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glyceryl trinitrate

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29061124/dapagliflozin-acutely-improves-endothelial-dysfunction-reduces-aortic-stiffness-and-renal-resistive-index-in-type-2-diabetic-patients-a-pilot-study
#1
Anna Solini, Livia Giannini, Marta Seghieri, Edoardo Vitolo, Stefano Taddei, Lorenzo Ghiadoni, Rosa Maria Bruno
BACKGROUND: Sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 inhibitors reduce blood pressure (BP) and renal and cardiovascular events in patients with type 2 diabetes through not fully elucidated mechanisms. Aim of this study was to investigate whether dapagliflozin is able to acutely modify systemic and renal vascular function, as well as putative mechanisms. METHODS: Neuro-hormonal and vascular variables, together with 24 h diuresis, urinary sodium, glucose, isoprostanes and free-water clearance were assessed before and after a 2-day treatment with dapagliflozin 10 mg QD in sixteen type 2 diabetic patients; data were compared with those obtained in ten patients treated with hydrochlorothiazide 12...
October 23, 2017: Cardiovascular Diabetology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040598/effect-of-metformin-on-vascular-function-in-children-with-type-1-diabetes-a-12-month-randomized-controlled-trial
#2
Jemma J A Anderson, Jennifer J Couper, Lynne C Giles, Catherine E Leggett, Roger Gent, Brian Coppin, Alexia S Peña
Context: Children with type 1 diabetes have vascular dysfunction preceding atherosclerosis. Early interventions are needed to reduce cardiovascular disease. Objective: To evaluate the effect of metformin on vascular function in type 1 diabetes children. Design: 12 month double blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial. Setting: Tertiary pediatric diabetes clinic. Participants: 90 type 1 diabetes children(8-18 years), above 50th percentile body mass index (BMI)...
October 9, 2017: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035982/comparison-of-the-effect-of-5-different-treatment-options-for-managing-patellar-tendinopathy-a-secondary-analysis
#3
Dafne van Rijn, Inge van den Akker-Scheek, Mirjam Steunebrink, Ron L Diercks, Johannes Zwerver, Henk van der Worp
OBJECTIVE: Currently, no treatments exist for patellar tendinopathy (PT) that guarantee quick and full recovery. Our objective was to assess which treatment option provides the best chance of clinical improvement and to assess the influence of patient and injury characteristics on the clinical effect of these treatments. DESIGN: A secondary analysis was performed on the combined databases of 3 previously performed double-blind randomized controlled trials. PATIENTS: In total, 138 patients with PT were included in the analysis...
October 10, 2017: Clinical Journal of Sport Medicine: Official Journal of the Canadian Academy of Sport Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928192/a-pragmatic-group-sequential-placebo-controlled-randomised-trial-to-determine-the-effectiveness-of-glyceryl-trinitrate-for-retained-placenta-got-it-a-study-protocol
#4
Fiona C Denison, John Norrie, Julia Lawton, Jane E Norman, Graham Scotland, Gladys C McPherson, Alison McDonald, Mark Forrest, Jemma Hudson, Jane Brewin, Mathilde Peace, Cynthia Clarkson, Sheonagh Brook-Smith, Susan Morrow, Nina Hallowell, Laura Hodges, Kathryn F Carruthers
INTRODUCTION: A retained placenta is diagnosed when the placenta is not delivered following delivery of the baby. It is a major cause of postpartum haemorrhage and treated by the operative procedure of manual removal of placenta (MROP). METHODS AND ANALYSIS: The aim of this pragmatic, randomised, placebo-controlled, double-blind UK-wide trial, with an internal pilot and nested qualitative research to adjust strategies to refine delivery of the main trial, is to determine whether sublingual glyceryl trinitrate (GTN) is (or is not) clinically and cost-effective for (medical) management of retained placenta...
September 18, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28905197/systemic-glyceryl-trinitrate-reduces-anal-sphincter-tone-is-there-a-therapeutic-indication
#5
C Connolly, S Tierney, P Grace
BACKGROUND: Nitric oxide (NO) has diverse roles as a biological messenger. [1] Topically applied nitrate donors cause relaxation of the internal anal sphincter (IAS) and facilitate healing of anal fissures [2,3]. Systemic nitrates are commonly used for the treatment of ischaemic heart disease, yet the effects of systemically administered nitrates on the smooth muscle of the IAS are unknown. AIM: Our aim was to test the hypothesis that systemically administered nitrates at a normal dose, cause inhibition of anal sphincter activity...
