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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28221837/environmental-occurrence-and-antibiotic-susceptibility-profile-of-listeria-monocytogenes-at-a-slaughterhouse-raw-processing-plant-in-romania
#1
Claudia Sala, Adriana Morar, Emil Tîrziu, Ileana Nichita, Mirela Imre, Kálmán Imre
This survey was conducted to investigate the occurrence and antimicrobial susceptibility of Listeria monocytogenes isolates in the environment of a pig slaughterhouse raw processing plant complex in western Romania. A total of 97 environmental samples from food contact (n = 60) and nonfood contact (n = 37) surfaces were examined with standard methods. The susceptibility of the isolates to 17 antimicrobial agents was determined with the VITEK 2 automated system. Overall, 25 (25.8%) samples were positive for L...
October 2016: Journal of Food Protection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193743/yaws-osteoperiostitis-treated-with-single-dose-azithromycin
#2
Camila González-Beiras, Martí Vall-Mayans, Ángel González-Escalante, Kelly McClymont, Li Ma, Oriol Mitjà
The etiologic agent of yaws, Treponema pallidum subsp. pertenue, causes a multistage infection transmitted by nonsexual contact with the exudates from active lesions. Bone lesions in the form of osteoperiostitis are common and occur in numerous bones simultaneously in early stages. Although a multinational eradication campaign with mass administration of intramuscular benzylpenicillin in the 1950s greatly reduced its global incidence, a resurgence of yaws has occurred since around 2000 in western and central Africa and the Pacific Islands...
February 13, 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28179375/quantitative-prediction-of-human-renal-clearance-and-drug-drug-interactions-of-organic-anion-transporter-substrates-using-in-vitro-transport-data
#3
Sumathy Mathialagan, Mary A Piotrowski, David A Tess, Bo Feng, John Litchfiled, Manthena V Varma
Organic anion transporters (OATs) play an important role in the renal secretion of drugs, and their functional change can result in pharmacokinetic variability. In this study, we applied transport rates measured using OAT-transfected human embryonic kidney cells to predict human renal secretory and total renal clearance of 31 diverse drugs. Selective substrates to OAT1 (tenofovir), OAT2 (acyclovir and ganciclovir) and OAT3 (benzylpenicillin, oseltamivir acid) were used to obtain relative activity factors (RAFs) for these individual transporters by relating in vitro transport clearance to in vivo secretory clearance...
February 8, 2017: Drug Metabolism and Disposition: the Biological Fate of Chemicals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28159247/fabric-phase-sorptive-extraction-of-selected-penicillin-antibiotic-residues-from-intact-milk-followed-by-high-performance-liquid-chromatography-with-diode-array-detection
#4
Victoria Samanidou, Katia Michaelidou, Abuzar Kabir, Kenneth G Furton
Fabric phase sorptive extraction (FPSE), a novel sorbent-based microextraction method, was evaluated as a simple and rapid strategy for the extraction of four penicillin antibiotic residues (benzylpenicillin, cloxacillin, dicloxacillin and oxacillin) from cows' milk, without prior protein precipitation. Time-consuming solvent evaporation and reconstitution steps were eliminated successfully from the sample preparation workflow. FPSE utilizes a flexible fabric substrate, chemically coated with sol-gel derived, highly efficient, organic-inorganic hybrid sorbent as the extraction medium...
June 1, 2017: Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28156021/loss-of-cutaneous-microbial-diversity-during-first-three-weeks-of-life-in-very-low-birth-weight-infants
#5
A Salava, V Aho, E Lybeck, P Pereira, L Paulin, I Nupponen, A Ranki, P Auvinen, S Andersson, A Lauerma
Neonatal sepsis (NS) is a frequent problem in neonatal intensive care, especially in preterm and very low birth weight (VLBW) infants. The objective of the study was to characterize the cutaneous bacterial microbiome in VLBW infants treated in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). Non-invasive skin microbiome specimens were taken repeatedly from 12 VLBW infants during treatment in NICU starting on the first day of life. All infants received benzylpenicillin and netilmicin during the first 1-5 postnatal days...
