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glyceryl trinitrate

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899434/development-of-cgrp-dependent-pain-and-headache-related-behaviours-in-a-rat-model-of-concussion-implications-for-mechanisms-of-post-traumatic-headache
#1
Dara Bree, Dan Levy
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Posttraumatic headache (PTH) is one of the most common, debilitating and difficult symptoms to manage after a mild traumatic brain injury, or concussion. However, the mechanisms underlying PTH remain elusive, in part due to the lack of a clinically relevant animal model. Here, we characterized for the first time, headache and pain-related behaviours in a rat model of concussion evoked by a mild closed head injury (mCHI) - the major type of military and civilian related trauma associated with PTH - and tested responses to current and novel headache therapies...
November 29, 2016: Cephalalgia: An International Journal of Headache
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893465/accelerated-resolution-of-inflammation-underlies-sex-differences-in-inflammatory-responses-in-humans
#2
Krishnaraj S Rathod, Vikas Kapil, Shanti Velmurugan, Rayomand S Khambata, Umme Siddique, Saima Khan, Sven Van Eijl, Lorna C Gee, Jascharanpreet Bansal, Kavi Pitrola, Christopher Shaw, Fulvio D'Acquisto, Romain A Colas, Federica Marelli-Berg, Jesmond Dalli, Amrita Ahluwalia
BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular disease occurs at lower incidence in premenopausal females compared with age-matched males. This variation may be linked to sex differences in inflammation. We prospectively investigated whether inflammation and components of the inflammatory response are altered in females compared with males. METHODS: We performed 2 clinical studies in healthy volunteers. In 12 men and 12 women, we assessed systemic inflammatory markers and vascular function using brachial artery flow-mediated dilation (FMD)...
November 28, 2016: Journal of Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885499/the-effects-of-alpha-1-adrenoceptor-blockade-and-angiotensin-converting-enzyme-inhibition-on-central-and-brachial-blood-pressure-and-vascular-reactivity-the-doxazosin-ramipril-study
#3
Andreas Jekell, Majid Kalani, Thomas Kahan
We aimed to study whether inhibition of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system has effects on vascular structure and function beyond the effects on blood pressure reduction alone. Patients with mild-to-moderate hypertension (n = 61, age 54 ± 12 years, 34% women) received the angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor ramipril 10 mg or the alpha 1-adrenoceptor blocker doxazosin 8 mg double-blind for 12 weeks. Aortic blood pressure, pulse wave velocity, and augmentation index were assessed by applanation tonometry...
November 24, 2016: Heart and Vessels
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27873224/therapeutic-potential-of-transdermal-glyceryl-trinitrate-in-the-management-of-acute-stroke
#4
Jason P Appleton, Nikola Sprigg, Philip M Bath
The nitric oxide donor, glyceryl trinitrate (GTN), is a candidate treatment for the management of acute stroke with haemodynamic and potential reperfusion and neuroprotective effects. When administered as a transdermal patch during the acute and subacute phases after stroke, GTN was safe, lowered blood pressure, maintained cerebral blood flow, and did not induce cerebral steal or alter functional outcome. However, when given within 6 h of stroke onset, GTN reduced death and dependency (odds ratio 0.52; 95% confidence interval 0...
November 21, 2016: CNS Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27866934/pharmacodynamic-action-and-mechanism-of-du-liang-soft-capsule-a-traditional-chinese-medicine-capsule-on-treating-nitroglycerin-induced-migraine
#5
Min Hou, Qing Tang, Qiang Xue, Xiaona Zhang, Yang Liu, Sheng Yang, Liechun Chen, Xiaoyu Xu
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Du Liang soft capsule (DL) is a traditional Chinese medicine for treating migraines; it is made from two Chinese herbs, including LigusticumstriatumDC., root; Angelica dahurica (Hoffm.) Benth. & Hook.f. ex Franch. & Sav., root. AIM OF THE STUDY: In the present study, we aimed to elucidate the pharmacodynamic action of DL and its mechanism in an animal model of migraines induced by glyceryl trinitrate (GTN). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Sixty rats were randomly divided into six groups, including a normal control group, model control group, positive group (Sumatriptan 0...
