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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028178/zika-virus-immune-evasion-mechanisms-currently-available-therapeutic-regimens-and-vaccines
#1
Arun Asif, Sobia Manzoor, Fatima Tuz-Zahra, Muhammad Saalim, Maliha Ashraf, Javeria Ishtiyaq, Madiha Khalid
The sudden emergence of infectious pathogens such as Zika virus (ZIKV) holds global health concerns. Recent dissemination of ZIKV from Pacific to Americas with an upsurge of congenital anomalies and Guillain Barre Syndrome (GBS) in adults has created an alarming situation. High-throughput studies are in progress to understand ZIKV's mode of pathogenesis and mechanism of immune escape, yet the pathogenesis remains obscure. Mainly ZIKV's envelope (E) protein and nonstructural proteins (mainly NS1 and NS5) manipulate host cell to support viral immune escape by modulation of the interferon pathway and complement antagonism...
October 13, 2017: Viral Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29026157/bortezomib-promotes-khsv-and-ebv-lytic-cycle-by-activating-jnk-and-autophagy
#2
Marisa Granato, Maria Anele Romeo, Mariangela Sara Tiano, Roberta Santarelli, Roberta Gonnella, Maria Saveria Gilardini Montani, Alberto Faggioni, Mara Cirone
KSHV and EBV are gammaherpesviruses strictly linked to human cancers. Even if the majority of cancer cells harbor a latent infection, the few cells that undergo viral replication may contribute to the pathogenesis and maintenance of the virus-associated malignancies. Cytotoxic drugs used for the therapies of cancers harboring virus-infection often have, as side effect, the activation of viral lytic cycle. Therefore it is important to investigate whether they affect viral reactivation and understand the underlying mechanisms involved...
October 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28992880/delayed-introduction-of-immunosuppressive-regimens-in-critically-ill-patients-after-liver-transplantation
#3
Ying Luo, Wen-Bin Ji, Wei-Dong Duan, Xian-Jie Shi, Zhi-Ming Zhao
BACKGROUND: The manipulation of immunosuppression therapy remains challenging in patients who develop infectious diseases or multiple organ dysfunction after liver transplantation. We evaluated the outcomes of delayed introduction of immunosuppression in the patients after liver transplantation under immune monitoring with ImmuKnow assay. METHODS: From March 2009 to February 2014, 225 consecutive liver recipients in our institute were included. The delayed administration of immunosuppressive regimens was attempted in 11 liver recipients with multiple severe comorbidities...
October 15, 2017: Hepatobiliary & Pancreatic Diseases International: HBPD INT
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28988817/a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-the-efficacy-of-manipulative-therapy-in-women-with-primary-dysmenorrhea
#4
REVIEW
Ukachukwu Okoroafor Abaraogu, Sylvester Emeka Igwe, Chidinma Samantha Tabansi-Ochiogu, Deborah Onyinyechukwu Duru
OBJECTIVE: To assess the robustness of evidence for the efficacy of manipulative therapy in women with primary dysmenorrhea. METHOD: Seven electronic databases were searched for studies reporting data on manipulative therapy for women with primary dysmenorrhea. The primary and secondary outcomes were pain relief and quality of life, respectively. Quality of eligible studies was assessed using the Physiotherapy Evidence Database (PEDro) guideline. RESULTS: The search yielded 19 citations of which four were systematically reviewed and three eligible for meta-analysis...
August 30, 2017: Explore: the Journal of Science and Healing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28987783/engineering-fibrin-hydrogels-to-promote-the-wound-healing-potential-of-mesenchymal-stem-cell-spheroids
#5
Kaitlin C Murphy, Jacklyn Whitehead, Dejie Zhou, Steve S Ho, J Kent Leach
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) secrete endogenous factors such as vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) that promote angiogenesis, modulate the inflammatory microenvironment, and stimulate wound repair, and MSC spheroids secrete more trophic factors than dissociated, individual MSCs. Compared to injection of cells alone, transplantation of MSCs in a biomaterial can enhance their wound healing potential by localizing cells at the defect site and upregulating trophic factor secretion...
