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glyceryl trinitrate

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441692/physiological-role-of-endothelin-1-in-flow-mediated-vasodilatation-in-humans-and-impact-of-cardiovascular-risk-factors
#1
Jérémy Bellien, Michèle Iacob, Christelle Monteil, Isabelle Rémy-Jouet, Clothilde Roche, Thomas Duflot, Cathy Vendeville, Laurence Gutierrez, Christian Thuillez, Vincent Richard, Robinson Joannidès
OBJECTIVES: The current study addressed the hypothesis that the local decrease in endothelin-1 (ET-1) bioavailability during sustained flow increases contributes to endothelium-dependent, flow-mediated dilatation (FMD) of conduit arteries and is altered in presence of cardiovascular risk factors. METHODS AND RESULTS: In nine young healthy individuals, the decrease in local ET-1 plasma levels and radial artery FMD in response to hand skin heating (from 34 to 44 °C) was not affected by endothelin type A (ETA) receptor blockade, achieved using the brachial infusion of BQ-123 (100 nmol/min per l of forearm), as compared with physiological saline (0...
June 2017: Journal of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429459/nitric-oxide-donors-nitrates-l-arginine-or-nitric-oxide-synthase-inhibitors-for-acute-stroke
#2
REVIEW
Philip Mw Bath, Kailash Krishnan, Jason P Appleton
BACKGROUND: Nitric oxide (NO) has multiple effects that may be beneficial in acute stroke, including lowering blood pressure, and promoting reperfusion and cytoprotection. Some forms of nitric oxide synthase inhibition (NOS-I) may also be beneficial. However, high concentrations of NO are likely to be toxic to brain tissue. This is an update of a Cochrane review first published in 1998, and last updated in 2002. OBJECTIVES: To assess the safety and efficacy of NO donors, L-arginine, and NOS-I in people with acute stroke...
April 21, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424793/a-model-based-meta-analysis-evaluating-gender-differences-on-blood-flow-responses-to-brachial-artery-infusions-of-acetylcholine-albuterol-atp-bradykinin-estradiol-glyceryl-trinitrate-l-nmma-nevibolol-norepinephrine-sodium-nitroprusside-substance-p-and-verapamil
#3
Andy R Eugene
INTRODUCTION: Numerous studies have emerged over the course of several decades describing the properties of drugs eliciting vasodilatory or vasoconstrictor responses in the human vasculature. During drug development, decisions to move forward with testing with a new chemical entity are very costly. To fund or not to fund development, go or no-go, decisions are often limited by efficacy comparisons with the current products on the market. The primary aim of this paper is to use dose-response modeling and simulations to quantify differences in blood flow to Acetylcholine, Albuterol, ATP, Bradykinin, 17β-Estradiol, Glyceryl Trinitrate, L-NMMA, Nevibolol, Norepinephrine, Sodium Nitroprusside, Substance P, and Verapamil...
June 2016: MEDtube Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28423052/inflammation-induced-fetal-growth-restriction-in-rats-is-associated-with-increased-placental-hif-1%C3%AE-accumulation
#4
Kevin P Robb, Tiziana Cotechini, Camille Allaire, Arissa Sperou, Charles H Graham
INTRODUCTION: Hypoxia-inducible factor 1-alpha (HIF-1α) is the oxygen-sensitive subunit of the transcription factor HIF-1, and its expression is increased in placentas from pregnancies complicated by pre-eclampsia (PE). Fetal growth restriction (FGR) and PE often share a common pathophysiology; however, it is unknown whether increased placental HIF-1α occurs in FGR. We previously demonstrated that aberrant maternal inflammation in rats resulted in altered utero-placental perfusion and FGR, both of which were prevented by administration of the nitric oxide mimetic glyceryl trinitrate (GTN)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28377719/serelaxin-treatment-reduces-oxidative-stress-and-increases-aldehyde-dehydrogenase-2-to-attenuate-nitrate-tolerance
#5
Chen Huei Leo, Dhanushke T Fernando, Lillie Tran, Hooi Hooi Ng, Sarah A Marshall, Laura J Parry
Background: Glyceryl trinitrate (GTN) is a commonly prescribed treatment for acute heart failure patients. However, prolonged GTN treatment induces tolerance, largely due to increased oxidative stress and reduced aldehyde dehydrogenase-2 (ALDH-2) expression. Serelaxin has several vasoprotective properties, which include reducing oxidative stress and augmenting endothelial function. We therefore tested the hypothesis in rodents that serelaxin treatment could attenuate low-dose GTN-induced tolerance. Methods and Results: Co-incubation of mouse aortic rings ex vivo with GTN (10 μM) and serelaxin (10 nM) for 1 h, restored GTN responses, suggesting that serelaxin prevented the development of GTN tolerance...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28194398/sphincter-of-oddi-function-and-risk-factors-for-dysfunction
#6
REVIEW
Elham Afghani, Simon K Lo, Paul S Covington, Brooks D Cash, Stephen J Pandol
The sphincter of Oddi (SO) is a smooth muscle valve regulating the flow of biliary and pancreatic secretions into the duodenum, initially described in 1887 by the Italian anatomist, Ruggero Oddi. SO dysfunction (SOD) is a broad term referring to numerous biliary, pancreatic, and hepatic disorders resulting from spasms, strictures, and relaxation of this valve at inappropriate times. This review brings attention to various factors that may increase the risk of SOD, including but not limited to: cholecystectomy, opiates, and alcohol...