February 3, 2017: Experimental Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28120523/prioritisation-of-pharmaceuticals-based-on-risks-to-aquatic-environments-in-kazakhstan
#6
Bakhyt Aubakirova, Raikhan Beisenova, Alistair B A Boxall
Over the last 20 years, there has been increasing interest in the occurrence, fate, effects and risk of pharmaceuticals in the natural environment. However, we still have only limited or no data on ecotoxicological risks of many of the active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) currently in use. This is partly due to the fact that the environmental assessment of an API is an expensive, time-consuming and complicated process. Prioritisation methodologies, that aim to identify APIs of most concern in a particular situation, could therefore be invaluable in focusing experimental work on APIs that really matter...
January 25, 2017: Integrated Environmental Assessment and Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069883/comparison-of-phenotypic-methods-for-the-detection-of-penicillinase-in-staphylococcus-aureus-and-proposal-of-a-practical-diagnostic-approach
#7
Michael Hombach, Christoph Weissert, Maria Magdalena Senn, Reinhard Zbinden
OBJECTIVES: Disc diffusion is a cost-efficient, low-complexity, reliable method for detection of blaZ-mediated benzylpenicillin resistance in Staphylococcus aureus if the zone edge is inspected. EUCAST breakpoints cannot fully separate β-lactamase-positive from β-lactamase-negative strains, and EUCAST recommends the zone edge test. Literature on nitrocefin-based testing and the zone edge test is scarce with wide variations in reported assay performance. METHODS: This study compared two different nitrocefin-based commercial and in-house tests and the EUCAST-based zone edge test for penicillinase detection in S...
January 8, 2017: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28029281/pharmacokinetics-of-intravenous-continuous-rate-infusions-of-sodium-benzylpenicillin-and-ceftiofur-sodium-in-adult-horses
#8
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Scott H Edwards, Shahid A Khalfan, Glenn A Jacobson, Adam D Pirie, Sharanne L Raidal
OBJECTIVE To determine plasma drug concentrations after IV administration of a bolus followed by continuous rate infusion (CRI) of sodium benzylpenicillin and ceftiofur sodium to healthy adult horses. ANIMALS 6 Thoroughbred mares (3 to 9 years old; mean ± SD body weight, 544 ± 55 kg) with no history of recent antimicrobial treatment. PROCEDURES Horses were used in 2 experiments conducted 14 days apart. For each experiment, horses were housed individually in stables, and catheters were placed bilaterally in both jugular veins for drug administration by CRI (left catheter) and for intermittent collection of blood samples (right catheter)...
January 2017: American Journal of Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28018077/hip-adductor-pyomyositis-from-streptococcus-mitis-in-a-four-year-old-child
#9
Metin Tolga Buldu, Raghu Raman
: The unique aspect of this case study is the unusual history, presentation, ultrasonography, MRI and blood culture results, which lead to the diagnosis and treatment of adductor pyomyositis with a rare organism in a temperate country. The patient presented with a one-day history of malaise, fever, left groin pain and inability to weight bear on the left leg. There was no history of any trauma, predisposing infections or recent travel. Plain radiograph and ultrasound of the hip was normal with no effusion...
October 2016: Journal of Clinical Orthopaedics and Trauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27989096/abiotrophia-defectiva-endocarditis-complicated-by-ventricular-tachycardia
#10
Kyriacos Mouyis, Sophia Metaxa, Constantinos Missouris
A 78-year-old man was admitted to the authors' hospital with a short history of shortness of breath and pyrexia. He had long-standing moderate mitral regurgitation and stable coronary artery disease. Blood cultures grew Abiotrophia defectiva coccobaccili. Transesophageal echocardiography confirmed the diagnosis of mitral valve endocarditis that necessitated treatment with intravenous benzylpenicillin and gentamicin for six weeks. At nine days after admission the patient developed several episodes of self-limiting monomorphic ventricular tachycardia, without ischemic cardiac pain, associated with hemodynamic compromise requiring treatment with intravenous amiodarone and inotropic support in the Intensive Care Unit...
