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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821771/thermal-acclimation-mitigates-cold-induced-paracellular-leak-from-the-drosophila-gut
#1
Heath A MacMillan, Gil Y Yerushalmi, Sima Jonusaite, Scott P Kelly, Andrew Donini
Chill susceptible insects suffer tissue damage and die at low temperatures. The mechanisms that cause chilling injury are not well understood but a growing body of evidence suggests that a cold-induced loss of ion and water homeostasis leads to hemolymph hyperkalemia that depolarizes cells, leading to cell death. The apparent root of this cascade is the net leak of osmolytes down their concentration gradients in the cold. Many insects, however, are capable of adjusting their thermal physiology, and cold-acclimated Drosophila can maintain homeostasis and avoid injury better than warm-acclimated flies...
August 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803980/humoral-immune-response-of-galleria-mellonella-after-repeated-infection-with-bacillus-thuringiensis
#2
Paulina Taszłow, Lidiia Vertyporokh, Iwona Wojda
The insect immune system relies on innate mechanisms only. However, there is an increasing number of data reporting that previous immune challenge with microbial elicitors or a low number of microorganisms can modulate susceptibility after subsequent lethal infection with the same or different pathogen. This phenomenon is called immune priming. Its biochemical and molecular mechanisms remain unravelled. Here we present that Galleria mellonella larvae that survived infection induced by intrahemocelic injection of a low dose of Bacillus thuringiensis were more resistant to re-injection of a lethal dose of the same bacteria but not other bacteria and fungi tested...
August 10, 2017: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803409/comparative-16srdna-gene-based-microbiota-profiles-of-the-pacific-oyster-crassostrea-gigas-and-the-mediterranean-mussel-mytilus-galloprovincialis-from-a-shellfish-farm-ligurian-sea-italy
#3
Luigi Vezzulli, L Stagnaro, C Grande, G Tassistro, L Canesi, C Pruzzo
The pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas and the Mediterranean mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis are two widely farmed bivalve species which show contrasting behaviour in relation to microbial diseases, with C. gigas being more susceptible and M. galloprovincialis being generally resistant. In a recent study, we showed that different susceptibility to infection exhibited by these two bivalve species may depend on their different capability to kill invading pathogens (e.g., Vibrio spp.) through the action of haemolymph components...
August 12, 2017: Microbial Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801771/morphology-and-ultrastructure-of-the-tarsal-adhesive-organs-of-the-madagascar-hissing-cockroach-gromphadorhina-portentosa
#4
Christian Schmitt, Oliver Betz
The present transmission and scanning electron microscopic study of the ultramorphology of the pliable attachment pads (arolium, euplantulae) of the Madagascar hissing cockroach Gromphadorhina portentosa reveals structural evidence for their function in producing, storing, and secreting an adhesion-mediating secretion and releasing it to the exterior. The exocrine epidermal tissue of both the arolium and the euplantula is significantly enlarged by numerous invaginations stretching into the hemolymph cavity...
August 12, 2017: Cell and Tissue Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800885/methyl-farnesoate-epoxidase-mfe-gene-expression-and-juvenile-hormone-titers-in-the-life-cycle-of-a-highly-eusocial-stingless-bee-melipona-scutellaris
#5
Carlos Antônio Mendes Cardoso-Júnior, Renato Pereira Silva, Naiara Araújo Borges, Washington João de Carvalho, S Leal Walter, Zilá Luz Paulino Simões, Marcia Maria Gentile Bitondi, Carlos Ueira Vieira, Ana Maria Bonetti, Klaus Hartfelder
In social insects, juvenile hormone (JH) has acquired novel functions related to caste determination and division of labor among workers, and this is best evidenced in the honey bee. In contrast to honey bees, stingless bees are a much more diverse group of highly eusocial bees, and the genus Melipona has long called special attention due to a proposed genetic mechanism of caste determination. Here, we examined methyl farnesoate epoxidase (mfe) gene expression, encoding an enzyme relevant for the final step in JH biosynthesis, and measured the hemolymph JH titers for all life cycle stages of Melipona scutellaris queens and workers...
