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Imaging in Psychiatry

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29765339/can-model-projects-of-need-adapted-care-reduce-involuntary-hospital-treatment-and-the-use-of-coercive-measures
#1
Alexandre Wullschleger, Jürgen Berg, Felix Bermpohl, Christiane Montag
Intensive outpatient models of need-adapted psychiatric care have been shown to reduce the length of hospital stays and to improve retention in care for people with severe mental illnesses. In contrast, evidence regarding the impact of such models on involuntary hospital treatment and other coercive measures in inpatient settings is still sparse, although these represent important indicators of the patients' wellbeing. In Germany, intensive models of care still have not been routinely implemented, and their effectiveness within the German psychiatric system is only studied in a few pioneering regions...
2018: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29748082/clinical-access-and-utilization-of-reports-and-images-in-neuroradiology
#2
Matthew D Alvin, Mona Shahriari, Evan Honig, Li Liu, David M Yousem
BACKGROUND: The radiology report serves as the primary means of communication between radiologist and clinician. However, the value clinicians place on imaging and reports is variable, with many images of studies or their reports never being viewed. This has implications on the perceived value of the radiologist in the imaging chain. We hypothesized that neurologists, neurosurgeons, and otolaryngologists would view neuroradiology images most frequently and neuroradiology reports least frequently of all medical specialties...
May 7, 2018: Journal of the American College of Radiology: JACR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29738717/the-habenula-in-neurosurgery-for-depression-a-convergence-of-functional-neuroanatomy-psychiatry-and-imaging
#3
REVIEW
Georgios P Skandalakis, Christos Koutsarnakis, Aristotelis V Kalyvas, Panagiotis Skandalakis, Elizabeth O Johnson, George Stranjalis
BACKGROUND: The habenula is a small, mostly underrated structure in the pineal region. Multidisciplinary findings demonstrate an underlying complex connectivity of the habenula with the rest of the brain, subserving its major role in normal behavior and the pathophysiology of depression. These findings suggest the potential application of "habenular psychosurgery" in the treatment of mental disorders. OBJECTIVE/HYPOTHESIS: The remission of two patients with treatment-resistant major depression treated with deep brain stimulation of the habenula supported the hypothesis that the habenula is an effective target for deep brain stimulation and initiated a surge of basic science research...
May 5, 2018: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29710118/disorganized-gyrification-network-properties-during-the-transition-to-psychosis
#4
Tushar Das, Stefan Borgwardt, Daniel J Hauke, Fabienne Harrisberger, Undine E Lang, Anita Riecher-Rössler, Lena Palaniyappan, André Schmidt
Importance: There is urgent need to improve the limited prognostic accuracy of clinical instruments to predict psychosis onset in individuals at clinical high risk (CHR) for psychosis. As yet, no reliable biological marker has been established to delineate CHR individuals who will develop psychosis from those who will not. Objectives: To investigate abnormalities in a graph-based gyrification connectome in the early stages of psychosis and to test the accuracy of this systems-based approach to predict a transition to psychosis among CHR individuals...
April 25, 2018: JAMA Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29708023/textbook-descriptions-of-people-with-psychosis-some-ethical-aspects
#5
Terje Emil Fredwall, Inger Beate Larsen
BACKGROUND: Textbooks are central for the education of professionals in the health field and a resource for practitioners already in the field. OBJECTIVES: This article focuses on how 12 textbooks in psychiatric nursing and psychiatry, published in Norway between 1877 and 2012, describe and present people with psychosis. RESEARCH DESIGN: We used qualitative content analysis. Ethical considerations: The topic is published textbooks, made available to be read by students, teachers and professionals, and no ethical approval was required...
January 1, 2018: Nursing Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29694527/psyche-meets-matter-body-and-personhood-in-the-medical-scientific-project-of-nise-da-silveira
#6
Felipe Sales Magaldi
In the early 1900s, Brazilian psychiatry was marked by the use of controversial treatments, like electroconvulsive therapy, psychosurgery, and insulin coma therapy. In 1946, the Brazilian physician Nise da Silveira took the front line in criticizing these treatments by setting up a creative activities studio in the National Psychiatric Center (Centro Psiquiátrico Nacional), in Rio de Janeiro. The article examines the theoretical basis for Silveira's medical-scientific project, drawing on documental sources and fieldwork with the study group at the Museum of Images from the Unconscious (Museu de Imagens do Inconsciente), maintained by her disciples...
March 2018: História, Ciências, Saúde—Manguinhos
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29690558/abuse-of-prescription-drugs-in-the-context-of-novel-psychoactive-substances-nps-a-systematic-review
#7
REVIEW
Fabrizio Schifano, Stefania Chiappini, John M Corkery, Amira Guirguis
Recently, a range of prescription and over-the-counter drugs have been reportedly used as Novel Psychoactive Substances (NPS), due to their potential for abuse resulting from their high dosage/idiosyncratic methods of self-administration. This paper provides a systematic review of the topic, focusing on a range of medications which have emerged as being used recreationally, either on their own or in combination with NPS. Among gabapentinoids, pregabalin may present with higher addictive liability levels than gabapentin, with pregabalin being mostly identified in the context of opioid, polydrug intake...