September 13, 2017: Irish Journal of Medical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28901662/acute-hypoxemia-and-vascular-function-in-healthy-humans
#6
N C S Lewis, A R Bain, K W Wildfong, D J Green, P N Ainslie
Endothelium-dependent flow mediated dilation (FMD) and endothelium-independent dilation (GTN) are impaired at high altitude (5050 m), and FMD is impaired following acute exposure (<60-minutes) to normobaric hypoxia equivalent to ∼5050 m (∼FI O2  = 0.11). Whether glyceryl trinitrate (GTN)-induced dilation is impaired acutely, and whether FMD is impaired during milder hypoxia is unknown. Therefore, we assessed brachial FMD at baseline and following 30-minutes of mild (74 ± 2 mmHg PET O₂) and moderate (50 ± 3 mmHg PET O₂) normobaric hypoxia (n = 12) or normoxia (time-control trial; n = 10)...
September 13, 2017: Experimental Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28856479/calcitonin-gene-related-peptide-antagonism-and-cluster-headache-an-emerging-new-treatment
#7
REVIEW
Håkan Ashina, Lawrence Newman, Sait Ashina
Calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) is a key signaling molecule involved in migraine pathophysiology. Efficacy of CGRP monoclonal antibodies and antagonists in migraine treatment has fueled an increasing interest in the prospect of treating cluster headache (CH) with CGRP antagonism. The exact role of CGRP and its mechanism of action in CH have not been fully clarified. A search for original studies and randomized controlled trials (RCTs) published in English was performed in PubMed and in ClinicalTrials...
August 30, 2017: Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806532/the-impact-of-an-acute-oral-phosphate-load-on-endothelium-dependent-and-independent-brachial-artery-vasodilation-in-healthy-males
#8
Brendan M Levac, Michael A Adams, Kyra E Pyke
Serum phosphate levels are associated with cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in the general population and endothelial dysfunction may be mechanistically involved. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of acute phosphate supplementation on endothelial-dependent (flow-mediated dilation; FMD) and -independent (glyceryl trinitrate; GTN)) vasodilation in young, healthy males. Seventeen healthy male participants (age, 23 ± 3 years) were exposed to an oral load of phosphate (PHOS; liquid supplement containing 1200 mg of phosphorous) and placebo (PLAC) over 2 experimental days...
August 14, 2017: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800981/near-infrared-spectroscopy-in-adult-cardiac-surgery-patients-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#9
Matthew J Chan, Tricia Chung, Neil J Glassford, Rinaldo Bellomo
OBJECTIVES: To identify the normal baseline preoperative range of cerebral tissue oxygen saturation (SctO2) derived using near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) and the efficacy of perioperative interventions designed to modulate SctO2 in cardiac surgical patients. DESIGN: Systematic review and meta-analysis of relevant randomized controlled trials (RCTs) extracted from the Medline, Embase, and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials databases. SETTING: Hospitals performing cardiac surgery...
August 2017: Journal of Cardiothoracic and Vascular Anesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28795245/a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-the-treatment-of-anal-fissure
#10
REVIEW
R L Nelson, D Manuel, C Gumienny, B Spencer, K Patel, K Schmitt, D Castillo, A Bravo, A Yeboah-Sampong
BACKGROUND: Anal fissure has a very large number of treatment options. The choice is difficult. In an effort to assist in that, choice presented here is a systematic review and meta-analysis of all published treatments for anal fissure that have been studied in randomized controlled trials. METHODS: Randomized trials were sought in the Cochrane Controlled Trials Register, Medline, EMBASE and the trials registry sites clinicaltrials.gov and who/int/ictrp/search/en...
August 2017: Techniques in Coloproctology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28791398/pi3k-akt-signaling-pathway-activation-in-a-rat-model-of-migraine
#11
Yun-Yong Liu, Zi-Yao Jiao, Wei Li, Qian Tian
The present study aimed to investigate phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate 3‑kinase (PI3K)/protein kinase B (AKT) signaling pathway activation in a rat model of migraine. A total of 60 male Sprague‑Dawley rats were randomly divided into three groups: Blank control; suspension control; and migraine model. The model group was subcutaneously injected with a glyceryl trinitrate suspension, using an optimized Tassorelli method to establish a rat model of migraine. The activation status of the PI3K/AKT signaling pathway was assessed via measurement of the phosphorylated (p)‑AKT level...