August 9, 2017: Journal of Insect Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797479/paralysis-and-heart-failure-precede-ion-balance-disruption-in-heat-stressed-european-green-crabs
#6
Lisa B Jørgensen, Johannes Overgaard, Heath A MacMillan
Acute exposure of ectotherms to critically high temperatures causes injury and death, and this mortality has been associated with a number of physiological perturbations including impaired oxygen transport, loss of ion and water homeostasis, and neuronal failure. It is difficult to discern which of these factors, if any, is the proximate cause of heat injury because, for example, loss of ion homeostasis can impair neuromuscular function (including cardiac function), and conversely impaired oxygen transport reduces ATP supply and can thus reduce ion transport capacity...
August 2017: Journal of Thermal Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28783129/effects-of-oxalic-acid-on-apis-mellifera-hymenoptera-apidae
#7
Eva Rademacher, Marika Harz, Saskia Schneider
Abstract: Oxalic acid dihydrate is used to treat varroosis of Apis mellifera. This study investigates lethal and sublethal effects of oxalic acid dihydrate on individually treated honeybees kept in cages under laboratory conditions as well as the distribution in the colony. After oral application, bee mortality occurred at relatively low concentrations (No Observed Adverse Effect Level (NOAEL) 50 µg/bee; Lowest Observed Adverse Effect Level (LOAEL) 75 µg/bee) compared to the dermal treatment (NOAEL 212.5 µg/bee; LOAEL 250 µg/bee)...
August 7, 2017: Insects
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28771537/a-spirochaete-is-suggested-as-the-causative-agent-of-akoya-oyster-disease-by-metagenomic-analysis
#8
Tomomasa Matsuyama, Motoshige Yasuike, Atushi Fujiwara, Yoji Nakamura, Tomokazu Takano, Takeshi Takeuchi, Noriyuki Satoh, Yoshikazu Adachi, Yasushi Tsuchihashi, Hideo Aoki, Kazushi Odawara, Shunsuke Iwanaga, Jun Kurita, Takashi Kamaishi, Chihaya Nakayasu
Mass mortality that is acompanied by reddish browning of the soft tissues has been occurring in cultured pearl oyster, Pinctada fucata martensii. The disease is called Akoya oyster disease (AOD). Although spreading pattern of the disease and transmission experiments suggest that the disease is infectious, the causative agent has not yet been identified. We used shotgun and 16S rRNA-based metagenomic analysis to identify genes that are present specifically in affected oysters. The genes found only in diseased oysters were mostly bacterial origin, suggesting that the causative agent was a bacterial pathogen...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28766142/phylogenetic-diversity-and-functional-characterization-of-the-manila-clam-microbiota-a-culture-based-approach
#9
Laura Leite, Florence Jude-Lemeilleur, Natalie Raymond, Isabel Henriques, Frédéric Garabetian, Artur Alves
According to the hologenome theory, the microbiota contributes to the fitness of the holobiont having an important role in its adaptation, survival, development, health, and evolution. Environmental stress also affects the microbiota and its capability to assist the holobiont in coping with stress factors. Here, we analyzed the diversity of cultivable bacteria associated with Manila clam tissues (mantle, gills, hemolymph) in two non-contaminated sites (Portugal and France) and one metal-contaminated site (Portugal)...
August 1, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28765923/bombyx-mori-hemocyte-extract-has-anti-inflammatory-effects-on-human-phorbol-myristate-acetate-differentiated-thp%C3%A2-1-cells-via-tlr4-mediated-suppression-of-the-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-signaling-pathway
#10
Young Il Kim, Kwang Ho Choi, Seong Ryul Kim, Tae-Won Goo, Seung-Won Park
Hemolymph is the circulating fluid of insects and is a key component of their immune system. However, little is known concerning hemocyte identification, development, differentiation and related cellular immune responses. The present study aimed to determine whether a hemocyte extract prepared from Bombyx mori larvae had anti‑inflammatory effects; THP‑1 (a human monocytic leukemia cell line) cells that had been differentiated into macrophage‑like cells by treatment with phorbol myristate acetate (PMA) were used...