November 17, 2016: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27802359/antihypertensive-withdrawal-for-the-prevention-of-cognitive-decline
#6
REVIEW
Susan Jongstra, Jennifer K Harrison, Terry J Quinn, Edo Richard
BACKGROUND: Clinical trials and observational data have variously shown a protective, harmful or neutral effect of antihypertensives on cognitive function. In theory, withdrawal of antihypertensives could improve cerebral perfusion and reduce or delay cognitive decline. However, it is also plausible that withdrawal of antihypertensives may have a detrimental effect on cognition through increased incidence of stroke or other vascular events. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of complete withdrawal of at least one antihypertensive medication on incidence of dementia, cognitive function, blood pressure and other safety outcomes in cognitively intact and cognitive impaired adults...
November 1, 2016: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27770405/pharmacology-of-reflex-blinks-in-the-rat-a-novel-model-for-headache-research
#7
M G Jones, A P Andreou, S B McMahon, D Spanswick
BACKGROUND: Migraineurs are highly sensitive to the nitric oxide donor glyceryl trinitrate which triggers attacks in many sufferers. In animal studies, glyceryl trinitrate increases neuronal activity in the trigeminovascular pathway and elevates neurotransmitter levels in the brainstem. Many migraineurs also display alterations in blink reflexes, known to involve brainstem circuits. We investigated the effect of GTN on evoked blinks in the anaesthetised rat to determine whether such reflexes may prove useful as the basis for a novel animal model to evaluate potential anti-migraine therapeutic agents...
December 2016: Journal of Headache and Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27766395/evidence-based-management-of-pain-after-excisional-haemorrhoidectomy-surgery-a-prospect-review-update
#8
Tarik Sammour, Ahmed W H Barazanchi, Andrew G Hill
BACKGROUND: The aim of this systematic review was to update previous PROSPECT ( http://www.postoppain.org ) review recommendations for the management of pain after excisional haemorrhoidectomy. METHODS: Randomized studies and reviews published in the English language from July 2006 (end date of last review) to March 2016, assessing analgesic, anaesthetic, and operative interventions pertaining to excisional haemorrhoidectomy in adults, and reporting pain scores, were retrieved from the EMBASE and MEDLINE databases...
October 20, 2016: World Journal of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27758841/hepatoprotective-potential-of-glyceryl-trinitrate-against-chemically-induced-oxidative-stress-and-hepatic-injury-in-rats
#9
A Rahman, S M Vasenwala, M Iqbal
Glyceryl trinitrate (GTN) has been used widely as a potent vasodilator to treat heart conditions, such as angina pectoris and chronic heart failure. This study aims to elucidate the effect of exogenous nitric oxide (NO) administration, using GTN, on carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced oxidative stress and liver injury in rats. The results obtained demonstrated that NO generated by the administration of GTN affords protection against CCl4-induced oxidative stress and liver injury. Administration of CCl4 resulted in a significant (p < 0...
October 10, 2016: Human & Experimental Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27754209/os-31-01-blood-pressure-initial-orthostatic-hypotension-glyceryl-trinitrate-and-the-glu504lys-polymorphism-of-aldehyde-dehyrogenase-2
#10
Stephen Harrap, Angela Lamantia, James Ziogas, Jane Bourke
OBJECTIVE: Glyceryl trinitrate (GTN) is used to treat angina and lower blood pressure. The enzyme mitochondrial aldehyde dehydrogenase-2 (ALDH2) can activate GTN. The polymorphism (Gly504Lys) in the gene encoding ALDH2 is associated with significantly reduced enzyme activity and potentially diminished responses to GTN. DESIGN AND METHOD: Systolic blood pressure (SBP) was measured continuously (Finometer Midi) during 2 orthostatic challenges in 493 healthy young adults (mean age 22 y), 390 of whom took 300 μg GTN sublingually 5 min prior to the second challenge and 103 subjects of whom were untreated...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27731913/effect-of-nitroglycerin-on-the-performance-of-mr-coronary-angiography
#11
Tobias Heer, Stephanie Reiter, Markus Trißler, Berthold Höfling, Florian von Knobelsdorff-Brenkenhoff, Günter Pilz
PURPOSE: To systematically investigate the effect of sublingual glyceryl trinitrate (nitroglycerin=nitro=glyceryl trinitrate=GTN=C3 H5 N3 O9 [NTG]) on the diagnostic performance of MR coronary artery imaging (MRCA) to detect relevant coronary artery disease (CAD). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Thirty-five healthy volunteers and 25 patients with suspected or proven CAD (all in sinus rhythm) underwent MRCA before and after NTG using a contrast-agent free, three-dimensional, navigator-based, steady state free precession acquisition (voxel size 1...
