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J K Wilson, A S Tseng, K A Potter, G Davidowitz, J G Hildebrand
Plants have evolved many defenses against insect herbivores, including numerous chemicals that can reduce herbivore growth, performance, and fitness. One group of chemicals, the tropane alkaloids, is commonly found in the nightshade family (Solanaceae) and has been thought to reduce performance and fitness in insects. We examined the effects of the tropane alkaloid scopolamine, the alkaloid constituent of Datura wrightii, which is the most frequent host plant for the abundant and widespread insect herbivore Manduca sexta in the southwestern United States...
February 2018: Arthropod-plant Interactions
Laura S Stapp, Laura M Parker, Wayne A O'Connor, Christian Bock, Pauline M Ross, Hans O Pörtner, G Lannig
Understanding mechanisms of intraspecific variation in resilience to environmental drivers is key to predict species' adaptive potential. Recent studies show a higher CO2 resilience of Sydney rock oysters selectively bred for increased growth and disease resistance ('selected oysters') compared to the wild population. We tested whether the higher resilience of selected oysters correlates with an increased ability to compensate for CO2-induced acid-base disturbances. After 7 weeks of exposure to elevated seawater PCO2 (1100 μatm), wild oysters had a lower extracellular pH (pHe = 7...
December 18, 2017: Marine Environmental Research
Zhendong Qin, V Sarath Babu, Quanyuan Wan, Asim Muhammad, Jun Li, Jiangfeng Lan, Li Lin
Hemocyanins (HMC): the copper-containing respiratory proteins present in invertebrate hemolymph, which plays many essential roles in the immune system. Currently, little is known about the HMC domains of Procambarus clarkii (P. clarkii) and their function in antimicrobial immune response. In this present study, we comparatively studied the expression pattern of native PcHMC with the three recombinant proteins of variable domains of crayfish hemocyanin (PcHMC-N, N-terminal domain of hemocyanin; PcHMC-T, tyrosinase domain of hemocyanin; and PcHMC-C, C-terminal domain of hemocyanin)...
February 7, 2018: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
Stephan Scholz, Stefan Richter, Christian S Wirkner
We present a study of the hemolymph vascular system of the marbled crayfish, Procambarus fallax f. virginalis, the only crayfish species known to be parthenogenetic. To identify potential evolutionary patterns, we compared data from a total of 48 specimens of P. fallax with 22 specimens of Orconectes limosus. Visualizations (2D and 3D) were carried out using a combination of classical and modern morphological techniques. Our data were compared to the existing literature. Like all Decapoda, both P. fallax and O...
February 5, 2018: Arthropod Structure & Development
Mimi Shin, Jeffrey M Copeland, B Jill Venton
Drosophila melanogaster, the fruit fly, is an important, simple model organism for studying the effects of genetic mutations on neuronal activity and behavior. Biologists use Drosophila for neuroscience studies because of its genetic tractability, complex behaviors, well-known and simple neuroanatomy, and many orthologs to human genes. Neurochemical measurements in Drosophila are challenging due to the small size of the central nervous system. Recently, methods have been developed to measure real-time neurotransmitter release and clearance in both larvae and adults using electrochemistry...
February 7, 2018: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
Clément Offret, Vincent Rochard, Hélène Laguerre, Jérôme Mounier, Sylvain Huchette, Benjamin Brillet, Patrick Le Chevalier, Yannick Fleury
The hemolymph of healthy marine invertebrates is known to harbor antibiotic-producing bacteria belonging to the genus Pseudoalteromonas. Such strains are potential probiotics to control infectious diseases in aquaculture. In the present study, we screened a collection of Pseudoalteromonas strains isolated from the hemolymph of oyster and mussel for antimicrobial activity against Vibrio harveyi, a pathogenic species responsible for high mortality in abalone. Subsequently, the protective efficacy of the most active strain named hCg-6 was investigated in abalone culture faced with a Vibrio harveyi ORM4 infection...
February 6, 2018: Probiotics and Antimicrobial Proteins
Isabel A Patiño-Márquez, Edwin Patiño-González, Laura Hernández-Villa, Blanca Ortíz-Reyes, Marcela Manrique-Moreno
Leishmaniasis is a neglected disease, World Health Organization (WHO) declared it as high priority worldwide. Colombia is one of the 98 countries in which the disease caused more than 17.000 cases per year. There is a need to explore novel therapies to reduce the side effects of the current treatments. For this reason, this study was aimed to evaluate Galleria mellonella hemolymph for potential peptides with anti-parasitic activity. Larvae were challenged with Leishmania (V) panamensis promastigotes and hemolymph was analyzed using sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE), reversed phase chromatography (RP-HPLC), two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and liquid chromatography-mass spectroscopy (LC/MS)...
