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Imaging in Psychiatry

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922605/pattern-of-structural-brain-changes-in-social-anxiety-disorder-after-cognitive-behavioral-group-therapy-a-longitudinal-multimodal-mri-study
#1
V R Steiger, A B Brühl, S Weidt, A Delsignore, M Rufer, L Jäncke, U Herwig, J Hänggi
Social anxiety disorder (SAD) is characterized by fears of social and performance situations. Cognitive behavioral group therapy (CBGT) has in general positive effects on symptoms, distress and avoidance in SAD. Prior studies found increased cortical volumes and decreased fractional anisotropy (FA) in SAD compared with healthy controls (HCs). Thirty-three participants diagnosed with SAD attended in a 10-week CBGT and were scanned before and after therapy. We applied three neuroimaging methods-surface-based morphometry, diffusion tensor imaging and network-based statistics-each with specific longitudinal processing protocols, to investigate CBGT-induced structural brain alterations of the gray and white matter (WM)...
December 6, 2016: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918562/resting-state-connectivity-biomarkers-define-neurophysiological-subtypes-of-depression
#2
Andrew T Drysdale, Logan Grosenick, Jonathan Downar, Katharine Dunlop, Farrokh Mansouri, Yue Meng, Robert N Fetcho, Benjamin Zebley, Desmond J Oathes, Amit Etkin, Alan F Schatzberg, Keith Sudheimer, Jennifer Keller, Helen S Mayberg, Faith M Gunning, George S Alexopoulos, Michael D Fox, Alvaro Pascual-Leone, Henning U Voss, B J Casey, Marc J Dubin, Conor Liston
Biomarkers have transformed modern medicine but remain largely elusive in psychiatry, partly because there is a weak correspondence between diagnostic labels and their neurobiological substrates. Like to other neuropsychiatric disorders, depression is not a unitary disease, but rather a heterogeneous syndrome that encompasses varied, co-occurring symptoms and divergent responses to treatment. By using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in a large multisite sample (n = 1,188), we show here that patients with depression can be subdivided into four neurophysiological subtypes ('biotypes') defined by distinct patterns of dysfunctional connectivity in limbic and frontostriatal networks...
December 5, 2016: Nature Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27857045/long-term-pharmacotherapy-by-methylfenidate-or-atomoxetine-dat-1-10-10-adhd-children-in-correlation-with-results-of-the-imaging-methods
#3
(no author information available yet)
OBJECTIVES: ADHD is one of the most significant diagnostic units in child and adolescent psychiatry. The occurrence in children is 5-6% and 50-80% continued to adult age. The presence of individual genes (polymorphism) on particular symptoms and processes in ADHD are not known. It is estimated that ADHD symptoms are up to 80% to genetic. The higher density of resultant DAT 1 protein was observed in ADHD patients in comparison with controls. The question was if DAT 1 10/10 predicted bad prognoses in long term therapy...
September 18, 2016: Neuro Endocrinology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27819401/-clinical-usefulness-and-psychometric-properties-of-the-cambridge-behavioural-inventory
#4
R Fernandez-Martinez, E Kokoulina, E Carballido-Araujo, I Garcia-Fuertes, O Gutierrez-Martinez, F Santiago-Lopez, P Vazquez-Batan
INTRODUCTION: An important area in neuropsychological assessment is that of psychological and behavioural symptoms. The Cambridge Behavioural Inventory (CBI) is a self-report measure aimed at relatives which takes account of a wide range of behavioural symptoms that may occur during the course of neurological diseases. The main objective of the study is to test the clinical usefulness of its Spanish adaptation. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: The CBI was completed by 215 members of kin of patients referred from neurology and psychiatry services...
November 16, 2016: Revista de Neurologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27783066/the-search-for-imaging-biomarkers-in-psychiatric-disorders
#5
Anissa Abi-Dargham, Guillermo Horga
The field of medicine is moving toward the use of biomarkers for the optimization of individualized care. This is a particular challenge for the field of psychiatry, in which diagnosis is based on a descriptive collection of behaviors without the availability of any objective test to stratify patients. Neuroimaging techniques such as molecular imaging with positron-emission tomography (PET) or structural and functional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) provide an opportunity to bring psychiatry from an era of subjective descriptive classification into objective and tangible brain-based measures...
October 26, 2016: Nature Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27777415/brain-structure-in-pediatric-tourette-syndrome
#6
D J Greene, A C Williams Iii, J M Koller, B L Schlaggar, K J Black
Previous studies of brain structure in Tourette syndrome (TS) have produced mixed results, and most had modest sample sizes. In the present multicenter study, we used structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to compare 103 children and adolescents with TS to a well-matched group of 103 children without tics. We applied voxel-based morphometry methods to test gray matter (GM) and white matter (WM) volume differences between diagnostic groups, accounting for MRI scanner and sequence, age, sex and total GM+WM volume...
