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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302381/an-entomopathogenic-bacterium-xenorhabdus-hominickii-anu101-produces-oxindole-and-suppresses-host-insect-immune-response-by-inhibiting-eicosanoid-biosynthesis
#1
Md Sadekuzzaman, Youngjin Park, Seunghee Lee, Kunwoo Kim, Jin Kyo Jung, Yonggyun Kim
An entomopathogenic bacterium, Xenorhabdus hominickii ANU101, was isolated from an entomopathogenic nematode, Steinernema monticolum. X. hominickii exhibited significant insecticidal activities at ≥ 6.6 × 10(2) colony-forming units per larva against a lepidopteran insect, Spodoptera exigua with hemocoelic injection. The insecticidal activity of X. hominickii was reduced by an addition of arachidonic acid (AA, a catalytic product of PLA2), but enhanced by an addition by dexamethasone (DEX, a specific inhibitor of PLA2)...
March 13, 2017: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28296161/passive-vectoring-of-entomopathogenic-fungus-beauveria-bassiana-among-the-wax-moth-galleria-mellonella-larvae-by-the-ectoparasitoid-habrobracon-hebetor-females
#2
Vadim Yu Kryukov, Natalia A Kryukova, Maksim V Tyurin, Olga N Yaroslavtseva, Viktor V Glupov
Females of the ectoparasitoid Habrobracon hebetor attack and envenomate numerous host individuals during oviposition. The vectoring of the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana during the adhesion stage by ectoparasitoid females among the wax moth larvae Galleria mellonella was explored under laboratory conditions. Vectoring occurred both from infected parasitoids to wax moth larvae and from infected to healthy wax moth larvae by parasitoids. The efficacy of vectoring in both cases was dose dependent. Parasitoid females were unable to recognize infected larvae in a labyrinth test...
March 15, 2017: Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28283933/designing-of-a-recombinant-agip-bacmid-construct-with-infectious-properties-against-black-cutworm-agrotis-ipsilon-larvae
#3
Naglaa A Abdallah, Wael El-Menofy, Abdelhadi Abdallah Abdelhadi
In this study, Agrotis ipsilon nucleopolyhedrovirus bacmid has been constructed as an infectious bacmid in an attempt to allow genome recombination and generation of virus mutants. Since the FseI, a unique restriction site, is located in a viral coding region (ORF_119), PCR was performed to partially amplify the ORF_119 fragment containing the FseI site to facilitate the bacmid construction in a proper way without interrupting the ORF expression. Construction with repeated fragments at the end of the cloned viral was carried out in an attempt to facilitate circulation during infection in insect cells...
March 10, 2017: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28283430/identification-of-a-small-pacifastin-protease-inhibitor-from-nasonia-vitripennis-venom-that-inhibits-humoral-immunity-of-host-musca-domestica
#4
Cen Qian, Dan Liang, Ya Liu, Pei Wang, Saima Kausar, Guoqing Wei, Baojian Zhu, Lei Wang, Chaoliang Liu
Nasonia vitripennis is an important natural enemy of many flies. Pacifastin protease inhibitors (PPIs) play an important role in development and innate immunity of insects. In this study, cDNA sequences of a small pacifastin protease inhibitor in N. vitripennis (NvSPPI) was characterized and its open reading frame (ORF) contains 243bp. Real-time quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) results revealed that NvSPPI mRNA were detected specifically in the venom apparatus, while they were expressed at low levels in other tissues tested...