January 31, 2018: Analytical Biochemistry
Takatsugu Miyazaki, Tatsuya Kato, Enoch Y Park
β-1,2-N-Acetylglucosaminyltransferase II (GnTII, EC is a Golgi-localized type II transmembrane enzyme that catalyzes the transfer of N-acetylglucosamine to the 6-arm of the trimanosyl core of N-glycans, an essential step in the conversion of oligomannose-type to complex-type N-glycans. Despite its physiological importance, there have been only a few reports on the heterologous expression and structure-function relationship of this enzyme. Here, we constructed a silkworm-based Bombyx mori nucleopolyhedrovirus bacmid expression system and expressed human GnTII (hGnTII) lacking the N-terminal cytosolic tail and transmembrane region...
February 3, 2018: Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering
Siying Tao, Zhenlong Jiao, Guigui Wen, Lihong Zhang, Guoxiu Wang
Ovomermis sinensis is a potentially-valuable nematode for controlling insect pests. The parasitic stage of the nematode absorbs nutrients in its host's hemolymph to maintain its growth development and then kills the host when it emerges. At present, little known about its reproductive development, particularly the responsible molecular mechanism. More detailed research on the genes of reproductive development will not only help us understand the mechanisms underlying sex differentiation in the nematode, but would also be valuable for successfully cultivating them in vitro and using them for biocontrol...
2018: PloS One
Dimitri Theuerkauff, Georgina A Rivera-Ingraham, Yann Mercky, Mathilde Lejeune, Jehan-Hervé Lignot, Elliott Sucré
Mangroves are increasingly used as biofiltering systems of (pre-treated) domestic effluents. However, these wastewater discharges may affect local macrofauna. This laboratory study investigates the effects of wastewater exposure on the mangrove spider crab Neosarmatium meinerti, a key engineering species which is known to be affected by waste waters in effluent-impacted areas. These effects were quantified by monitoring biological markers of physiological state, namely oxygen consumption, the branchial cavity ventilation rate, gill physiology and morphology, and osmoregulatory and redox balance...
January 6, 2018: Aquatic Toxicology
Kristin R Duffield, Kylie J Hampton, Thomas M Houslay, John Hunt, James Rapkin, Scott K Sakaluk, Ben M Sadd
The terminal investment hypothesis proposes that decreased expectation of future reproduction (e.g., arising from a threat to survival) should precipitate increased investment in current reproduction. The level at which a cue of decreased survival is sufficient to trigger terminal investment (i.e., the terminal investment threshold) may vary according to other factors that influence expectation for future reproduction. We test whether the terminal investment threshold varies with age in male crickets, using heat-killed bacteria to simulate an immune-inducing infection...
February 1, 2018: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
Robert Minkner, Enoch Y Park
Virus-like particles (VLPs) are a promising and developing option for vaccination and gene therapy. They are also interesting as shuttles for drug targeting. Currently, several different gene expression systems are available, among which the silkworm expression system is known for its mass production capacity. However, cost-effective purification with high purity of the target protein is a particular bottleneck for this system. The present review evaluates the advances in the purification of VLPs, especially from silkworm larval hemolymph...
January 30, 2018: Biotechnology Letters
Florian Hochapfel, Lucia Denk, Christine Maaßen, Yulia Zaytseva, Reinhard Rachel, Ralph Witzgall, Michael P Krahn
Due to its structural and molecular similarities to mammalian podocytes, the Drosophila nephrocyte emerged as a model system to study podocyte development and -associated diseases. Similar to podocytes, nephrocytes establish a slit diaphragm between "foot process-like" structures in order to filtrate the hemolymph. One major obstacle in nephrocyte research is the distinct visualization of this subcellular structure to assess its integrity. Therefore, we developed a specialized dissection and fixation protocol, including high pressure freezing and freeze substitution techniques, to improve the preservation of the intricate ultrastructural details necessary for electron microscopic assessment...
January 29, 2018: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
Dirk Weihrauch, Garett Joseph, Patrick Allen
Invertebrates employ a variety of ammonia excretion strategies to facilitate their survival in diverse aquatic environments, including freshwater, seawater and the water film surrounding soil particles. Various environmental properties set innate challenges for an organism's ammonia excretory capacity. These include the availability of NaCl and the respective ion-permeability of the organism's transport epithelia, and the buffering capacity of their immediate surrounding medium. To this end, some transporters seem to be conserved in the excretory process...