October 5, 2017: Acta Biomaterialia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28987072/adult-use-of-complementary-and-integrative-approaches-to-improve-athletic-performance
#6
Marion Willard Evans, Harrison Ndetan, Vishaldeep Ka Sekhon, Ronald Williams, Brittney Oliver, Michael Perko, Conrad Woolsey, Karan P Singh
Context • In the United States in 2007, approximately 38% of adults, or 4 in 10, used some form of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM). An area in which little is known is the personal integration of CAM therapies by those individuals seeking to improve athletic performance. Objectives • The study intended to assess the use of integrative care by adult athletes in the United States as well as their satisfaction with it, as reported in the 2012 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS). Design • A secondary analysis of the data from the Adult Alternative Health/Complementary Medicine file of the 2012 NHIS was performed...
October 2, 2017: Alternative Therapies in Health and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28982668/induced-pluripotent-stem-cell-derived-megakaryocytes-and-platelets-for-disease-modeling-and-clinical-use
#7
REVIEW
Sara Borst, Xiuli Sim, Mortimer Poncz, Deborah L French, Paul Gadue
Platelets, derived from megakaryocytes, are anucleate cytoplasmic discs that circulate in the blood stream and play major roles in hemostasis, inflammation, and vascular biology. Platelet transfusions are used in a variety of medical settings to prevent life-threatening thrombocytopenia because of cancer therapy, other causes of acquired or inherited thrombocytopenia, and trauma. Currently, platelets used for transfusion purposes are donor derived. However, there is a drive to generate nondonor sources of platelets to help supplement donor-derived platelets...
October 5, 2017: Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28980194/gene-editing-and-human-pluripotent-stem-cells-tools-for-advancing-diabetes-disease-modeling-and-beta-cell-development
#8
REVIEW
Katelyn Millette, Senta Georgia
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review will focus on the multiple approaches to gene editing and address the potential use of genetically modified human pluripotent stem cell-derived beta cells (SC-β) as a tool to study human beta-cell development and model their function in diabetes. We will explore how new variations of CRISPR/Cas9 gene editing may accelerate our understanding of beta-cell developmental biology, elucidate novel mechanisms that establish and regulate beta-cell function, and assist in pioneering new therapeutic modalities for treating diabetes...
October 5, 2017: Current Diabetes Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28976945/activation-of-nigrostriatal-dopamine-neurons-during-fear-extinction-prevents-the-renewal-of-fear
#9
Courtney A Bouchet, Megan A Miner, Esteban C Loetz, Adam J Rosberg, Holly S Hake, Caroline E Farmer, Mykola Ostrovskyy, Nathan Gray, Benjamin N Greenwood
Manipulations that increase dopamine (DA) signaling can enhance fear extinction, but the circuits involved remain unknown. DA neurons originating in the substantia nigra (SN) projecting to the dorsal striatum (DS) are traditionally viewed in the context of motor behavior, but growing data implicate this nigrostriatal circuit in emotion. Here we investigated the role of nigrostriatal DA in fear extinction. Activation of SN DA neurons with designer Gq-coupled receptors exclusively activated by designer drugs (Gq-DREADD) during fear extinction had no effect on fear extinction acquisition, but enhanced fear extinction memory and blocked the renewal of fear in a novel context; a pattern of data paralleled by cFos expression in the central amygdala...
October 4, 2017: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28976939/autophagy-proteins-in-viral-exocytosis-and-anti-viral-immune-responses
#10
REVIEW
Christian Münz
Abstract: Autophagy-related (Atg) gene-encoded proteins were originally described for their crucial role in macroautophagy, a catabolic pathway for cytoplasmic constituent degradation in lysosomes. Recently it has become clear that modules of this machinery can also be used to influence endo- and exocytosis. This mini review discusses how these alternative Atg functions support virus replication and viral antigen presentation on major histocompatibility (MHC) class I and II molecules. A better understanding of the modular use of the macroautophagy machinery might enable us to manipulate these alternative functions of Atg proteins during anti-viral therapies and to attenuate virus-induced immune pathologies...