October 12, 2016: Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging: JMRI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27731532/a-longitudinal-study-of-vascular-structure-and-function-during-normal-pregnancy
#12
Charlotte Iacobaeus, Ellika Andolf, Malin Thorsell, Katarina Bremme, Gun JÖrneskog, Eva Östlund, Thomas Kahan
OBJECTIVE: To examine alterations in maternal vascular structure and function during normal pregnancy. METHODS: We assessed brachial and central blood pressure, pulse wave velocity and augmentation index (by pulse wave analysis and applanation tonometry), common carotid artery structure (by ultrasonography), and endothelial function in the brachial artery (by post-ischemic hyperemia induced flow mediated vasodilation and glyceryl nitrate) and in the forearm skin microcirculation (by laser Doppler perfusion imaging during iontophoretic administration of acetylcholine and sodium nitroprusside) in 52 healthy primiparous women at 14, 24 and 34 weeks of gestation, and nine months post partum...
October 12, 2016: Ultrasound in Obstetrics & Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27730081/relationship-of-levels-of-vitamin-d-with-flow-mediated-dilatation-of-brachial-artery-in-patients-of-myocardial-infarction-and-healthy-control-a-case-control-study
#13
Sarthak Malik, Subhash Giri, S V Madhu, Vinita Rathi, B D Banerjee, Nikhil Gupta
BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) remain the leading cause of death worldwide. Vitamin D deficiency has been linked to increased risk of adverse CV events. Vitamin D deficiency may be responsible for endothelial dysfunction which in turn affects the onset and progression of coronary artery disease and its risk factors, directly or indirectly through various mechanisms. MATERIALS AND METHODS: It was case-control study. A total of 50 cases of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) (aged 40-60 years), admitted to medicine emergency/CCU, were taken as per ACC/AHA 2007 guidelines...
September 2016: Indian Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27680783/a2-a-longitudinal-study-of-endothelial-function-during-normal-pregnancy
#14
Charlotte Iacobaeus, Ellika Andolf, Katarina Bremme, Gun Jörneskog, Eva Östlund, Malin Thorsell, Thomas Khan
AIM: This study aimed to examine alterations in maternal endothelial function during normal pregnancy. METHODS: We assessed endothelial function in the brachial artery (by post-ischemic hyperemia-induced flow-mediated vasodilation and glyceryl nitrate) and in the forearm skin microcirculation (by laser Doppler perfusion imaging and iontophoretic administration of acetylcholine (Ach) and sodium nitroprusside (SNP)) in 53 healthy primiparous women at 14, 24 and 34 weeks of gestation, and nine months post-partum (non-pregnant state)...
August 2016: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27643166/os-31-01-blood-pressure-initial-orthostatic-hypotension-glyceryl-trinitrate-and-the-glu504lys-polymorphism-of-aldehyde-dehyrogenase-2
#15
Stephen Harrap, Angela Lamantia, James Ziogas, Jane Bourke
OBJECTIVE: Glyceryl trinitrate (GTN) is used to treat angina and lower blood pressure. The enzyme mitochondrial aldehyde dehydrogenase-2 (ALDH2) can activate GTN. The polymorphism (Gly504Lys) in the gene encoding ALDH2 is associated with significantly reduced enzyme activity and potentially diminished responses to GTN. DESIGN AND METHOD: Systolic blood pressure (SBP) was measured continuously (Finometer Midi) during 2 orthostatic challenges in 493 healthy young adults (mean age 22 y), 390 of whom took 300 μg GTN sublingually 5 min prior to the second challenge and 103 subjects of whom were untreated...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27594866/self-management-of-coronary-heart-disease-in-older-patients-after-elective-percutaneous-transluminal-coronary-angioplasty
#16
Susan Dawkes, Graeme D Smith, Lawrie Elliott, Robert Raeside, Jayne H Donaldson
OBJECTIVE: To explore how older patients self-manage their coronary heart disease (CHD) after undergoing elective percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA). METHODS: This mixed methods study used a sequential, explanatory design and recruited a convenience sample of patients (n = 93) approximately three months after elective PTCA. The study was conducted in two phases. Quantitative data collected in Phase 1 by means of a self-administered survey were subject to univariate and bivariate analysis...