2017: Frontiers in Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28183353/endothelial-injury-in-rheumatoid-arthritis-a-crosstalk-between-dimethylarginines-and-systemic-inflammation
#7
Theodoros Dimitroulas, James Hodson, Aamer Sandoo, Jacqueline Smith, George D Kitas
BACKGROUND: Symmetric (SDMA) and asymmetric (ADMA) dimethylarginines have emerged as novel biomarkers of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in several disease settings associated with atherosclerosis. Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic systemic inflammatory disease characterized by high CVD mortality and morbidity. ADMA and SDMA levels are abnormal in RA patients, but their correlation with assessments of endothelial function and structure remains unknown. We aimed to investigate whether SDMA and ADMA are associated with carotid intima media thickness (cIMT) and arterial stiffness as well as non-invasive assessments of in vivo micro- and macrovascular endothelial function in RA patients with high systemic inflammatory load...
February 10, 2017: Arthritis Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28110628/sublingual-glyceryl-trinitrate-during-colonoscopy-and-terminal-ileal-intubation-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#8
Patsy-Anne Hill, Sofoklis Panteleimonitis, Graham McKay, Carol Watson, Andre Prach, Angus Macdonald
Background and aims Sublingual glyceryl trinitrate has been used as an aid to cannulate the Sphincter of Oddi during endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography. Its role in terminal ileal intubation during colonoscopy is unknown. This study examines the role of sublingual glyceryl trinitrate in terminal ileal intubation during colonoscopy. Methods A triple-blind randomized controlled trial comparing sublingual glyceryl trinitrate (800 µg) vs. placebo (saline) in relation to terminal ileal intubation during colonoscopy was performed...
January 1, 2017: Scottish Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28031354/intra-arterial-nitroglycerin-as-directed-acute-treatment-in-experimental-ischemic-stroke
#9
Michael E Maniskas, Jill M Roberts, Rebecca Trueman, Annastazia E Learoyd, Amanda Gorman, Justin F Fraser, Gregory J Bix
BACKGROUND: Nitroglycerin (also known as glyceryl trinitrate (GTN)), a vasodilator best known for treatment of ischemic heart disease, has also been investigated for its potential therapeutic benefit in ischemic stroke. The completed Efficacy of Nitric Oxide in Stroke trial suggested that GTN has therapeutic benefit with acute (within 6 hours) transdermal systemic sustained release therapy. OBJECTIVE: To examine an alternative use of GTN as an acute therapy for ischemic stroke following successful recanalization...
December 28, 2016: Journal of Neurointerventional Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28029666/comparison-of-fissure-healing-and-the-incidence-of-headache-among-the-patients-treated-with-endo-and-perianal-application-of-0-2-glyceryl-trinitrate-for-chronic-anal-fissure
#10
M R Joshi, T P Bohara, S Rupakheti
INTRODUCTION: Chronic anal fissure is associated with significant morbidity and reduction in quality of life mostly in young healthy adults. Glyceryl Trinitrate, a most commonly used agent for treatment, is associated with incidence of headache causing discontinuation of treatment. There is belief that endoanal application instead of perianal is associated with lower incidence of headache. This study is to compare the incidence and severity of headache in between perianal and endoanal application of GTN ointment...