October 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28770403/route-of-feeding-as-a-proxy-for-dysphagia-after-stroke-and-the-effect-of-transdermal-glyceryl-trinitrate-data-from-the-efficacy-of-nitric-oxide-in-stroke-randomised-controlled-trial
#12
Lisa J Woodhouse, Polly Scutt, Shaheen Hamdy, David G Smithard, David L Cohen, Christine Roffe, Daniel Bereczki, Eivind Berge, Christopher F Bladin, Valeria Caso, Hanne K Christensen, Rónán Collins, Anna Czlonkowska, Asita de Silva, Anwar Etribi, Ann-Charlotte Laska, George Ntaios, Serefnur Ozturk, Stephen J Phillips, Kameshwar Prasad, Szabolcs Szatmari, Nikola Sprigg, Philip M Bath
Post-stroke dysphagia is common, associated with poor outcome and often requires non-oral feeding/fluids. The relationship between route of feeding and outcome, as well as treatment with glyceryl trinitrate (GTN), was studied prospectively. The Efficacy of Nitric Oxide in Stroke (ENOS) trial assessed transdermal GTN (5 mg versus none for 7 days) in 4011 patients with acute stroke and high blood pressure. Feeding route (oral = normal or soft diet; non-oral = nasogastric tube, percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy tube, parenteral fluids, no fluids) was assessed at baseline and day 7...
August 2, 2017: Translational Stroke Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28762896/ambulance-delivered-transdermal-glyceryl-trinitrate-versus-sham-for-ultra-acute-stroke-rationale-design-and-protocol-for-the-rapid-intervention-with-glyceryl-trinitrate-in-hypertensive-stroke-trial-2-right-2-trial-isrctn26986053
#13
Jason P Appleton, Polly Scutt, Mark Dixon, Harriet Howard, Lee Haywood, Diane Havard, Trish Hepburn, Tim England, Nikola Sprigg, Lisa J Woodhouse, Joanna M Wardlaw, Alan A Montgomery, Stuart Pocock, Philip M Bath
Rationale Vascular nitric oxide levels are low in acute stroke and donors such as glyceryl trinitrate have shown promise when administered very early after stroke. Potential mechanisms of action include augmentation of cerebral reperfusion, thrombolysis and thrombectomy, lowering blood pressure, and cytoprotection. Aim To test the safety and efficacy of four days of transdermal glyceryl trinitrate (5 mg/day) versus sham in patients with ultra-acute presumed stroke who are recruited by paramedics prior to hospital presentation...
January 1, 2017: International Journal of Stroke: Official Journal of the International Stroke Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28738691/selective-cephalic-upregulation-of-p-erk-camkii-and-p-creb-in-response-to-glyceryl-trinitrate-infusion
#14
Roshni Ramachandran, Sara Hougaard Pedersen, Dipak Vasantrao Amrutkar, Steffen Petersen, Julie Mie Jacobsen, Anders Hay-Schmidt, Jes Olesen, Inger Jansen-Olesen
Background A common characteristic of migraine-inducing substances is that they cause headache and no pain in other areas of the body. Few studies have compared pain mechanisms in the trigeminal and spinal systems and, so far, no major differences have been noted. We compared signalling molecules in the trigeminal and spinothalamic system after infusion of the migraine-provoking substance glyceryltrinitrate. Method A catheter was placed in the femoral vein of rats and one week later glyceryltrinitrate 4 µg/kg/min was infused for 20 min...
January 1, 2017: Cephalalgia: An International Journal of Headache
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727703/intrathecal-morphine-improves-hemodynamic-parameters-and-analgesia-in-patients-undergoing-aortic-valve-replacement-surgery-a-prospective-double-blind-randomized-trial
#15
Hamed Elgendy, Hatem A R Helmy
BACKGROUND: Intrathecal morphine (ITM) has been used in hopes of providing good postoperative analgesia in cardiac surgery. Little is known about its use in isolated aortic valve replacement surgery. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effects of 7 µ/kg ITM administration in aortic valve replacement in regards to hemodynamics, pain score, and postoperative complications when compared to general anesthesia alone. STUDY DESIGN: A randomized, double-blind trial...