April 22, 2018: Brain Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29625429/a-latent-variable-approach-to-differentiating-neural-mechanisms-of-irritability-and-anxiety-in-youth
#8
Katharina Kircanski, Lauren K White, Wan-Ling Tseng, Jillian Lee Wiggins, Heather R Frank, Stefanie Sequeira, Susan Zhang, Rany Abend, Kenneth E Towbin, Argyris Stringaris, Daniel S Pine, Ellen Leibenluft, Melissa A Brotman
Importance: Comorbidity is ubiquitous in psychiatry, but it is unclear how to differentiate neural mechanisms of co-occurring symptoms. Pediatric irritability and anxiety symptoms are prevalent and frequently co-occur. Threat orienting is pertinent to both phenotypes and is an ideal context in which to examine their unique and common neural mechanisms. Objectives: To decompose the unique and shared variances of pediatric irritability and anxiety symptoms and to determine neural correlates of these differentiated phenotypes during threat orienting...
April 6, 2018: JAMA Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29601060/revealing-neurocomputational-mechanisms-of-reinforcement-learning-and-decision-making-with-the-hbayesdm-package
#9
Woo-Young Ahn, Nathaniel Haines, Lei Zhang
Reinforcement learning and decision-making (RLDM) provide a quantitative framework and computational theories with which we can disentangle psychiatric conditions into the basic dimensions of neurocognitive functioning. RLDM offer a novel approach to assessing and potentially diagnosing psychiatric patients, and there is growing enthusiasm for both RLDM and computational psychiatry among clinical researchers. Such a framework can also provide insights into the brain substrates of particular RLDM processes, as exemplified by model-based analysis of data from functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) or electroencephalography (EEG)...
October 2017: Comput Psychiatr
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29590315/association-of-brain-cortical-changes-with-relapse-in-patients-with-major-depressive-disorder
#10
Dario Zaremba, Katharina Dohm, Ronny Redlich, Dominik Grotegerd, Robert Strojny, Susanne Meinert, Christian Bürger, Verena Enneking, Katharina Förster, Jonathan Repple, Nils Opel, Bernhard T Baune, Pienie Zwitserlood, Walter Heindel, Volker Arolt, Harald Kugel, Udo Dannlowski
Importance: More than half of all patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) experience a relapse within 2 years after recovery. It is unclear how relapse affects brain morphologic features during the course of MDD. Objective: To use structural magnetic resonance imaging to identify morphologic brain changes associated with relapse in MDD. Design, Setting, and Participants: In this longitudinal case-control study, patients with acute MDD at baseline and healthy controls were recruited from the University of Münster Department of Psychiatry from March 21, 2010, to November 14, 2014, and were reassessed from November 11, 2012, to October 28, 2016...
March 28, 2018: JAMA Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29578481/deficits-in-regional-cerebral-blood-flow-on-brain-spect-predict-treatment-resistant-depression
#11
Daniel G Amen, Derek V Taylor, Somayeh Meysami, Cyrus A Raji
BACKGROUND: Depression remains an important risk factor for Alzheimer's disease, yet few neuroimaging biomarkers are available to identify treatment response in depression. OBJECTIVE: To analyze and compare functional perfusion neuroimaging in persons with treatment resistant depression (TRD) compared to those experiencing full remission. METHODS: A total of 951 subjects from a community psychiatry cohort were scanned with perfusion single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) of the brain in both resting and task related settings...
March 22, 2018: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29574739/reimagining-the-environment-in-developmental-psychopathology-from-molecules-to-effective-interventions
#12
EDITORIAL
Pasco Fearon
The Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry's Annual Research Review (ARR) is a must-read special issue of the journal that presents a series of major reviews of key topics in the field. This year the ARR consists of eight reviews, each accompanied by a commentary from a leading expert in the field, on a diverse range of topics addressing, in complementary ways, the key role of the environment in child psychopathology and in leveraging change in the service of prevention and intervention. Topics include epigenetics, stress physiology, neonatal imaging, interparental conflict, bullying, autism treatments and suicide...
April 2018: Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29532566/application-of-functional-magnetic-resonance-imaging-in-psychiatric-clinical-evaluation-controversies-and-avenues
#13
Sevdalina Kandilarova, Drozdstoy Stoyanov, Ivo D Popivanov, Stefan Kostianev
RATIONALE, AIMS, AND OBJECTIVES: In this study, we have attempted to replicate the findings of altered emotional processing in depressed patients compared with healthy controls by means of functional magnetic resonance imaging during passive viewing of positive, negative, and neutral pictures from the International Affective Pictures System. METHODS: Nineteen medicated depressed patients and 19 sex and age-matched healthy controls underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging during presentation of affective pictures in a block design...