October 2016: JNMA; Journal of the Nepal Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28027937/reduced-perfusion-in-systemic-sclerosis-digital-ulcers-both-fingertip-and-extensor-can-be-increased-by-topical-application-of-glyceryl-trinitrate
#11
M Hughes, T Moore, J Manning, J Wilkinson, G Dinsdale, C Roberts, A Murray, A L Herrick
OBJECTIVES: In patients with systemic sclerosis (SSc), fingertip digital ulcers (DUs) are believed to be ischaemic, and extensor surface DUs a result of mechanical factors/microtrauma. Our aim was to assess blood flow response to topical glyceryl trinitrate (GTN) compared to placebo in SSc DUs, looking for differences in pathophysiology between fingertip and extensor lesions. METHOD: This was a double-blind, randomised, crossover, placebo-controlled study. Sixteen (6 fingertip, 10 extensor) DUs were each studied twice (one day apart): once with GTN and once with placebo ointment...
May 2017: Microvascular Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28005701/effect-of-short-term-exercise-training-on-brain-derived-neurotrophic-factor-signaling-in-spontaneously-hypertensive-rats
#12
Alice Monnier, Philippe Garnier, Aurore Quirie, Nicolas Pernet, Céline Demougeot, Christine Marie, Anne Prigent-Tessier
OBJECTIVE: Decreased brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) level has been reported in the hippocampus of hypertensive rats. The present study explored whether brain neurons and/or endothelial cells are targeted by hypertension with respect to BDNF expression and the potential of physical exercise to cope with hypertension. METHODS: Physical exercise was induced in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) and Wistar Kyoto (WKY) rats. The hippocampus of sedentary and exercised rats (n = 6 for each group) were used for western blots to assess proBDNF, mature BDNF (mBDNF), tropomyosin-related kinase B (TrkB), P-TrkB (TrkB phosphorylated at tyrosine 816), synaptophysin, endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) and eNOS phosphorylated at serine 1177 protein levels...
February 2017: Journal of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27926561/percutaneous-posterior-tibial-nerve-stimulation-vs-perianal-application-of-glyceryl-trinitrate-ointment-in-the-treatment-of-chronic-anal-fissure-a-randomized-clinical-trial
#13
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Jaime Ruiz-Tovar, Carolina Llavero
BACKGROUND: Current therapeutic guidelines for the treatment of chronic anal fissure establish a medical approach as the first step. Glyceryl trinitrate ointment is the most popular of the available topical treatments in Spain but it is associated with the appearance of headache. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to compare the compliance rate among patients receiving glyceryl trinitrate treatment for chronic anal fissure with that among patients receiving percutaneous posterior tibial nerve stimulation...
January 2017: Diseases of the Colon and Rectum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899434/development-of-cgrp-dependent-pain-and-headache-related-behaviours-in-a-rat-model-of-concussion-implications-for-mechanisms-of-post-traumatic-headache
#14
Dara Bree, Dan Levy
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Posttraumatic headache (PTH) is one of the most common, debilitating and difficult symptoms to manage after a mild traumatic brain injury, or concussion. However, the mechanisms underlying PTH remain elusive, in part due to the lack of a clinically relevant animal model. Here, we characterized for the first time, headache and pain-related behaviours in a rat model of concussion evoked by a mild closed head injury (mCHI) - the major type of military and civilian related trauma associated with PTH - and tested responses to current and novel headache therapies...
November 29, 2016: Cephalalgia: An International Journal of Headache
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893465/accelerated-resolution-of-inflammation-underlies-sex-differences-in-inflammatory-responses-in-humans
#15
Krishnaraj S Rathod, Vikas Kapil, Shanti Velmurugan, Rayomand S Khambata, Umme Siddique, Saima Khan, Sven Van Eijl, Lorna C Gee, Jascharanpreet Bansal, Kavi Pitrola, Christopher Shaw, Fulvio D'Acquisto, Romain A Colas, Federica Marelli-Berg, Jesmond Dalli, Amrita Ahluwalia
BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular disease occurs at lower incidence in premenopausal females compared with age-matched males. This variation may be linked to sex differences in inflammation. We prospectively investigated whether inflammation and components of the inflammatory response are altered in females compared with males. METHODS: We performed 2 clinical studies in healthy volunteers. In 12 men and 12 women, we assessed systemic inflammatory markers and vascular function using brachial artery flow-mediated dilation (FMD)...