October 25, 2016: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27755933/psychoradiology-the-frontier-of-neuroimaging-in-psychiatry
#7
Su Lui, Xiaohong Joe Zhou, John A Sweeney, Qiyong Gong
Unlike neurologic conditions, such as brain tumors, dementia, and stroke, the neural mechanisms for all psychiatric disorders remain unclear. A large body of research obtained with structural and functional magnetic resonance imaging, positron emission tomography/single photon emission computed tomography, and optical imaging has demonstrated regional and illness-specific brain changes at the onset of psychiatric disorders and in individuals at risk for such disorders. Many studies have shown that psychiatric medications induce specific measurable changes in brain anatomy and function that are related to clinical outcomes...
November 2016: Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27725663/high-resolution-diffusion-imaging-ready-to-become-more-than-just-a-research-tool-in-psychiatry
#8
S M Grieve, J J Maller
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 11, 2016: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27725657/camp-signaling-in-brain-is-decreased-in-unmedicated-depressed-patients-and-increased-by-treatment-with-a-selective-serotonin-reuptake-inhibitor
#9
M Fujita, E M Richards, M J Niciu, D F Ionescu, S S Zoghbi, J Hong, S Telu, C S Hines, V W Pike, C A Zarate, R B Innis
Basic studies exploring the importance of the cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) cascade in major depressive disorder (MDD) have noted that the cAMP cascade is downregulated in MDD and upregulated by antidepressant treatment. We investigated cAMP cascade activity by using (11)C-(R)-rolipram to image phosphodiesterase-4 (PDE4) in unmedicated MDD patients and after ~8 weeks of treatment with a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI). (11)C-(R)-rolipram positron emission tomographic (PET) scans were performed in 44 unmedicated patients during a major depressive episode and 35 healthy controls...
October 11, 2016: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27723545/spontaneous-neural-activity-in-the-right-superior-temporal-gyrus-and-left-middle-temporal-gyrus-is-associated-with-insight-level-in-obsessive-compulsive-disorder
#10
Jie Fan, Mingtian Zhong, Jun Gan, Wanting Liu, Chaoyang Niu, Haiyan Liao, Hongchun Zhang, Changlian Tan, Jinyao Yi, Xiongzhao Zhu
BACKGROUND: Insight into illness is an important issue for psychiatry disorder. Although the existence of a poor insight subtype of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) was recognized in the DSM-IV, and the insight level in OCD was specified further in DSM-V, the neural underpinnings of insight in OCD have been rarely explored. The present study was designed to bridge this research gap by using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). METHODS: Spontaneous neural activity were examined in 19 OCD patients with good insight (OCD-GI), 18 OCD patients with poor insight (OCD-PI), and 25 healthy controls (HC) by analyzing the amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation (ALFF) in the resting state...
October 2, 2016: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27719844/neurologic-approaches-to-hysteria-psychogenic-and-functional-disorders-from-the-late-19th-century-onwards
#11
J Stone
The history of functional neurologic disorders in the 20th century from the point of view of the neurologist is U-shaped. A flurry of interest between the 1880s and early 1920s gave way to lack of interest, skepticism, and concern about misdiagnosis. This was mirrored by increasing professional and geographic divisions between neurology and psychiatry after the First World War. In the 1990s the advent of imaging and other technology highlighted the positive nature of a functional diagnosis. Having been closer in the early 20th century but later more separate, these disorders are now once again the subject of academic and clinical interest, although arguably still very much on the fringes of neurology and neuropsychiatry...
2017: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27698434/in-vivo-imaging-of-brain-microglial-activity-in-antipsychotic-free-and-medicated-schizophrenia-a-11-c-r-pk11195-positron-emission-tomography-study
#12
S E Holmes, R Hinz, R J Drake, C J Gregory, S Conen, J C Matthews, J M Anton-Rodriguez, A Gerhard, P S Talbot
Positron emission tomography (PET) imaging of the 18 kDa translocator protein (TSPO) has been used to investigate whether microglial activation, an indication of neuroinflammation, is evident in the brain of adults with schizophrenia. Interpretation of these studies is confounded by potential modulatory effects of antipsychotic medication on microglial activity. In the first such study in antipsychotic-free schizophrenia, we have used [(11)C](R)-PK11195 PET to compare TSPO availability in a predominantly antipsychotic-naive group of moderate-to-severely symptomatic unmedicated patients (n=8), similarly symptomatic medicated patients with schizophrenia taking risperidone or paliperidone by regular intramuscular injection (n=8), and healthy comparison subjects (n=16)...
December 2016: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27671475/transgenerational-disruption-of-functional-5-ht1ar-induced-connectivity-in-the-adult-mouse-brain-by-traumatic-stress-in-early-life
#13
F Razoux, H Russig, T Mueggler, C Baltes, K Dikaiou, M Rudin, I M Mansuy
Traumatic stress in early life is a strong risk factor for psychiatric disorders that can affect individuals across several generations. Although the underlying mechanisms have been proposed to implicate serotonergic transmission in the brain, the neural circuits involved remain poorly delineated. Using pharmacological functional magnetic resonance imaging in mice, we demonstrate that traumatic stress in postnatal life alters 5-HT1A receptor-evoked local and global functions in both, the exposed animals and their progeny when adult...