January 2016: Journal of Heart Valve Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27988146/simplified-antibiotic-regimens-for-treatment-of-clinical-severe-infection-in-the-outpatient-setting-when-referral-is-not-possible-for-young-infants-in-pakistan-simplified-antibiotic-therapy-trial-satt-a-randomised-open-label-equivalence-trial
#11
Fatima Mir, Imran Nisar, Shiyam S Tikmani, Benazir Baloch, Sadia Shakoor, Fyezah Jehan, Imran Ahmed, Simon Cousens, Anita K M Zaidi
BACKGROUND: Parenteral antibiotic therapy for young infants (aged 0-59 days) with suspected sepsis is sometimes not available or feasible in countries with high neonatal mortality. Outpatient treatment could save lives in such settings. We aimed to assess the equivalence of two simplified antibiotic regimens, comprising fewer injections and oral rather than parenteral administration, compared with a reference treatment for young infants with clinical severe infection. METHODS: We undertook the Simplified Antibiotic Therapy Trial (SATT), a three-arm, randomised, open-label, equivalence trial in five communities in Karachi, Pakistan...
February 2017: Lancet Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27935180/management-of-early-onset-neonatal-sepsis-differs-in-the-north-and-south-of-scandinavia
#12
Martin Drageset, Jon Widding Fjalstad, Sven Mortensen, Claus Klingenberg
AIM: This study compared the management and outcomes of early-onset neonatal sepsis (EONS) in two tertiary neonatal units in Denmark and Norway. METHODS: We retrospectively studied all infants diagnosed with EONS between April 2010 and March 2013 and managed at Odense University Hospital, Denmark, and the University Hospital of North Norway, Norway. Clinical and laboratory data were collected from patient records. RESULTS: We identified 137 EONS cases in Denmark and 101 in Norway...
December 9, 2016: Acta Paediatrica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914161/streptococcus-agalactiae-native-valve-endocarditis-uncommon-presentation-of-multiple-myeloma
#13
Ana Pinho Oliveira, Anne Delgado, Cláudia Martins, Pedro Gama
Adults with chronic immunosuppressive conditions are at an increased risk for Streptococcus agalactiae endocarditis, which is typically characterized by acute onset, presence of large vegetations, rapid valvular destruction and frequent complications. We report a rare case of a 74 years old man presenting with fever, renal infarction, ischemic stroke and uveitis. Infective endocarditis was diagnosed and Streptococcus agalactiae was isolated in blood cultures. A multiple myeloma Ig G-K was also diagnosed. The infective endocarditis was successfully treated with a course of benzylpenicillin and gentamicin...
August 2016: Acta Médica Portuguesa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27847295/pyomyositis-caused-by-streptococcus-pneumoniae-after-allogeneic-hematopoietic-stem-cell-transplantation
#14
Shuhei Kurosawa, Noriko Doki, Noritaka Sekiya, Yasushi Senoo, Syuzo Ikuta, Yasunobu Takaki, Kazuteru Ohashi
Pyomyositis is classified into two main types: tropical and non-tropical. Non-tropical pyomyositis occurs among various immunocompromised patients, and Staphylococcus aureus has been reported as the most common pathogen. Pyomyositis caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae is uncommon, and has not been previously reported after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT). Here, we report a unique case with pyomyositis caused by S. pneumoniae in the bilateral erector spinae muscles 34 months after allo-HSCT...
November 12, 2016: Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy: Official Journal of the Japan Society of Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27818775/characterization-and-antimicrobial-susceptibility-of-one-antibiotic-sensitive-and-one-multidrug-resistant-corynebacterium-kroppenstedtii-strain-isolated-from-patients-with-granulomatous-mastitis
#15
I Fernández-Natal, D Rodríguez-Lázaro, T Marrodán-Ciordia, J A Sáez-Nieto, S Valdezate, H Rodríguez-Pollán, A Tauch, F Soriano
Human infections associated with Corynebacterium kroppenstedtii are rarely reported, and this organism is usually described as antibiotic sensitive. Almost all published cases of C. kroppenstedtii infections have been associated with breast pathology in women and have been described in New Zealand, France, Canada, India and Japan. Here we describe the microbiologic characteristics of two strains isolated from two women diagnosed of granulomatous mastitis in Spain. One C. kroppenstedtii isolate was antibiotic sensitive while the other was multidrug resistant...