January 3, 2017: Journal of Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885499/the-effects-of-alpha-1-adrenoceptor-blockade-and-angiotensin-converting-enzyme-inhibition-on-central-and-brachial-blood-pressure-and-vascular-reactivity-the-doxazosin-ramipril-study
#16
Andreas Jekell, Majid Kalani, Thomas Kahan
We aimed to study whether inhibition of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system has effects on vascular structure and function beyond the effects on blood pressure reduction alone. Patients with mild-to-moderate hypertension (n = 61, age 54 ± 12 years, 34% women) received the angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor ramipril 10 mg or the alpha 1-adrenoceptor blocker doxazosin 8 mg double-blind for 12 weeks. Aortic blood pressure, pulse wave velocity, and augmentation index were assessed by applanation tonometry...
November 24, 2016: Heart and Vessels
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27873224/therapeutic-potential-of-transdermal-glyceryl-trinitrate-in-the-management-of-acute-stroke
#17
Jason P Appleton, Nikola Sprigg, Philip M Bath
The nitric oxide donor, glyceryl trinitrate (GTN), is a candidate treatment for the management of acute stroke with haemodynamic and potential reperfusion and neuroprotective effects. When administered as a transdermal patch during the acute and subacute phases after stroke, GTN was safe, lowered blood pressure, maintained cerebral blood flow, and did not induce cerebral steal or alter functional outcome. However, when given within 6 h of stroke onset, GTN reduced death and dependency (odds ratio 0.52; 95% confidence interval 0...
January 2017: CNS Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27866934/pharmacodynamic-action-and-mechanism-of-du-liang-soft-capsule-a-traditional-chinese-medicine-capsule-on-treating-nitroglycerin-induced-migraine
#18
Min Hou, Qing Tang, Qiang Xue, Xiaona Zhang, Yang Liu, Sheng Yang, Liechun Chen, Xiaoyu Xu
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Du Liang soft capsule (DL) is a traditional Chinese medicine for treating migraines; it is made from two Chinese herbs, including LigusticumstriatumDC., root; Angelica dahurica (Hoffm.) Benth. & Hook.f. ex Franch. & Sav., root. AIM OF THE STUDY: In the present study, we aimed to elucidate the pharmacodynamic action of DL and its mechanism in an animal model of migraines induced by glyceryl trinitrate (GTN). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Sixty rats were randomly divided into six groups, including a normal control group, model control group, positive group (Sumatriptan 0...
January 4, 2017: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27802359/antihypertensive-withdrawal-for-the-prevention-of-cognitive-decline
#19
REVIEW
Susan Jongstra, Jennifer K Harrison, Terry J Quinn, Edo Richard
BACKGROUND: Clinical trials and observational data have variously shown a protective, harmful or neutral effect of antihypertensives on cognitive function. In theory, withdrawal of antihypertensives could improve cerebral perfusion and reduce or delay cognitive decline. However, it is also plausible that withdrawal of antihypertensives may have a detrimental effect on cognition through increased incidence of stroke or other vascular events. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of complete withdrawal of at least one antihypertensive medication on incidence of dementia, cognitive function, blood pressure and other safety outcomes in cognitively intact and cognitive impaired adults...
November 1, 2016: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27770405/pharmacology-of-reflex-blinks-in-the-rat-a-novel-model-for-headache-research
#20
M G Jones, A P Andreou, S B McMahon, D Spanswick
BACKGROUND: Migraineurs are highly sensitive to the nitric oxide donor glyceryl trinitrate which triggers attacks in many sufferers. In animal studies, glyceryl trinitrate increases neuronal activity in the trigeminovascular pathway and elevates neurotransmitter levels in the brainstem. Many migraineurs also display alterations in blink reflexes, known to involve brainstem circuits. We investigated the effect of GTN on evoked blinks in the anaesthetised rat to determine whether such reflexes may prove useful as the basis for a novel animal model to evaluate potential anti-migraine therapeutic agents...
December 2016: Journal of Headache and Pain
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