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Sergio A Sara, Andrew S McAllister
The past few years has seen a resurgence of syphilis. It is predominantly associated within men who have sex with men and also within heterosexual Indigenous Australians. Possessing the ability to mimic a variety of ocular diseases, it typically manifests as uveitis, although it can affect any structure within the eye. Thus, a high degree of clinical suspicion by ophthalmologists is required to prevent disease progression and ocular morbidity. Patients require prolonged antibiotic treatment with intravenous benzylpenicillin and outpatient monitoring to successfully resolve the infection...
2016: International Medical Case Reports Journal
Etsuko Sugawara, Seiji Kojima, Hiroshi Nikaido
: Klebsiella pneumoniae, one of the most important nosocomial pathogens, is becoming a major problem in health care because of its resistance to multiple antibiotics including cephalosporins of the latest generation and more recently even carbapenems. This is largely due to the spread of plasmid-coded extended spectrum β-lactamases. However, antimicrobial agents must first penetrate through the outer membrane barrier in order to reach their targets, and hydrophilic and charged β-lactams presumably diffuse through the porin channels...
September 19, 2016: Journal of Bacteriology
Sunniva Foerster, Magnus Unemo, Lucy J Hathaway, Nicola Low, Christian L Althaus
BACKGROUND: Gonorrhoea is a sexually transmitted infection caused by the Gram-negative bacterium Neisseria gonorrhoeae. Resistance to first-line empirical monotherapy has emerged, so robust methods are needed to evaluate the activity of existing and novel antimicrobials against the bacterium. Pharmacodynamic models describing the relationship between the concentration of antimicrobials and the minimum growth rate of the bacteria provide more detailed information than the MIC only. RESULTS: In this study, a novel standardised in vitro time-kill curve assay was developed...
2016: BMC Microbiology
Yuri Tsuruya, Koji Kato, Yamato Sano, Yuichiro Imamura, Kazuya Maeda, Yuji Kumagai, Yuichi Sugiyama, Hiroyuki Kusuhara
The present study was a comprehensive analysis of metabolites in plasma and urine specimens from subjects who received probenecid, a potent inhibitor of renal organic anion transporters (OATs). Taurine and glycochenodeoxycholate sulfate (GCDCA-S) could be identified using authentic standards. Probenecid had no effect on the area under the plasma - concentration time curves (AUCp) of taurine and GCDCA-S, whereas it significantly inhibited their urinary excretion in a dose-dependent manner. The renal clearance (CLR) values of taurine and GCDCA-S were decreased by 45% and 60%, 59% and 79%, and 70% and 88% by probenecid at 500, 750, and 1,500 mg, p...
September 16, 2016: Drug Metabolism and Disposition: the Biological Fate of Chemicals
Nisreen Hoosain, Brendon Pearce, Clifford Jacobs, Mongi Benjeddou
The U.S. President Barack Obama has announced, in his State of the Union address on January 20, 2015, the Precision Medicine Initiative, a US$215-million program. For global precision medicine to become a reality, however, biological and environmental "variome" in previously understudied populations ought to be mapped and catalogued. Chief among the molecular targets that warrant global mapping is the organic anion-transporting polypeptide 1B1 (OATP1B1), encoded by solute carrier organic anion transporter family member 1B1 (SLCO1B1), a hepatic uptake transporter predominantly expressed in the basolateral side of hepatocytes...
September 2016: Omics: a Journal of Integrative Biology
Juan Meng, David Thursfield, Joanna J Lukawska
BACKGROUND: Penicillin allergy is associated with increased antibiotic resistance and health care costs. However, most patients with self-reported penicillin allergy are not truly allergic. OBJECTIVE: To summarize our experience with allergy tests in patients with a history of penicillin allergy and to compare them with the results of other groups. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed all patients with a suspected clinical history of penicillin allergy referred to the Drug Allergy Unit at University College London Hospital between March 2013 and June 2015...