November 2016: New Microbes and New Infections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27793737/benzylpenicillin-plus-an-aminoglycoside-versus-meropenem-in-neutropenic-lymphoma-and-leukaemia-patients-with-a-suspected-bacterial-infection-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#16
D Torfoss, T Fladhagen, H Holte, L Brinch, F H Schjesvold, Y Fløisand, E Nyquist, J Dalgaard, P Meyer, A K Lehmann, J Hammerstrøm, T Skjelbakken, E A Høiby, L Sandvik, S Kvaløy
OBJECTIVES: In Norway, initial treatment of febrile neutropenia (FN) has traditionally been benzylpenicillin plus an aminoglycoside. Internationally, FN is often treated with a broad-spectrum β-lactam antibiotic. We aimed to compare these two regimens in a prospective, randomized, trial in patients with lymphoma or leukaemia with an expected period of neutropenia ≥7 days, and a suspected bacterial infection. METHODS: Adult neutropenic patients with lymphoma or leukaemia, and a suspected bacterial infection, were randomized for treatment with benzylpenicillin plus an aminoglycoside or meropenem...
October 26, 2016: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27672343/three-cases-of-ocular-syphilis-and-the-resurgence-of-the-disease-in-queensland
#17
Sergio A Sara, Andrew S McAllister
The past few years has seen a resurgence of syphilis. It is predominantly associated within men who have sex with men and also within heterosexual Indigenous Australians. Possessing the ability to mimic a variety of ocular diseases, it typically manifests as uveitis, although it can affect any structure within the eye. Thus, a high degree of clinical suspicion by ophthalmologists is required to prevent disease progression and ocular morbidity. Patients require prolonged antibiotic treatment with intravenous benzylpenicillin and outpatient monitoring to successfully resolve the infection...
2016: International Medical Case Reports Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27645385/klebsiella-pneumoniae-major-porins-ompk35-and-ompk36-allow-more-efficient-diffusion-of-%C3%AE-lactams-than-their-escherichia-coli-homologs-ompf-and-ompc
#18
Etsuko Sugawara, Seiji Kojima, Hiroshi Nikaido
: Klebsiella pneumoniae, one of the most important nosocomial pathogens, is becoming a major problem in health care because of its resistance to multiple antibiotics, including cephalosporins of the latest generation and, more recently, even carbapenems. This is largely due to the spread of plasmid-encoded extended-spectrum β-lactamases. However, antimicrobial agents must first penetrate the outer membrane barrier in order to reach their targets, and hydrophilic and charged β-lactams presumably diffuse through the porin channels...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Bacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27639378/time-kill-curve-analysis-and-pharmacodynamic-modelling-for-in-vitro-evaluation-of-antimicrobials-against-neisseria-gonorrhoeae
#19
Sunniva Foerster, Magnus Unemo, Lucy J Hathaway, Nicola Low, Christian L Althaus
BACKGROUND: Gonorrhoea is a sexually transmitted infection caused by the Gram-negative bacterium Neisseria gonorrhoeae. Resistance to first-line empirical monotherapy has emerged, so robust methods are needed to evaluate the activity of existing and novel antimicrobials against the bacterium. Pharmacodynamic models describing the relationship between the concentration of antimicrobials and the minimum growth rate of the bacteria provide more detailed information than the MIC only. RESULTS: In this study, a novel standardised in vitro time-kill curve assay was developed...
2016: BMC Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27638508/investigation-of-endogenous-compounds-applicable-to-drug-drug-interaction-studies-involving-the-renal-organic-anion-transporters-oat1-and-oat3-in-humans
#20
Yuri Tsuruya, Koji Kato, Yamato Sano, Yuichiro Imamura, Kazuya Maeda, Yuji Kumagai, Yuichi Sugiyama, Hiroyuki Kusuhara
The present study was a comprehensive analysis of metabolites in plasma and urine specimens from subjects who received probenecid, a potent inhibitor of renal organic anion transporters (OATs). Taurine and glycochenodeoxycholate sulfate (GCDCA-S) could be identified using authentic standards. Probenecid had no effect on the area under the plasma - concentration time curves (AUCp) of taurine and GCDCA-S, whereas it significantly inhibited their urinary excretion in a dose-dependent manner. The renal clearance (CLR) values of taurine and GCDCA-S were decreased by 45% and 60%, 59% and 79%, and 70% and 88% by probenecid at 500, 750, and 1,500 mg, p...
September 16, 2016: Drug Metabolism and Disposition: the Biological Fate of Chemicals
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