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Ran Xu, Xiaodong Zheng
High concentration of ammonia is a common issue in the aquaculture industry and often causes detrimental effects to aquatic products. Exploring expression regulation of genes involved in acute ammonia stress can help to understand the molecular mechanisms of ammonia response. Quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) with proper reference genes is an effective way to normalize the expression of target genes. To identify the most suitable reference genes for Octopus minor (Mollusca: Cephalopoda: Octopoda) under acute ammonia stress and the normal culturing, nine candidate genes were selected for the validation: OD, RPS18b, RPL29, RPS5, EF-1α, RPL6, AA4, ACT, TUB...
April 14, 2018: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology
Sergey Chernysh, Natalia Gordya, Dmitry Tulin, Andrey Yakovlev
Purpose: The aim of this study is to improve the anti-biofilm activity of antibiotics. We hypothesized that the antimicrobial peptide (AMP) complex of the host's immune system can be used for this purpose and examined the assumption on model biofilms. Methods: FLIP7, the AMP complex of the blowfly Calliphora vicina containing a combination of defensins, cecropins, diptericins and proline-rich peptides was isolated from the hemolymph of bacteria-challenged maggots...
2018: Infection and Drug Resistance
Christine Bayley, Christina Cheng, Michael Lynch
The authors describe pathological and microbiological features of mortalities in a captive breeding colony of Lord Howe Island stick insects ( Dryococelus australis) over a period of 18 months. There were 2 peaks of mortality in this period. In the first, insects presented dead with minimal premonitory signs of illness. In the second, affected insects were ataxic with contracted limbs and inability to climb or right themselves. Gross lesions were uncommon but included pigmented plaques on the gut and cloacal prolapse...
January 1, 2018: Veterinary Pathology
Quan Gan, Xinwei Zhang, Daobo Zhang, Liang Shi, Yue Zhou, Tongtong Sun, Song Jiang, Junshan Gao, Yan Meng
Sucrose is the most commonly transported sugar in plants and is easily assimilated by insects to fulfill the requirement of physiological metabolism. BmSuc1 is a novel animal β-fructofuranosidase (β-FFase, EC gene that was firstly cloned and identified in silkworm, Bombyx mori. BmSUC1 was presumed to play an important role in the silkworm-mulberry enzymatic adaptation system by effectively hydrolyzing sucrose absorbed from mulberry leaves. However, this has not been proved with direct evidence thus far...
April 13, 2018: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
Anthony J Zera, Neetha Nanoth Vellichirammal, Jennifer A Brisson
The functional basis of life history adaptation is a key topic of research in life history evolution. Studies of wing-polymorphism in the cricket Gryllus firmus have played a prominent role in this field. However, prior in-depth investigations of morph specialization have primarily focused on a single hormone, juvenile hormone, and a single aspect of intermediary metabolism, the fatty-acid biosynthetic component of lipid metabolism. Moreover, the role of diurnal variation in life history adaptation in G. firmus has been understudied, as is the case for organisms in general...
April 12, 2018: Journal of Insect Physiology
B P Girish, C H Swetha, M Srilatha, M Hemalatha, P Sreenivasula Reddy
The possible involvement of 13-cis retinoic acid (CRA) in the regulation of ovarian development in Oziotelphusa senex senex was investigated. Injection of CRA, into avitellogenic crabs significantly increased ovarian index, oocyte diameter and ovarian vitellogenin levels. Injection of CRA also resulted in a significant increase in the secretory rates of mandibular organs and Y-organs and circulatory levels of the methyl farnesoate and ecdysteroids. Further, administration of CRA into avitellogenic crabs produced higher amounts of Retinoid X Receptor, Ecdysteroid Receptor, E75 and vitellogenin mRNAs in the hepatopancreas...