March 7, 2017: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28267809/lactobacillus-paracasei-modulates-the-immune-system-of-galleria-mellonella-and-protects-against-candida-albicans-infection
#5
Rodnei Dennis Rossoni, Beth Burgwyn Fuchs, Patrícia Pimentel de Barros, Marisol Dos Santos Velloso, Antonio Olavo Cardoso Jorge, Juliana Campos Junqueira, Eleftherios Mylonakis
Probiotics have been described as a potential strategy to control opportunistic infections due to their ability to stimulate the immune system. Using the non-vertebrate model host Galleria mellonella, we evaluated whether clinical isolates of Lactobacillus spp. are able to provide protection against Candida albicans infection. Among different strains of Lactobacillus paracasei, Lactobacillus rhamnosus and Lactobacillus fermentum, we verified that L. paracasei 28.4 strain had the greatest ability to prolong the survival of larvae infected with a lethal dose of C...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28265104/mir-285-yki-mask-double-negative-feedback-loop-mediates-blood-brain-barrier-integrity-in-drosophila
#6
Dong Li, Yanling Liu, Chunli Pei, Peng Zhang, Linqing Pan, Jing Xiao, Songshu Meng, Zengqiang Yuan, Xiaolin Bi
The Hippo signaling pathway is highly conserved from Drosophila to mammals and plays a central role in maintaining organ size and tissue homeostasis. The blood-brain barrier (BBB) physiologically isolates the brain from circulating blood or the hemolymph system, and its integrity is strictly maintained to perform sophisticated neuronal functions. Until now, the underlying mechanisms of subperineurial glia (SPG) growth and BBB maintenance during development are not clear. Here, we report an miR-285-Yorkie (Yki)/Multiple Ankyrin repeats Single KH domain (Mask) double-negative feedback loop that regulates SPG growth and BBB integrity...
March 6, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28257468/the-genetic-basis-for-variation-in-resistance-to-infection-in-the-drosophila-melanogaster-genetic-reference-panel
#7
Jonathan B Wang, Hsiao-Ling Lu, Raymond J St Leger
Individuals vary extensively in the way they respond to disease but the genetic basis of this variation is not fully understood. We found substantial individual variation in resistance and tolerance to the fungal pathogen Metarhizium anisopliae Ma549 using the Drosophila melanogaster Genetic Reference Panel (DGRP). In addition, we found that host defense to Ma549 was correlated with defense to the bacterium Pseudomonas aeruginosa Pa14, and several previously published DGRP phenotypes including oxidative stress sensitivity, starvation stress resistance, hemolymph glucose levels, and sleep indices...
March 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28254880/formation-and-function-of-intracardiac-valve-cells-in-the-drosophila-heart
#8
Kay Lammers, Bettina Abeln, Mirko Hüsken, Christine Lehmacher, Olympia Ekaterini Psathaki, Esther Alcorta, Heiko Meyer, Achim Paululat
Drosophila harbors a simple tubular heart that ensures hemolymph circulation within the body. The heart is built by a few different cell types, including cardiomyocytes that define the luminal heart channel and ostia cells that constitute openings in the heart wall allowing hemolymph to enter the heart chamber. Regulation of flow directionality within a tube, such as blood flow in arteries or insect hemolymph within the heart lumen, requires a dedicated gate, valve, or flap-like structure that prevents backflow of fluids...
March 2, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28251694/knockdown-of-a-putative-argininosuccinate-lyase-gene-reduces-arginine-content-and-impairs-nymphal-development-in-nilaparvata-lugens
#9
San-Yue Yuan, Guo-Qing Li, Pin-Jun Wan, Qiang Fu, Feng-Xiang Lai, Li-Li Mu
Nilaparvata lugens is a typical phloem feeder. Rice phloem is high in simple sugars and very low in essential amino acids. Nilaparvata lugens harbors an ascomycete Entomomyces delphacidicola that hypothetically biosynthesizes several amino acids to meet the nutrition requirement of the planthopper. Among these amino acids, here, we focused on arginine biosynthesis. A complete cDNA of an E. delphacidicola gene, arginine-succinate lyase, EdArg4, the last step in arginine biosynthesis, was obtained. RNAi-mediated suppression of EdArg4 reduced arginine content in the hemolymph, and decreased the expression of several arginine biosynthesis genes...
March 2, 2017: Archives of Insect Biochemistry and Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28249262/the-u2-sndna-is-a-useful-marker-for-b-chromosome-detection-and-frequency-estimation-in-the-grasshopper-abracris-flavolineata
#10
Diogo Milani, Octavio M Palacios-Gimenez, Diogo C Cabral-de-Mello
In this study, we describe a strategy to determine the presence of B chromosomes in the living grasshopper Abracris flavolineata by FISH using U2 snDNA as a probe in interphase hemolymph nuclei. In individuals without B chromosomes, (0B) 2 dot signals were noticed, corresponding to A complement U2 snDNA clusters. In +1B and +2B individuals, 4 or 8 additional signals were noticed, respectively. In all cases, the absence or presence of 1 or 2 B chromosomes correlated in hemolymph and in somatic or germline tissues, validating the efficiency of the marker...
