile-water (containing 0.1% formic acid; 50:50, v/v) at a flow rate of 0.2 mL/min. Quantification was performed on a triple quadrupole tandem mass spectrometer in multiple reaction monitoring mode using positive electrospray ionization...
March 2014: Biomedical Chromatography: BMC
R Balasubramaniam, B V S H Benaragama, Shalini Sri Ranganathan
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the price and affordability of key essential medicines for children in Sri Lanka. METHODS: This national survey investigated the prices and affordability of 25 key essential medicines for children in private sector pharmacies using the WHO/Health Action International (HAI) medicine price methodology. Data were collected from a representative sample of 48 private sector pharmacies selected from 8 Provinces using a multistage clustered approach...
April 2014: Indian Journal of Pediatrics
Jian-Guo Jiang, Xi-Ru Zhang, Yi-Hua Zhang, Geng-Shen Song
This paper reports the establishment of a method for rapid identification 15 effective components of anti common cold medicine (paracetamol, aminophenazone, pseudoephedrine hydrochloride, methylephedrine hydrochloride, caffeine, amantadine hydrochloride, phenazone, guaifenesin, chlorphenamine maleate, dextromethorphen hydrobromide, diphenhydramine hydrochloride, promethazine hydrochloride, propyphenazone, benorilate and diclofenac sodium) with MRM by LC-MS/MS. The samples were extracted by methanol and were separated from a Altantis T3 column within 15 min with a gradient of acetonitrile-ammonium acetate (containing 0...
January 2013: Yao Xue Xue Bao, Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica
Lihua Zuo, Heng Meng, Jingjing Wu, Zhen Jiang, Shuying Xu, Xingjie Guo
In this study, the enantioseparation of zopiclone, repaglinide, chlorphenamine maleate, brompheniramine maleate, dioxopromethazine hydrochloride, promethazine hydrochloride, liarozole, carvedilol, homatropine hydrobromide, homatropine methylbromide, venlafaxine, and sibutramine hydrochloride has been investigated using β-CD in combination with a chiral ionic liquid (IL), 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium-L-lactate. The influence of the type of IL and its concentration, BGE pH, and chain length of the IL cations on the resolution are discussed...
February 2013: Journal of Separation Science
Jianmin Bao, Zhishuang Ma, Ying Sun, Yongzun Wang, Youxin Li
A rapid and special supported liquid-liquid extraction (SLE) column was developed with a composite diatomite material. The SLE column was evaluated by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with acidic, neutral and alkaline compounds dissolved in water. Furthermore, some real complex samples were also analyzed by HPLC with the SLE method. The recoveries of benzoic acid (acidic), p-nitroaniline (alkaline) and 4-hydroxy-benzoic methyl ester (neutral) treated by the SLE column were 90.6%, 98.1% and 97.7%...
August 2012: Se Pu, Chinese Journal of Chromatography
Shuang He, Feng Li, Dan Zhou, Junrong Du, Yuan Huang
A novel coated gastric floating drug-delivery system (GFDDS) of bergenin (BN) and cetirizine dihydrochloride (CET) was developed. First, the pharmacodynamic studies were performed and the results revealed that the new compounds of bergenin/cetirizine dihydrochloride had comparative efficacy as commercial products (bergenin/chlorphenamine maleate) but with fewer side effects on central nervous system (CNS). Subsequently, bergenin was formulated as an extended-release core tablet while cetirizine dihydrochloride was incorporated into the gastric coating film for immediate release...
October 2012: Drug Development and Industrial Pharmacy
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