September 27, 2016: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27663812/social-attitude-towards-mentally-ill-in-comparison-to-experts-opinions
#14
Krzysztof Maria Wilczyński, Elżbieta Mazgaj, Oleg Fedyk, Dominika Wizner, Krzysztof Krysta
BACKGROUND: In modern psychiatry, deinstitutionalization of mentally ill became an essential part of improving state of being of those affected. Integration in community, despite obvious benefits, led to increase in social distance and rejection towards mentally ill. Social stigma affects different life domains of those afflicted, and therefore it is crucial to introduce methods to deal with it. Our objective was to assess and compare psychiatrists' and public attitudes and beliefs about mentally ill people...
September 2016: Psychiatria Danubina
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27659764/-when-a-patient-falls-asleep-and-can-t-get-up-conversion-disorder-paraplegia-following-general-anesthesia
#15
Chawla LaToya Mason
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: This case report describes the rare occurrence of paraplegia caused by conversion disorder in a woman who received general anesthesia for breast surgery. CASE REPORT: A 46-year-old healthy woman received general anesthesia for excision of a left breast fibroepithelial lesion. In the post-anesthesia care unit, she reported bilateral loss of both sensation and motor function below the knees. Physical signs and symptoms did not correlate with any anatomical or neurological patterns; imaging revealed no abnormalities...
September 19, 2016: Revista Brasileira de Anestesiologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27646261/myelination-of-parvalbumin-interneurons-a-parsimonious-locus-of-pathophysiological-convergence-in-schizophrenia
#16
J Stedehouder, S A Kushner
Schizophrenia is a debilitating psychiatric disorder characterized by positive, negative and cognitive symptoms. Despite more than a century of research, the neurobiological mechanism underlying schizophrenia remains elusive. White matter abnormalities and interneuron dysfunction are the most widely replicated cellular neuropathological alterations in patients with schizophrenia. However, a unifying model incorporating these findings has not yet been established. Here, we propose that myelination of fast-spiking parvalbumin (PV) interneurons could be an important locus of pathophysiological convergence in schizophrenia...
September 20, 2016: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27623121/-advocacy-for-the-establishment-of-a-comprehensive-strategy-to-reduce-the-burden-of-schizophrenic-disorders
#17
D Leguay
This article attempts to identify and put into perspective the different approaches that could globally prevent the suffering induced by schizophrenia, from the detection of early psychosis to the impact on individual and family functioning and emotional health. Schizophrenia causes, at the community level, a number of difficult consequences and associated costs, which likely could be reduced if specific strategies, already known and documented internationally, were applied. Two areas not explored in this article: the role of medication and the issue of suicide prevention...
September 9, 2016: L'Encéphale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27601183/deep-transcranial-magnetic-stimulation-dtms-beyond-depression
#18
Aron Tendler, Noam Barnea Ygael, Yiftach Roth, Abraham Zangen
Deep transcranial magnetic stimulation (dTMS) utilizes different H-coils to study and treat a variety of psychiatric and neurological conditions with identifiable brain targets. The availability of this technology is dramatically changing the practice of psychiatry and neurology as it provides a safe and effective way to treat even drug-resistant patients. However, up until now, no effort was made to summarize the different types of H-coils that are available, and the conditions for which they were tested. Areas covered: Here we assembled all peer reviewed publication that used one of the H-coils, together with illustrations of the effective field they generate within the brain...
October 2016: Expert Review of Medical Devices
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27573879/heightened-extended-amygdala-metabolism-following-threat-characterizes-the-early-phenotypic-risk-to-develop-anxiety-related-psychopathology
#19
A J Shackman, A S Fox, J A Oler, S E Shelton, T R Oakes, R J Davidson, N H Kalin
Children with an anxious temperament are prone to heightened shyness and behavioral inhibition (BI). When chronic and extreme, this anxious, inhibited phenotype is an important early-life risk factor for the development of anxiety disorders, depression and co-morbid substance abuse. Individuals with extreme anxious temperament often show persistent distress in the absence of immediate threat and this contextually inappropriate anxiety predicts future symptom development. Despite its clear clinical relevance, the neural circuitry governing the maladaptive persistence of anxiety remains unclear...
August 30, 2016: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27570953/-emotional-memory-and-electrocortical-activity-in-schizophrenia
#20
Marc E Lavoie, Julie Champagne, Emma Glaser, Adrianna Mendrek
Context Abnormal emotion processing is frequent in schizophrenia and affects social and functional outcome. Past event-related potential (ERP) research investigating processing of affective stimuli in schizophrenia was done mainly with facial expressions and revealed impaired facial emotion recognition in patients relative to control subjects. Experimentations involving fMRI with this group of patients, showed alteration of limbic and frontal regions in response to emotional unpleasant images, compared to neutral stimuli during a memory task...
December 0: Santé Mentale Au Québec
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