March 13, 2018: Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29530516/fear-extinction-in-the-human-brain-a-meta-analysis-of-fmri-studies-in-healthy-participants
#14
REVIEW
Miquel A Fullana, Anton Albajes-Eizagirre, Carles Soriano-Mas, Bram Vervliet, Narcís Cardoner, Olívia Benet, Joaquim Radua, Ben J Harrison
The study of fear extinction represents an important example of translational neuroscience in psychiatry and promises to improve the understanding and treatment of anxiety and fear-related disorders. We present the results of a set of meta-analyses of human fear extinction studies in healthy participants, conducted with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and reporting whole-brain results. Meta-analyses of fear extinction learning primarily implicate consistent activation of brain regions linked to threat appraisal and experience, including the dorsal anterior cingulate and anterior insular cortices...
May 2018: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29528294/clinical-applications-of-stochastic-dynamic-models-of-the-brain-part-ii-a-review
#15
REVIEW
James A Roberts, Karl J Friston, Michael Breakspear
Brain activity derives from intrinsic dynamics (due to neurophysiology and anatomical connectivity) in concert with stochastic effects that arise from sensory fluctuations, brainstem discharges, and random microscopic states such as thermal noise. The dynamic evolution of systems composed of both dynamic and random fluctuations can be studied with stochastic dynamic models (SDMs). This article, Part II of a two-part series, reviews applications of SDMs to large-scale neural systems in health and disease. Stochastic models have already elucidated a number of pathophysiological phenomena, such as epilepsy and hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy, although their use in biological psychiatry remains rather nascent...
April 2017: Biological Psychiatry: Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuroimaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29527049/ranchi-institute-of-neuro-psychiatry-and-allied-sciences-a-pioneer-in-the-field-of-psychiatry-in-india
#16
Suprakash Chaudhury, Ajay Kumar Bakhla, Subhas Soren
Ranchi Institute of Neuro-Psychiatry and Allied Sciences (RINPAS; Ranchi Indian Mental Hospital; Ranchi Manasik Aryogyashala) traces its origin from a lunatic asylum for Indian soldiers established at Munghyr in Bihar in 1795 and thus is the first mental hospital in India established by the British purely for Indian patients as well as the second oldest functioning mental hospital in India. The hospital made great strides in improving patients care and using modern methods of assessment and treatment as well as education and research during the tenure of Dr J E Dhunjibhoy the first Indian medical superintendent...
February 2018: Indian Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29474316/autoantibodies-against-n-methyl-d-aspartate-receptor-1-in-health-and-disease
#17
Hannelore Ehrenreich
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Humoral autoimmunity has gained highest interest in neurology and psychiatry. Despite numerous recent articles on this hot topic, however, the biological significance of natural autoantibodies (AB) and the normal autoimmune repertoire of mammals remained quite obscure. AB may contribute to disorder-relevant phenotypes and are even believed to induce diseases themselves, but the circumstances under which AB become pathogenic are not fully understood. This review will focus on the highly frequent AB against the N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor 1 (NMDAR1-AB) as an illustrating example and provide a critical overview of current work (please note that the new nomenclature, GluN1, is disregarded here for consistency with the AB literature)...
June 2018: Current Opinion in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29461039/dark-classics-in-chemical-neuroscience-lysergic-acid-diethylamide-lsd
#18
David E Nichols
Lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) is one of the most potent psychoactive agents known, producing dramatic alterations of consciousness after submilligram (≥20 μg) oral doses. Following the accidental discovery of its potent psychoactive effects in 1943, it was supplied by Sandoz Laboratories as an experimental drug that might be useful as an adjunct for psychotherapy, or to give psychiatrists insight into the mental processes in their patients. The finding of serotonin in the mammalian brain in 1953, and its structural resemblance to LSD, quickly led to ideas that serotonin in the brain might be involved in mental disorders, initiating rapid research interest in the neurochemistry of serotonin...
March 1, 2018: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29438853/gastric-ulceration-and-perforation-secondary-to-large-trichobezoar-a-case-report-describing-the-role-of-magnetic-resonance-imaging-in-diagnosis
#19
M M Hennessy, I Ivanovski, C B Ó Súilleabháin
INTRODUCTION: Trichotillomania and trichotillophagia can result in huge intraluminal coagulations of hair. Rarely, these can present with gastric perforation. This work has been reported in line with the SCARE criteria (Agha et al., 2016) [1]. PRESENTATION OF CASE: We report the case of a 15 year old girl who attended the emergency department with abdominal pain and vomiting. Ultrasound abdomen and pelvis identified free fluid within the pelvis concerning for inflammatory bowel disease...
2018: International Journal of Surgery Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29414129/neural-correlates-of-intimate-picture-stimuli-in-females
#20
Simon Maier, Julia Spiegelberg, Gitta Jacob, Linda van Zutphen, Almut Zeeck, Armin Hartmann, Oliver Tüscher, Lukas Holovics, Ludger Tebartz van Elst, Andreas Joos
Jacob et al. (2011) previously reported on intimate picture stimuli for emotion research in females in Psychiatry Research. Difficulties to engage in intimate relations constitute problems of many mental disorders, and intimacy must be differentiated from pure sex drive. Functional neuroimaging is an important tool to understand the pathophysiology of psychiatric disorders. We now studied cerebral activation in response to intimate stimuli in 35 healthy women. Comparison stimuli were taken from the International Affective Picture System...
March 30, 2018: Psychiatry research. Neuroimaging
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