March 2, 2017: Cytogenetic and Genome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28241066/ras-like-family-small-gtpases-genes-in-nilaparvata-lugens-identification-phylogenetic-analysis-gene-expression-and-function-in-nymphal-development
#11
Weixia Wang, Kailong Li, Pinjun Wan, Fengxiang Lai, Qiang Fu, Tingheng Zhu
Twenty-nine cDNAs encoding Ras-like family small GTPases (RSGs) were cloned and sequenced from Nilaparvata lugens. Twenty-eight proteins are described here: 3 from Rho, 2 from Ras, 9 from Arf and 14 from Rabs. These RSGs from N.lugens have five conserved G-loop motifs and displayed a higher degree of sequence conservation with orthologues from insects. RT-qPCR analysis revealed NlRSGs expressed at all life stages and the highest expression was observed in hemolymph, gut or wing for most of NlRSGs. RNAi demonstrated that eighteen NlRSGs play a crucial role in nymphal development...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28239855/immune-priming-specificity-within-and-across-generations-reveals-the-range-of-pathogens-affecting-evolution-of-immunity-in-an-insect
#12
Julien Dhinaut, Manon Chogne, Yannick Moret
1.Many organisms can improve their immune response as a function of their immunological experience or that of their parents. This phenomenon, called immune priming, has likely evolved from repetitive challenges by the same pathogens during the host lifetime or across generation. 2.All pathogens may not expose host to the same probability of re-infection and immune priming is expected to evolve from pathogens exposing the host to the greatest probability of re-infection. Under this hypothesis, the priming response to these pathogens should be specifically more efficient and less costly than to others...
February 27, 2017: Journal of Animal Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28237316/metabolite-transport-across-the-mammalian-and-insect-brain-diffusion-barriers
#13
Astrid Weiler, Anne Volkenhoff, Helen Hertenstein, Stefanie Schirmeier
The nervous system in higher vertebrates is separated from the circulation by a layer of specialized endothelial cells. It protects the sensitive neurons from harmful blood-derived substances, high and fluctuating ion concentrations, xenobiotics or even pathogens. To this end, the brain endothelial cells and their interlinking tight junctions build an efficient diffusion barrier. A structurally analogous diffusion barrier exists in insects, where glial cell layers separate the hemolymph from the neural cells...
February 24, 2017: Neurobiology of Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28235562/urate-oxidase-produced-by-lucilia-sericata-medical-maggots-is-localized-in-malpighian-tubes-and-facilitates-allantoin-production
#14
Andre Baumann, Marisa Skaljac, Rüdiger Lehmann, Andreas Vilcinskas, Zdenӗk Franta
Lucilia sericata maggots are the only species currently approved for maggot debridement therapy (MDT), an alternative treatment for chronic and recalcitrant wounds. Maggots promote wound debridement, disinfection and healing by producing a complex mixture of proteins, peptides and low-molecular-weight compounds in their secretions and excretions, but the individual components are not well characterized at the molecular level. Here we investigated the purine catabolism pathway in L. sericata, focusing on the production of allantoin by Urate Oxidase (UO), which is thought to promote wound healing...
February 22, 2017: Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228617/silkworm-fungal-infection-model-for-identification-of-virulence-genes-in-pathogenic-fungus-and-screening-of-novel-antifungal-drugs
#15
Masaki Ishii, Yasuhiko Matsumoto, Ikuko Nakamura, Kazuhisa Sekimizu
The silkworm infection model has the potential to replace conventional animal models for evaluation of the efficacy and toxicity of investigational antifungal agents. Silkworms are relatively inexpensive, can be simply grown in large numbers and can be easily infected with pathogenic fungi, including mutant strains. Antifungal agents can then be injected into the silkworm either via the hemolymph to mimic intravenous administration or directly into the gut for oral administration, and their antifungal effect can be evaluated...
February 21, 2017: Drug Discoveries & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228181/characterization-and-functional-analysis-of-serpin-1-like-gene-from-oak-silkworm-antheraea-pernyi
#16
H M Yu, B J Zhu, Y Sun, G Q Wei, L Wang, C Qian, M Nadeem Abbas, C L Liu
Serpins are a broadly distributed family of proteases found in various organisms that play an important role in regulating the immune response. Here, we identified a serpin-1 gene from Antheraea pernyi that encodes a 279 amino acid protein with a molecular weight of 30.8 kDa. We expressed the recombinant Ap-serpin-1 protein in Escherichia coli and used the purified protein to prepare rabbit anti-Ap-serpin-1 polyclonal antibodies. We calculated the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay titer of the antibody as 1:128000...