January 29, 2018: Journal of Experimental Biology
Joice Magali Brustolin, Felipe da Silva Krawczak, Marta Elena Machado Alves, Maria Amélia Weiller, Camila Lopes de Souza, Fábio Brum Rosa, Gustavo Cauduro Cadore, Sônia Terezinha Dos Anjos Lopes, Marcelo Bahia Labruna, Fernanda Silveira Flores Vogel, Sônia de Avila Botton, Luís Antônio Sangioni
This study describes experimental infection of guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus) infested with naturally infected Amblyomma ovale nymphs with Rickettsia sp. (Atlantic rainforest strain), and the capacity of A. ovale nymphs to transmit this bacterium. Twenty-six guinea pigs were divided into the following groups: G1, 10 animals infested with uninfected A. ovale nymphs; G2, 10 animals infested with nymphs infected with Rickettsia sp. (Atlantic rainforest strain); and G3, 6 animals without tick infestation. Blood samples were taken 7, 14, 21, and 28 days post-infestation for serological and hematological tests...
January 27, 2018: Parasitology Research
Wen-Qiang Xia, Yan Liang, Yao Chi, Li-Long Pan, Jing Zhao, Shu-Sheng Liu, Xiao-Wei Wang
Begomoviruses are exclusively transmitted by whiteflies in a persistent circulative manner and cause considerable economic losses to crop production worldwide. Previous studies have shown that begomoviruses accumulate in vesicle-like structures in whitefly midgut cells and that clathrin-mediated endocytosis is responsible for their internalization. However, the process by which begomoviruses are trafficked within whitefly midgut cells remains largely unknown. In this study, we investigated the roles of vesicle trafficking in the transport of Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV), a begomovirus that has spread to over 50 countries and caused extensive damage to a range of important crops, within midgut cells of whitefly (Bemisia tabaci)...
January 25, 2018: PLoS Pathogens
Gil Y Yerushalmi, Lidiya Misyura, Heath A MacMillan, Andrew Donini
At low temperatures, Drosophila, like most insects, lose the ability to regulate ion and water balance across the gut epithelia, which can lead to a lethal increase of [K+] in the hemolymph (hyperkalemia). Cold-acclimation, the physiological response to a prior low temperature exposure, can mitigate or entirely prevent these ion imbalances, but the physiological mechanisms that facilitate this process are not well understood. Here, we test whether plasticity in the ionoregulatory physiology of the gut and Malpighian tubules of Drosophila may aid in preserving ion homeostasis in the cold...
January 24, 2018: Journal of Experimental Biology
Andrea C Durant, Martha P Celis-Salgado, Shayan Ezatollahpour, Norman D Yan, Shelley Arnott, Andrew Donini
Calcium levels are declining in eastern North American and western European lakes. This widespread issue is affecting the composition of crustacean zooplankton communities, as the presence and abundance of several calcium-rich daphniid species are declining, while two other daphniids, D. catawba and D. ambigua, that apparently tolerate low calcium environments, are prospering. The physiological basis for low calcium tolerance of these daphniids is unknown. In this study the presence of one Ca-rich (D. pulicaria) and one Ca-poor (D...
January 20, 2018: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology
A C Steinagel, M J Burkhard, K F Kuehnl, G Thomas Watters, P J Rajala-Schultz, K H Valentine, B A Wolfe
Non-destructive, sub-lethal, and sensitive health monitoring tools are needed for the family Unionidae (freshwater mussels). Recent developments to standardize hemocyte characterization have paved the way for hematologic assessment of wild and captive freshwater mussels. In this study, preliminary baseline hematological reference ranges were established for wild Mapleleaf Mussels, (Quadrula quadrula, n = 14) and Threeridge Mussels, (Amblema plicata, n = 20) collected from the Muskingum River in Devola, Ohio, USA...
January 24, 2018: Journal of Aquatic Animal Health
Lucie Gerber, Johannes Overgaard
There is growing evidence that maintenance of ion and water balance determine cold tolerance in many insects. The hindgut of terrestrial insects is critical for maintaining organismal homeostasis as it regulates solute- and water-balance of the hemolymph. Here we used ex vivo everted gut sacs of L. migratoria to examine the effects of temperature (0 - 30°C), thermal-acclimation, hypoxia, and ionic and osmotic forces on bulk water and ion (Na+, K+ and Cl-) movement across the rectal epithelium. These findings were related to simultaneous in vivo measurements of water and ion balance in locusts exposed to similar temperatures...
January 9, 2018: Journal of Experimental Biology
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