July 2016: Journal of Geriatric Cardiology: JGC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27508642/-op-2d-07-the-effects-of-alpha-1-adrenoceptor-blockade-by-doxazosin-or-ace-inhibition-by-ramipril-on-endothelial-function-in-primary-hypertension-the-dora-study
#17
A Jekell, M Kalani, T Kahan
OBJECTIVE: To study whether reducing noradrenergic sympathetic vascular tone by doxazosin or blocking the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system by ramipril will alter endothelial function in patients with uncomplicated hypertension. DESIGN AND METHOD: Mild-to-moderate hypertensive patients (age 54 ± 12 years, 34% women, blood pressure (BP) 148 ± 11/88 ± 9 mmHg) were randomized double-blind to ramipril (10 mg od, n = 33) or doxazosin (8 mg od, n = 28) for 12 weeks...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27470183/randomized-clinical-trial-of-the-use-of-glyceryl-trinitrate-patches-to-aid-arteriovenous-fistula-maturation
#18
M Field, D McGrogan, Y Marie, M Joinson, C Andujar, M Dutton, H Krishnan, J Hodson, D van Dellen, N G Inston
BACKGROUND: Arteriovenous fistulas are critical for haemodialysis, but maturation rates remain poor. Experimental and anecdotal evidence has supported the use of transdermal glyceryl trinitrate (GTN) patches. The aim of this RCT was to determine whether use of a GTN patch aids arteriovenous fistula maturation. METHODS: Patients referred for arteriovenous fistula formation were eligible. The GTN or placebo patch was applied immediately after surgery and left in situ for 24 h...
September 2016: British Journal of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27468988/increased-vascular-enos-and-cystathionine-%C3%AE-lyase-protein-after-6%C3%A2-weeks-oral-administration-of-3-5-7-3-4-pentamethoxyflavone-to-middle-aged-male-rats
#19
Somruedee Yorsin, Kanyanatt Kanokwiroon, Nisaudah Radenahmad, Chaweewan Jansakul
Effects of treatment of middle-aged male rats with 3, 5, 7, 3', 4'-pentamethoxyflavone (PMF) on vascular and perivascular adipose tissue (PVAT) functions and blood chemistry were investigated. Rats received PMF (22 mg/kg), orally or vehicle, twice a day for 6 weeks. The PMF-treated rats had lower serum glucose, higher HDL-C levels, but no change in other parameters. Thoracic aortic and mesenteric rings of PMF treated rats produced lower maximal contraction to phenylephrine that was normalized by N(G)-nitro-L-arginine (L-NA) or endothelial removal...
November 2016: Naunyn-Schmiedeberg's Archives of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27450157/spontaneous-vs-nitroglycerin-induced-vasovagal-reflex-on-head-up-tilt-are-there-neuroendocrine-differences
#20
David Nilsson, Richard Sutton, Olle Melander, Artur Fedorowski
BACKGROUND: Head-up tilt test (HUT) has been used for nearly 30 years for diagnosing vasovagal syncope (VVS) and was enhanced by sublingual nitroglycerin (glyceryl trinitrate [GTN]) challenge in the 1990s. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to explore neuroendocrine differences between spontaneous and drug-induced HUT positivity. METHODS: Two hundred eighty-eight patients (41.3% male, age 49 ± 21 years) with either positive passive (n = 60 [20...
August 2016: Heart Rhythm: the Official Journal of the Heart Rhythm Society
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