February 23, 2017: Bulletin of Entomological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28217113/antimicrobial-and-insecticidal-cyclic-lipopeptides-and-hydrogen-cyanide-produced-by-plant-beneficial-pseudomonas-strains-cha0-cmr12a-and-pcl1391-contribute-to-insect-killing
#17
Pascale Flury, Pilar Vesga, Maria Péchy-Tarr, Nora Aellen, Francesca Dennert, Nicolas Hofer, Karent P Kupferschmied, Peter Kupferschmied, Zane Metla, Zongwang Ma, Sandra Siegfried, Sandra de Weert, Guido Bloemberg, Monica Höfte, Christoph J Keel, Monika Maurhofer
Particular groups of plant-beneficial fluorescent pseudomonads are not only root colonizers that provide plant disease suppression, but in addition are able to infect and kill insect larvae. The mechanisms by which the bacteria manage to infest this alternative host, to overcome its immune system, and to ultimately kill the insect are still largely unknown. However, the investigation of the few virulence factors discovered so far, points to a highly multifactorial nature of insecticidal activity. Antimicrobial compounds produced by fluorescent pseudomonads are effective weapons against a vast diversity of organisms such as fungi, oomycetes, nematodes, and protozoa...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207908/isolation-and-determination-of-ivermectin-in-post-mortem-and-in-vivo-tissues-of-dung-beetles-using-a-continuous-solid-phase-extraction-method-followed-by-lc-esi-ms-ms
#18
Antonio J Ortiz, Vieyle Cortez, Abdelmonaim Azzouz, José R Verdú
A new analytical method based on solvent extraction, followed by continuous solid-phase extraction (SPE) clean-up using a polymeric sorbent, was demonstrated to be applicable for the detection of ivermectin in complex biological matrices of dung beetles (hemolymph, excreta or dry tissues) using liquid chromatography combined with positive electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (LC/ESI+-MS/MS). Using a signal-to-noise ratio of 3:1, the limit of detection (LOD) in the insect matrices at trace levels was 0...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207859/differential-effects-of-silencing-crustacean-hyperglycemic-hormone-gene-expression-on-the-metabolic-profiles-of-the-muscle-and-hepatopancreas-in-the-crayfish-procambarus-clarkii
#19
Wenfeng Li, Kuo-Hsun Chiu, Yi-Chun Tien, Shih-Fu Tsai, Li-Jane Shih, Chien-Hsun Lee, Jean-Yves Toullec, Chi-Ying Lee
In order to functionally characterize the metabolic roles of crustacean hyperglycemic hormone (CHH), gene expression of CHH in the crayfish (Procambarus clarkii) was knocked down by in vivo injection of CHH double-stranded RNA (dsRNA), followed by metabolomic analysis of 2 CHH target tissues (the muscle and hepatopancreas) using nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Compared to the levels in untreated and saline-injected (SAI) animals, levels of CHH transcript, but not those of molt-inhibiting hormone (a CHH-family peptide), in the eyestalk ganglia of CHH dsRNA-injected (DSI) animals were significantly decreased at 24, 48, and 72 hour post injection (hpi), with concomitant changes in levels of CHH peptide in the sinus gland (a neurohemal organ) and hemolymph...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28199361/bombyx-mori-and-aedes-aegypti-form-multi-functional-immune-complexes-that-integrate-pattern-recognition-melanization-coagulants-and-hemocyte-recruitment
#20
Dennis R Phillips, Kevin D Clark
The innate immune system of insects responds to wounding and pathogens by mobilizing multiple pathways that provide both systemic and localized protection. Key localized responses in hemolymph include melanization, coagulation, and hemocyte encapsulation, which synergistically seal wounds and envelop and destroy pathogens. To be effective, these pathways require a targeted deposition of their components to provide protection without compromising the host. Extensive research has identified a large number of the effectors that comprise these responses, but questions remain regarding their post-translational processing, function, and targeting...
2017: PloS One
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