April 12, 2018: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology
Xue-Dong Chen, Yong-Feng Wang, Yu-Long Wang, Qiu-Ying Li, Huan-Yu Ma, Lu Wang, Yang-Hu Sima, Shi-Qing Xu
Hyperproteinemia, which is characterized by an abnormally elevated plasma protein concentration (PPC), is a high-mortality, metabolic complication associated with severe liver and kidney disease. It is difficult to clinically distinguish the difference between the impacts of primary diseases and hyperproteinemia on tissues and organs, and there are no available animal models of hyperproteinemia. Here, we constructed an animal model of hyperproteinemia with a controllable PPC and no primary disease effects in the silkworm Bombyx mori that has attracted interest owing to its potential use in the pathological analysis of model animals...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Xiaozhen Yang, Minjie Xu, Genyong Huang, Cong Zhang, Yangyang Pang, Zhigang Yang, Yongxu Cheng
Melatonin has been identified in a variety of invertebrate species, but its function is not as well understood as in crustaceans. The effects of melatonin on hemolymph glucose levels and tissue carbohydrate metabolism in the Chinese mitten crab, Eriocheir sinensis , were fully investigated in this study. Moreover, whether the eyestalk (an important endocrine center in invertebrate species) involves in this process or not, also were clarified. Analysis revealed that eyestalk ablation, especially bilateral, caused a significant decrease in the hemolymph glucose level...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Jacob B Campbell, Mads Kuhlmann Andersen, Johannes Overgaard, Jon F Harrison
Oxygen limitation plays a key role in many pathologies; yet, we still lack a fundamental understanding of the mechanisms responsible for variation in anoxia tolerance. Most vertebrate studies suggest that anoxia tolerance involves the ability to maintain cellular ATP despite the loss of aerobic metabolism. However, insects such as adult D. melanogaster are able to survive long periods of anoxia (LT50: ∼8 h) in a hypo-energetic state characterized by low [ATP]. In this study, we tested for possible mechanisms that allow D...
April 3, 2018: Journal of Experimental Biology
Sittichai Boonrawd, Premruethai Supungul, Anchalee Tassanakajon, Vichien Rimphanitchayakit
A two-domain Kazal-type serine proteinase inhibitor, SPIPm5, from Penaeus monodon was studied. Its transcript was expressed in all tissues tested including the hemocytes, stomach, gill, lymphoid organ, muscle, intestine and heart albeit less in hepatopancreas and eyestalk. The expression of SPIPm5 gene was also up-regulated by heat stress, white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) infection and yellow head virus (YHV) infection. Injection of recombinant rSPIPm5 protein into normal shrimp to mimic heat stress condition did not have or had little stimulating effect on the expression of other immune genes: crustinPm1, penaeidin3, penaeidin5, Hsp70, SPIPm2 and SPIPm5...
March 27, 2018: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
Mani Divya, Baskaralingam Vaseeharan, Mahalingam Anjugam, Arokiadhas Iswarya, Sivashanmugam Karthikeyan, Palaniyandi Velusamy, Marimuthu Govindarajan, Naiyf S Alharbi, Shine Kadaikunnan, Jamal M Khaled, Csaba Vágvölgyi
In this study, we purified β-GBP from hemolymph of Scylla serrata crabs using affinity chromatography. The purified S. serrata β-GBP (Ss-β-GBP) had 100 kDa molecular mass in the SDS-PAGE. MALDI-TOF/TOF analysis was conducted, revealing that the purified 100 kDa protein had 96% similarity with β-GBP of Astacus leptodactylus. Ss-β-GBP was characterized using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis, circular dichroism (CD) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, which confirmed the structure of the Ss-β-GBP...
March 27, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Laura Camacho-Jiménez, Fernando Díaz, Edna Sánchez-Castrejón, Elizabeth Ponce-Rivas
The Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei is a euryhaline organism that copes with salinity fluctuations in the environment; therefore, its osmotic and ionic regulation abilities are vital. Osmoregulation may be controlled by the crustacean hyperglycemic hormone (CHH), a neuropeptide mainly expressed in the eyestalks. In L. vannamei, CHH-B1 and CHH-B2 are CHH isoforms isolated from the eyestalks whose expression is influenced by environmental salinity. It has been suggested that they are involved in the response to salinity stress...
March 26, 2018: Journal of Comparative Physiology. B, Biochemical, Systemic, and Environmental Physiology
Emma K Harris, Krit Jirakanwisal, Victoria I Verhoeve, Chanida Fongsaran, Chanakan Suwanbongkot, Matthew D Welch, Kevin R Macaluso
The gram-negative obligate intracellular bacterium Rickettsia parkeri is an emerging tick-borne human pathogen. Recently, R. parkeri Sca2 and RickA have been implicated in adherence and actin-based motility in vertebrate host cell infection models; however, the rickettsial-derived factors essential to tick infection are unknown. Using R. parkeri mutants lacking functional Sca2 or RickA to compare actin polymerization, replication, and cell-to-cell spread in vitro , similar phenotypes in tick and mammalian cells were observed...