October 4, 2017: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28976121/strategies-used-in-the-clinical-trials-of-gene-therapy-for-cancer
#11
Thekkuttuparambil Ananthanarayanan Ajith
Advances in understanding and manipulating genes have set the stage for scientists to alter a person's genetic material to prevent or treat diseases. Over the past decade, somatic gene therapy has been increasingly applied in clinical trials where the genetic material (DNA and RNA) introduced into a person's cell. Mutation and inactivation of the tumor suppressor genes are the unified concept of the development of tumor in humans. Therefore, researchers have discovered potential of gene therapies in the treatment of cancer...
September 2017: Journal of Experimental Therapeutics & Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28972449/targeting-rock-activity-to-disrupt-and-prime-pancreatic-cancer-for-chemotherapy
#12
Claire Vennin, Nicola Rath, Marina Pajic, Michael F Olson, Paul Timpson
Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is a devastating disease; the identification of novel targets and development of effective treatment strategies are urgently needed to improve patient outcomes. Remodeling of the pancreatic stroma occurs during PDAC development, which drives disease progression and impairs responses to therapy. The actomyosin regulatory ROCK1 and ROCK2 kinases govern cell motility and contractility, and have been suggested to be potential targets for cancer therapy, particularly to reduce the metastatic spread of tumor cells...
October 3, 2017: Small GTPases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28971711/epigenetic-regulation-in-bacterial-infections-targeting-histone-deacetylases
#13
Aleksander M Grabiec, Jan Potempa
Pathogens have developed sophisticated strategies to evade the immune response, among which manipulation of host cellular epigenetic mechanisms plays a prominent role. In the last decade, modulation of histone acetylation in host cells has emerged as an efficient strategy of bacterial immune evasion. Virulence factors and metabolic products of pathogenic microorganisms alter expression and activity of histone acetyltransferases (HATs) and histone deacetylases (HDACs) to suppress transcription of host defense genes through epigenetic changes in histone acetylation marks...
October 3, 2017: Critical Reviews in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28971659/-hematopoietic-stem-cell-transplantation-in-the-perspective-of-time-and-up-to-the-2000-transplant-at-the-rambam-health-care-campus
#14
REVIEW
Israel Henig, Jacob Rowe, Nuhad Hadad, Riva Fineman, Noam Benyamini, Tsila Zuckerman
Stem cell transplantation is indicated in hematological malignancies as well as some solid tumors and congenital abnormalities. Autologous transplantation allows the administration of high dose chemotherapy without prolonged bone marrow aplasia. Allogeneic transplantation allows us to give the patient a new immune system that can locate and destroy remaining tumor cells. First attempts in patients began in 1939. Improved outcomes occurred after discovering the human leukocyte antigen system which allowed for matching the donor to the patient...
September 2017: Harefuah
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28971608/pharmacological-hypothesis-nitric-oxide-induced-inhibition-of-adam-17-activity-as-well-as-vesicle-release-can-in-turn-prevent-the-production-of-soluble-endothelin-converting-enzyme
#15
REVIEW
Sanjaya Kuruppu, Niwanthi W Rajapakse, Helena C Parkington, Ian Smith
Endothelin-1 (ET-1) and nitric oxide (NO) are two highly potent vasoactive molecules with opposing effects on the vasculature. Endothelin-converting enzyme (ECE) and nitric oxide synthase (NOS) catalyse the production of ET-1 and NO, respectively. It is well established that these molecules play a crucial role in the initiation and progression of cardiovascular diseases and have therefore become targets of therapy. Many studies have examined the mechanism(s) by which NO regulates ET-1 production. Expression and localization of ECE-1 is a key factor that determines the rate of ET-1 production...