July 2017: Pain Physician
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718248/outcome-of-0-2-glyceryltrinitrate-cream-versus-2-diltiazem-cream-in-the-treatment-of-chronic-anal-fissure
#16
Muhammad Siddique Khan, Ismail Akbar, Junaid Zeb, Salman Ahmad, Ajmal Khan
BACKGROUND: Anal fissure is a linear tear in the distal anal canal resulting from persistent hypertonia and spasm of the internal sphincter which results in mucosal ischemia. We have conducted a study in order to compare the outcome of 0.2% glyceryl trinitrate cream versus 2% diltiazem cream in the treatment of chronic anal fissure. METHODS: This randomized controlled trial (RCT) was carried out in the Department of Surgical "B" unit, at Ayub Teaching Hospital, Abbottabad, Pakistan from 15th June 2012 to 15th May 2015...
April 2017: Journal of Ayub Medical College, Abbottabad: JAMC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629768/does-the-duration-of-symptoms-of-anal-fissure-impact-its-response-to-conservative-treatment-a-prospective-cohort-study
#17
Sameh Hany Emile, Hesham Elgendy, Hossam Elfeki, Alaa Magdy, Ahmed Aly Abdelmawla, Mahmoud Abdelnaby, Wael Khafagy
BACKGROUND: Conservative treatment is the first line of treatment for anal fissure. The current study aimed to evaluate the impact of symptom duration on the response of anal fissure to conservative treatment. PATIENTS AND METHODS: This prospective study was conducted on sixty patients with acute or chronic anal fissure who were treated conservatively with bulking agents, Sitz baths, and topical glyceryl trinitrate (GTN) 0.2%. Pain and constipation were assessed prior to treatment and at 6 weeks after therapy using visual analogue scale (VAS) and Wexner constipation score...
June 16, 2017: International Journal of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28598453/effectiveness-of-0-2-glyceryl-trinitrate-and-0-5-nifedipine-in-the-treatment-of-chronic-anal-fissure
#18
S K Shrestha, P B Thapa, D K Maharjan, T Y Tamang
INTRODUCTION: Anal fissure is an ischemic ulcer caused by combination of spasm of internal anal sphincter and poor blood supply to the posterior midline of anal canal. This study aimed to assess the efficacy of Glyceryl Trinitrate and Nifedipine in the treatment of chronic anal fissure. METHODS: Ninety patients with symptomatic anal fissure in Kathmandu Medical College Teaching Hospital are allocated for study in two groups of 45 each from March 2013 to April 2014...
January 2017: JNMA; Journal of the Nepal Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28588970/modifying-the-interagency-emergency-health-kit-to-include-treatment-for-non-communicable-diseases-in-natural-disasters-and-complex-emergencies
#19
Marcello Tonelli, Natasha Wiebe, Brian Nadler, Ara Darzi, Shahnawaz Rasheed
The Interagency Emergency Health Kit (IEHK) provides a standard package of medicines and simple medical devices for aid agencies to use in emergencies such as disasters and armed conflicts. Despite the increasing burden of non-communicable diseases (NCDs) in such settings, the IEHK includes few drugs and devices for management of NCDs. Using published data to model the population burden of acute and chronic presentations of NCDs in emergency-prone regions, we estimated the quantity of medications and devices that should be included in the IEHK...
November 2016: BMJ Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28578274/synthesis-and-characterization-of-a-novel-organic-nitrate-ndhp-role-of-xanthine-oxidoreductase-mediated-nitric-oxide-formation
#20
Zhengbing Zhuge, Luciano L Paulo, Arghavan Jahandideh, Maria C R Brandão, Petrônio F Athayde-Filho, Jon O Lundberg, Valdir A Braga, Mattias Carlström, Marcelo F Montenegro
In this report, we describe the synthesis and characterization of 1,3-bis(hexyloxy)propan-2-yl nitrate (NDHP), a novel organic mono nitrate. Using purified xanthine oxidoreductase (XOR), chemiluminescence and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy, we found that XOR catalyzes nitric oxide (NO) generation from NDHP under anaerobic conditions, and that thiols are not involved or required in this process. Further mechanistic studies revealed that NDHP could be reduced to NO at both the FAD and the molybdenum sites of XOR, but that the FAD site required an unoccupied molybdenum site...
May 26, 2017: Redox Biology
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