July 26, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28764991/transcriptional-translational-and-systemic-alterations-during-the-time-course-of-osmoregulatory-acclimation-in-two-palaemonid-shrimps-from-distinct-osmotic-niches
#11
Rogério Oliveira Faleiros, Rosa P M Furriel, John Campbell McNamara
Palaemonid shrimps exhibit numerous adaptive strategies, both in their life cycles and in biochemical, physiological, morphological and behavioral characteristics that reflect the wide variety of habitats in which they occur, including species that are of particular interest when analyzing adaptive osmoregulatory strategies. The present investigation evaluates the short- (hours) and long-term (days) time courses of responses of two palaemonid shrimps from separate yet overlapping osmotic niches, Palaemon northropi (marine) and Macrobrachium acanthurus (diadromous, fresh water), to differential salinity challenges at distinct levels of structural organization: (i) transcriptional, analyzing quantitative expression of gill mRNAs that encode for subunits of the Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase and V(H(+))-ATPase ion transporters; (ii) translational, examining the kinetic behavior of gill Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase specific activity; and (iii) systemic, accompanying consequent adjustment of hemolymph osmolality...
July 29, 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28764953/effect-of-erythritol-formulation-on-the-mortality-fecundity-and-physiological-excretion-in-drosophila-suzukii
#12
Siew Bee Tang, Jana C Lee, Jin Kyo Jung, Man-Yeon Choi
Previously, we studied various combinations of non-nutritive sugars including erythritol and erythrose having a potentially insecticidal effect on Drosophila suzukii. The study suggested two potential physiological changes causing fly mortality: 1) starvation from the feeding of non-metabolizable erythritol and erythrose; 2) abnormal osmotic pressure increased in the hemolymph with erythritol transported from the midgut. In the present study, sucrose and erythritol were applied to blueberries and effects of these combinations on fly mortality and fecundity were monitored in the lab and greenhouse...
July 29, 2017: Journal of Insect Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28764812/anopheles-gambiae-larvae-mount-stronger-immune-responses-against-bacterial-infection-than-adults-evidence-of-adaptive-decoupling-in-mosquitoes
#13
Garrett P League, Tania Y Estévez-Lao, Yan Yan, Valeria A Garcia-Lopez, Julián F Hillyer
BACKGROUND: The immune system of adult mosquitoes has received significant attention because of the ability of females to vector disease-causing pathogens while ingesting blood meals. However, few studies have focused on the immune system of larvae, which, we hypothesize, is highly robust due to the high density and diversity of microorganisms that larvae encounter in their aquatic environments and the strong selection pressures at work in the larval stage to ensure survival to reproductive maturity...
August 1, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28764765/late-phase-immune-responses-limiting-oocyst-survival-are-independent-of-tep1-function-yet-display-strain-specific-differences-in-anopheles-gambiae
#14
Hyeogsun Kwon, Benjamin R Arends, Ryan C Smith
BACKGROUND: There is emerging evidence that mosquito anti-Plasmodium immunity is multimodal with distinct mechanisms for killing malaria parasites at either the ookinete or oocyst stages. Early-phase responses targeting the ookinete require complement-like components circulating in the mosquito hemolymph that result in TEP1-mediated lysis or melanization. Additional responses mediated by the LL3 and STAT pathways limit oocyst survival through unknown mechanisms that require mosquito hemocyte function...
August 1, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28760831/a-mosquito-entomoglyceroporin-aedes-aegypti-aqp5-participates-in-water-transport-across-the-malpighian-tubules-of-larvae
#15
Lidiya Misyura, Gil Y Yerushalmi, Andrew Donini
The mosquito, Aedes aegypti, is the primary vector for arboviral diseases such as Zika fever, dengue fever, chikungunya, and yellow fever. The larvae reside in hypo-osmotic freshwater habitats, where they face dilution of their body fluids from osmotic influx of water. The Malpighian tubules help maintain ionic and osmotic homeostasis by removing excess water from the hemolymph, but the transcellular pathway for this movement remains unresolved. Aquaporins are transmembrane channels thought to permit transcellular transport of water from the hemolymph into the Malpighian tubule lumen...