October 2017: Pharmacology Research & Perspectives
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28971065/preclinical-modeling-and-therapeutic-avenues-for-cancer-metastasis-to-the-central-nervous-system
#16
REVIEW
Mohini Singh, David Bakhshinyan, Chitra Venugopal, Sheila K Singh
Metastasis is the dissemination of cells from the primary tumor to other locations within the body, and continues to be the predominant cause of death among cancer patients. Metastatic progression within the adult central nervous system is 10 times more frequent than primary brain tumors. Metastases affecting the brain parenchyma and leptomeninges are associated with grave prognosis, and even after successful control of the primary tumor the median survival is a dismal 2-3 months with treatment options typically limited to palliative care...
2017: Frontiers in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28969222/closed-external-fixation-for-failing-or-failed-femoral-shaft-plating-in-a-developing-country
#17
Adil Aliakbar, Ibrahim Witwit, Alaa A Hussein Al-Algawy
INTRODUCTION: Femoral shaft fractures are one of the common injuries that is treated by open reduction, with internal fixation by plate and screws or intramedullary nailing, which can achieve a high union rate. AIM: To evaluate the outcome of using closed external fixation to augment a failing plate; with signs of screw loosening and increasing bone/plate gap; a failed plate; broken plate; screws completely out of bone with redisplacement of fracture. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A retrospective study on 18 patients, aged between 17-42 years, who presented between 6-18 weeks after initial surgical fixation, with pain, difficulty in limb function, deformity and abnormal movement at fracture site, was done...
August 2017: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28967307/introduction-surgical-management-of-skull-base-meningiomas
#18
Gabriel Zada, Mustafa K Başkaya, Mitesh V Shah
Meningiomas represent the most common primary intracranial neoplasm treated by neurosurgeons. Although multimodal treatment of meningiomas includes surgery, radiation-based treatments, and occasionally medical therapy, surgery remains the mainstay of treatment for most symptomatic meningiomas. Because of the intricate relationship of the dura mater and arachnoid mater with the central nervous system and cranial nerves, meningiomas can arise anywhere along the skull base or convexities, and occasionally even within the ventricular system, thereby mandating a catalog of surgical approaches that neurosurgeons may employ to individualize treatment for patients...
October 2017: Neurosurgical Focus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28965980/remote-regulation-of-magnetic-particle-targeted-wnt-signaling-for-bone-tissue-engineering
#19
Michael Rotherham, James R Henstock, Omar Qutachi, Alicia J El Haj
Wnt signaling is critically involved in the differentiation of human Mesenchymal Stem Cells (hMSC). Wnt proteins therefore have considerable therapeutic value, but are expensive and difficult to produce. UM206 is a synthetic peptide and ligand for the Wnt receptor Frizzled. Attachment of UM206 to magnetic nanoparticles (MNP) enables the ligand-MNP complex to be manipulated using magnetic fields, allowing control of Frizzled stimulation. Using this approach, Wnt signaling was activated in hMSC which resulted in Frizzled clustering, β-catenin translocalization and activation of TCF/LEF responsive transcription...
September 29, 2017: Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology, and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28965431/chemokines-as-adjuvants-for-immunotherapy-implications-for-immune-activation-with-ccl3
#20
Teilo H Schaller, Kristen A Batich, Carter M Suryadevara, Rupen Desai, John H Sampson
Immunotherapy embodies any approach that manipulates the immune system for therapeutic benefit. In this regard, various clinical trials have employed direct vaccination with patient-specific dendritic cells or adoptive T cell therapy to target highly aggressive tumors. Both modalities have demonstrated great specificity, an advantage that is unmatched by other treatment strategies. However, their full potential has yet to be realized. Areas covered: In this review, we provide an overview of chemokines in pathogen and anti-tumor immune responses and discuss further improving immunotherapies by arming particular chemokine axes...
November 2017: Expert Review of Clinical Immunology
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