September 2016: Annals of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology
Noémie Scornet, Sandrine Delarue-Cochin, Marie-Eliane Azoury, Maxime Le Mignon, Julie-Anne Chemelle, Emmanuel Nony, Bernard Maillere, Raphael Terreux, Marc Pallardy, Delphine Joseph
β-Lactam antibiotics allergy is recognized as a public health concern. By covalently binding to serum proteins, penicillins are known to form immunogenic complexes. The latter are recognized and digested by antigen-presenting cells into drug-hapten peptides leading to the immunization of treated persons and IgE-mediated hypersensitivity reactions encompassing anaphylaxis. If type I allergic reactions to drugs are often unpredictable, they are known to be dependent on CD4+ T-cells. This fundamental study revisits the chemical basis of the benzylpenicillin (BP) allergy with the aim of identifying immunologically relevant biomimetic benzylpenicilloylated peptides through the analysis of BP-conjugated human serum albumin (BP-HSA) profile and the evaluation of the naïve CD4+ T-cell responses to candidate BP-HSA-derived peptides...
August 23, 2016: Bioconjugate Chemistry
S Thønnings, J D Knudsen, H C Schønheyder, M Søgaard, M Arpi, K O Gradel, C Østergaard
Invasive Listeria monocytogenes infections carry a high mortality despite antibiotic treatment. The rareness of the infection makes it difficult to improve antibiotic treatment through randomized clinical trials. This observational study investigated clinical features and outcome of invasive L. monocytogenes infections including the efficacy of empiric and definitive antibiotic therapies. Demographic, clinical and biochemical findings, antibiotic treatment and 30-day mortality for all episodes of L. monocytogenes bacteraemia and/or meningitis were collected by retrospective medical record review in the North Denmark Region and the Capital Region of Denmark (17 hospitals) from 1997 to 2012...
August 2016: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
A Minarikova, K Hauptman, Z Knotek, V Jekl
Abscesses of odontogenic origin in guinea pigs pose a serious health problem and need to be treated with a combination of surgical and medical therapy. The aim of this prospective study was to describe the microbial flora of odontogenic abscesses associated with osteomyelitis in 24 pet guinea pigs, to perform antibiotic sensitivity testing, and to make recommendations for practitioners on the antibiotics of first choice. Inclusion criteria for the study included the animal being diagnosed with an odontogenic abscess which underwent surgery and was not pre-treated with an antibiotic...
October 1, 2016: Veterinary Record
Karen Bush, Patricia A Bradford
β-Lactams are the most widely used class of antibiotics. Since the discovery of benzylpenicillin in the 1920s, thousands of new penicillin derivatives and related β-lactam classes of cephalosporins, cephamycins, monobactams, and carbapenems have been discovered. Each new class of β-lactam has been developed either to increase the spectrum of activity to include additional bacterial species or to address specific resistance mechanisms that have arisen in the targeted bacterial population. Resistance to β-lactams is primarily because of bacterially produced β-lactamase enzymes that hydrolyze the β-lactam ring, thereby inactivating the drug...
2016: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Medicine
Yangfang Li, Qian Wu, Chen Li, Ling Liu, Kun Du, Jin Shen, Yuqin Wu, Xiaofen Zhao, Mei Zhao, Lingyun Bao, Jin Gao, Richard F Keep, Jianming Xiang
While the blood-brain barrier (BBB) protects the brain by controlling the access of solutes and toxic substances to brain, it also limits drug entry to treat central nervous system disorders. Many drugs are substrates for ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters at the BBB that limit their entry into the brain. The role of those transporters in limiting the entry of the widely prescribed therapeutic, benzylpenicillin, has produced conflicting results. This study investigated the possible potential involvement of P-glycoprotein (P-gp) and breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP), two ABC transporters, in benzylpenicillin transport at BBB in human using MDCKII cells overexpressing those transporters as well as pharmacological inhibition...
2016: PloS One
Jackie K Obey, Atte von Wright, Jimmy Orjala, Jussi Kauhanen, Carina Tikkanen-Kaukanen
In Kenya, leaves and roots from Croton macrostachyus are used as a traditional medicine for infectious diseases such as typhoid and measles, but reports on possible antimicrobial activity of stem bark do not exist. In this study, the antibacterial and antifungal effects of methanol, ethyl acetate and butanol extracts, and purified lupeol of C. macrostachyus stem bark were determined against important human gram-negative pathogens Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhi, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Enterobacter aerogenes, gram-positive Listeria monocytogenes, and a fungus Candida albicans...