July 31, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28757273/immunomodulatory-effect-of-photodynamic-therapy-in-galleria-mellonella-infected-with-porphyromonas-gingivalis
#16
Jéssica Diane Dos Santos, Janaína Araújo de Alvarenga, Rodnei Dennis Rossoni, Maíra Terra García, Renata Mendonça Moraes, Ana Lia Anbinder, Antonio Olavo Cardoso Jorge, Juliana Campos Junqueira
Porphyromonas gingivalis is an important pathogen in the development of periodontal disease. Our study investigated if the treatment with antimicrobial photodynamic therapy (aPDT) that employs a nontoxic dye, followed by irradiation with harmless visible light can attenuate the experimental infection of P. gingivalis in Galleria mellonella. Firstly, different concentrations of P. gingivalis ranging from 10(2) to 10(6) cells/larva were injected into the animal to obtain a lethal concentration. Next, the following groups of G...
July 28, 2017: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28755911/itraq-proteomic-analysis-of-the-interactions-between-bombyx-mori-nuclear-polyhedrosis-virus-and-silkworm
#17
Wei-Tao Dong, Long-Fei Xiao, Jun-Jie Hu, Xin-Xu Zhao, Ji-Xing Liu, Yong Zhang
The silkworm hemolymph is an important defense system against bacteria and viruses. In this study, silkworms were infected with Bombyx mori nuclear polyhedrosis virus to investigate the subsequent immune response at the protein level. Proteomes were analyzed before and after infection using isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation and LC-MS. A total of 456 differentially expressed proteins were identified, of which 179 were upregulated and 193 were downregulated. Changes in expression were validated by western blot for several proteins...
July 26, 2017: Journal of Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28755300/in-vivo-gene-expression-profiling-of-the-entomopathogenic-fungus-beauveria-bassiana-elucidates-its-infection-stratagems-in-anopheles-mosquito
#18
Yiling Lai, Huan Chen, Ge Wei, Guandong Wang, Fang Li, Sibao Wang
The use of entomopathogenic fungi to control mosquitoes is a promising tool for reducing vector-borne disease transmission. To better understand infection stratagems of insect pathogenic fungi, we analyzed the global gene expression profiling of Beauveria bassiana at 36, 60, 84 and 108 h after topical infection of Anopheles stephensi adult mosquitoes using RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq). A total of 5,354 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) are identified over the course of fungal infection. When the fungus grows on the mosquito cuticle, up-regulated DEGs include adhesion-related genes involved in cuticle attachment, Pth11-like GPCRs hypothesized to be involved in host recognition, and extracellular enzymes involved in the degradation and penetration of the mosquito cuticle...
July 27, 2017: Science China. Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28751377/a-mosquito-hemolymph-odorant-binding-protein-family-member-specifically-binds-juvenile-hormone
#19
Il Hwan Kim, Van Pham, Willy Jablonka, Walter G Goodman, José M C Ribeiro, John F Andersen
Juvenile hormone (JH) is a key regulator of insect development and reproduction. In adult mosquitoes, it is essential for maturation of the ovary and normal male reproductive behavior, but how JH distribution and activity is regulated after secretion is unclear. Here, we report a new type of specific JH-binding protein, given the name mosquito juvenile hormone binding protein (mJHBP), which circulates in the hemolymph of pupal and adult Aedes aegypti males and females. mJHBP, is a member of the odorant-binding protein (OBP) family, and orthologs are present in the genomes of Aedes, Culex and Anopheles mosquito species...
July 27, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28746618/evidence-of-the-presence-of-thyroid-hormones-in-achatina-fulica-snails
#20
Danilo Lustrino, Alba C M Silva, Iracema G Araujo, Victor M Tunholi, Vinícius M Tunholi-Alves, Rosane N Castro, Denise P Carvalho, Jairo Pinheiro, Michelle P Marassi
The objective of this study was to identify thyroid hormones and to examine their putative site of synthesis in Achatina fulica snails. For this purpose, radioimmunoassays were performed for T3 and T4 before and after long starvation with or without hemolymph deproteinization. Sodium/iodide symporter activity in vivo was analyzed through 125I administration with and without KClO4 pretreatment. Only T4 was detected, and its concentration decreased due to starvation or deproteinization. However, high-performance liquid chromatography analysis also showed the presence of T2 and T3 apart from T4, but rT3 was not detected in the A...
July 24, 2017: Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências
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