March 26, 2018: Infection and Immunity
Qinjingwen Cao, Chuanzi Ouyang, Xuefei Zhong, Lingjun Li
Crustaceans have been long used as model animals for neuromodulation studies because of their well-defined neural circuitry. The identification of small molecule metabolites and signaling molecules in circulating fluids and neuronal tissues presents unique challenges due to their diverse structures, biological functions, and wide range of concentrations. LC combined with high resolution MS/MS is one of the powerful tools to uncover endogenous small molecules. Here we explored several sample preparation techniques (solid-phase extraction and denaturing) and MS data acquisition strategies (data-dependent acquisition and targeted MS2-based acquisition) that provided complementary coverage and improved overall identification rate in C18 LC-MS/MS experiment...
March 26, 2018: Electrophoresis
Ekaterina V Grizanova, Alexandra D Semenova, Denis A Komarov, Ekaterina A Chertkova, Irina A Slepneva, Ivan M Dubovskiy
The lipid peroxidation process in hemocytes, activities of phenoloxidase and key enzymatic antioxidants (superoxide dismutase, glutathione-S-transferase, catalase) and nonenzymatic antioxidants (thiols, ascorbate) in hemolymph of the greater wax moth Galleria mellonella L. (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) were studied during the encapsulation process of nylon implants. It has been established that as soon as 15 min after piercing a cuticle with the implant, a capsule is formed on its surface. Active melanization of the capsule has been shown to last for 4 h...
March 23, 2018: Archives of Insect Biochemistry and Physiology
George E G Kluck, Lívia Silva Cardoso, Nuccia N T De Cicco, Michele S Lima, Evelize Folly, Georgia C Atella
Tick infestation in cattle reflects the main cause of economic loss to cattle producers. This is due to several reasons but mainly to their ability to feed on blood and generate a huge amount of eggs. Lipid transport in arthropods is achieved by highly specialized hemolymphatic lipoproteins, which resemble those described in vertebrate blood. Such lipoproteins continuously deliver lipids through the blood to growing eggs. The injection of radioactive [3 H] palmitic acid into tick hemocoel showed that the gut, ovary, fat body and Gene's organ were the main organs of incorporation of this labeled fatty acid...
March 15, 2018: Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases
Collin J Horn, Monika K Mierzejewski, Lien T Luong
Host bioenergetics and energy fluxes can be applied to measure the ecological and physiological effects of parasitism. By measuring changes in host metabolic rate, one can estimate the physiological costs of infection. Additionally, metabolic rate dictates the rate of resource conversion within a host and, by extension, the resources available to a parasite. We hypothesize that parasites are selected to respond to cues that indicate high resource availability, that is, host metabolic state. We investigated whether an ectoparasite mite (Macrocheles subbadius) can differentiate between potential hosts (Drosophilia nigrospiracula) on the basis of relative carbon dioxide output as measured by respirometry...
May 2018: Physiological and Biochemical Zoology: PBZ
Yuen K Ip, Kum C Hiong, Leon J Y Lim, Celine Y L Choo, Mel V Boo, Wai P Wong, Mei L Neo, Shit F Chew
The giant clam, Tridacna squamosa, represents a clam-zooxanthellae association. In light, the host clam and the symbiotic zooxanthellae conduct light-enhanced calcification and photosynthesis, respectively. We had cloned the cDNA coding sequence of a Vacuolar-type Proton ATPase (VHA) subunit A, ATP6V1A, from T. squamosa, whereby the VHA is an electrogenic transporter that actively 'pumps' H+ out of the cell. The ATP6V1A of T. squamosa comprised 1866 bp, encoding a protein of 622 amino acids and 69.9 kDa, and has a host-origin...
March 17, 2018: Gene
Jeffrey A Harvey, Rieta Gols
Among parasitoids that develop inside the bodies of feeding, growing hosts (so-called 'koinobiont' endoparasitoids), two strategies have evolved to dispose of host resources. The larvae of one group consumes most host tissues before pupation, whereas in the other the parasitoid larvae consume only host hemolymph and fat body and at maturity emerge through the host cuticle to pupate externally. Here we compared development and survival (to adult emergence) of two related larval endoparasitoids (Braconidae: Microgastrinae) of the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella...
March 16, 2018: Journal of Insect Physiology
Pakpoom Boonchuen, Phattarunda Jaree, Anchalee Tassanakajon, Kunlaya Somboonwiwat
Acute hepatopancreatic necrosis disease, AHPND, caused by a specific strain of Vibrio parahaemolyticus (VPAHPND ), results in great loss of global shrimp production. Despite this, studies on shrimp defense mechanisms protecting against AHPND are few. In this study, suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) was performed to identify differentially expressed genes from white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei hepatopancreas upon VPAHPND infection at the early stages: 3 and 6 h post challenge and in the late stage at 48 h post challenge...
March 15, 2018: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
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