2016: Journal of Pathogens
V Jekl, K Hauptman, A Minarikova, S Kohutova, Z Knotek, J Gajdziok, J Muselik, L Sedlak, D Vetchy
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 2, 2016: Veterinary Record
Eri Ikeda, Akane Goto, Reiko Suzaki, Mizuki Sawada, Itaru Dekio, Sumiko Ishizaki, Mariko Fujibayashi, Hayato Takahashi, Masaru Tanaka
A 43-year-old Japanese man presented with reddish nodules on the ankle. The nodules had a yellowish crust and eroded surface. Dermoscopy revealed red to milky-red globules at the periphery and some glomerular vessels in the center and a whitish-pink network, which corresponded to capillary dilatation in the papillary dermis and prominent acanthosis, respectively. These structures were surrounded by a yellowish peripheral structureless area and multiple white, small, round structures in the center, corresponding to the macerated horny layer and keratin plugs...
April 2016: Dermatology Practical & Conceptual
Marlos Barbosa-Ribeiro, Adriana De-Jesus-Soares, Alexandre A Zaia, Caio C R Ferraz, José F A Almeida, Brenda P F A Gomes
INTRODUCTION: The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of virulence factors and the antimicrobial resistance of Enterococcus faecalis isolates of teeth with failure of the endodontic treatment. METHODS: Twenty root canal samples were collected from teeth with apical periodontitis. E. faecalis was firstly identified based on phenotypic features and then by 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequencing. The antimicrobial susceptibility was determined by the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of amoxicillin, amoxicillin + clavulanate, azithromycin, benzylpenicillin, ciprofloxacin, clindamycin, chloramphenicol, doxycycline, erythromycin, gentamicin, metronidazole, moxifloxacin, rifampicin, tetracycline, and vancomycin using the E test method...
July 2016: Journal of Endodontics
Geert Van Royen, Peter Dubruel, Stephanie Van Weyenberg, Els Daeseleire
This article describes a full analytical method for the clean-up and detection of benzylpenicillin in chicken and beef meat samples using a previously developed molecularly imprinted polymer in a solid-phase extraction cleanup step followed by analysis using LC-MS/MS. The method was validated based on the criteria and the requirements of the European Commission Decision 2002/657/EC. This validation revealed method performance characteristics that meet all the criteria in the Decision with limits of detection for chicken and beef meat samples of 6...
July 1, 2016: Journal of Chromatography. B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences
Shinji Ogihara, Ryoichi Saito, Etsuko Sawabe, Michio Hagihara, Shuji Tohda
A male patient was admitted to our hospital due to infectious endocarditis. He had been treated with levofloxacin for 6 weeks, sulbactam/cefoperazone for 4 weeks, and benzylpenicillin for 2 days prior to valve replacement surgery. Gram-positive cocci, with morphology consistent with γ-Streptococcus, were detected in blood cultures obtained at admission, as well as in vegetation obtained from the aortic valve. However, the strain could not be identified using biochemical methods. Sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene indicated that the culture was a small-colony variant of Enterococcus faecalis...
October 2016: Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy: Official Journal of the Japan Society of Chemotherapy
Motoyuki Tsuboi, Takeshi Nishijima, Shigeko Yashiro, Katsuji Teruya, Yoshimi Kikuchi, Naomichi Katai, Shinichi Oka, Hiroyuki Gatanaga
OBJECTIVE: To describe the clinical course and prognosis of ocular syphilis in patients infected with HIV-1 in the antiretroviral therapy (ART) era. METHODS: We conducted a single-centre retrospective chart review of ocular syphilis in patients infected with HIV-1 diagnosed between August 1997 and July 2015. The prognosis of best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) was analysed. RESULTS: The study subjects were 30 eyes of 20 men who had sex with men (MSM) (median age, 41)...
April 4, 2016: Sexually Transmitted Infections
J Lacombe-Barrios, M Salas, F Gómez, I Doña, A Ariza, C Mayorga, M Blanca, M I Montañez, M J Torres
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2016: Journal of Investigational Allergology & Clinical Immunology
A Popielec, É Fenyvesi, K Yannakopoulou, T Loftsson
The effect of cyclodextrin (CD) inclusion complexes on the degradation of benzylpenicillin in aqueous solutions was investigated at several different pH values and 37°C. The effects of neutral as well as both positively and negatively charged CDs were evaluated; all together 13 different CDs. Kinetic studies with HPβCD and RMβCD at pH ranging from 1.2 to 9.6 showed that CDs have stabilizing effect on the β-lactam ring in aqueous acidic media but generally accelerated the hydrolytic cleavage of the β-lactam ring in neutral and basic media...
February 2016: Die Pharmazie
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