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Dong Ai, Shenhang Cheng, Hetan Chang, Ting Yang, Guirong Wang, Caihong Yu
Trehalase is an indispensable component of insect hemolymph that plays important role in energy metabolism and stress resistance. In this study, we cloned and expressed the gene encoding soluble trehalase (HaTreh-1) of Helicoverpa armigera (cotton bollworm) and characterized the enzyme. HaTreh-1 had a full-length open reading frame encoding a protein of 571 amino acids. Sequence comparison indicated that HaTreh-1 was similar to some known insect trehalases. Two essential active sites (D321 and E519) and three essential residues (R168, R221, and R286) were conserved in HaTreh-1...
May 1, 2018: Journal of Insect Science
Alzbeta Stara, Antonin Kouba, Josef Velisek
Atrazine (ATR) is a triazine herbicide banned in the European Union. It remains one of the most widely used herbicides in other parts of the world. Considering the scarcity of data on its possible harm to the environment and to human health, we assessed sub-chronic effects of a 14-day exposure at the environmentally relevant concentration of 6.86 μg/L and at 10% of the 96hLC50 (1.21 mg/L) in crayfish Cherax destructor and their recovery in a 14-day period in ATR-free water. Indicators assessed were behavior; hemolymph biochemical profile; oxidative and antioxidant parameters in gill, hepatopancreas, and muscle; and histology of gill and hepatopancreas...
June 13, 2018: Chemico-biological Interactions
Gourav Dey, Ajeet Kumar Mohanty, Manish Kumar, Sreelakshmi K Sreenivasamurthy, Ashwani Kumar, T S Keshava Prasad
The article provides insights into the protein expression in Anopheles stephensi hemolymph. We carried out data acquisition using a high-resolution LTQ-Orbitrap Velos mass spectrometer to identify the hemolymph proteins of An. stephensi . Experimentally derived mass spectrometry data was analyzed using Proteome Discoverer 2.1 software using two different search algorithms SEQUEST and MASCOT. A total of 1091 proteins were identified from the hemolymph. The identified proteins were categorized for their role in biological processes and molecular functions...
June 2018: Data in Brief
Anaïs Portet, Richard Galinier, Silvain Pinaud, Julien Portela, Fanny Nowacki, Benjamin Gourbal, David Duval
Insect thioester-containing protein (iTEP) is the most recently defined group among the thioester-containing protein (TEP) superfamily. TEPs are key components of the immune system, and iTEPs from flies and mosquitoes were shown to be major immune weapons. Initially characterized from insects, TEP genes homologous to iTEP were further described from several other invertebrates including arthropods, cniderians, and mollusks albeit with few functional characterizations. In the freshwater snail Biomphalaria glabrata , a vector of the schistosomiasis disease, the presence of a TEP protein (BgTEP) was previously described in a well-defined immune complex involving snail lectins (fibrinogen-related proteins) and schistosome parasite mucins (SmPoMuc)...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Ming-Shou Hsieh, Jie-Long He, Tzong-Yuan Wu, Rong-Huay Juang
A bi-cistronic baculovirus expression vector was constructed to facilitate the expression, detection, and isolation of the hemagglutinin (HA) fragment HA1 of H6N1 avian influenza virus (AIV) in an insect and a culture of its cells. In this construct, the GP67sp signal peptide promoted the secretion of the recombinant protein into the culture medium, and improved protein expression and purification. Enhanced green fluorescent protein, co-expressed through an internal ribosome entry site, served as a visible reporter for protein expression detection...
June 9, 2018: Journal of Immunological Methods
Yingchuan Peng, Kangxu Wang, Wenxi Fu, Chengwang Sheng, Zhaojun Han
Double stranded RNAs (dsRNA) degrading nuclease is responsible for the rapid degradation of dsRNA molecules, and thus accounts for variations in RNA interference (RNAi) efficacy among insect species. Here, the biochemical properties and tissue-specific activities of dsRNA degrading nucleases in four insects ( Spodoptera litura, Locusta migratoria, Periplaneta americana , and Zophobas atratus ) from different orders were characterized using a modified assay method. The results revealed that all insect dsRNA degrading nucleases tested showed high activity in alkaline environments at optimal Mg2+ concentrations and elevated temperatures...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Chunping Yang, Yue Tian, Tianxing Lv, Xiaoli Chang, Min Zhang, Guoshu Gong, Liulan Zhao, Song Yang, Huabao Chen
Pedunsaponin A, a novel molluscicidal compound isolated from Pueraria peduncularis, exhibits strong toxicity against Pomacea canaliculata. To determine the mechanisms of Pedunsaponin A toxicity, its effects on the organs and hemocytes of P. canaliculata were examined in this study. The results showed that Pedunsaponin A had significant toxic effects on different organs of the snail, including the lungs, gills, mantle, siphon tube, ventricle, pericardial cavity, hepatopancreas, kidneys, and the major symptom of this toxicity was the loss of cilia in the lungs and gills...
June 2018: Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology
Jung-Eun Park, Eun Ji Lee, Jung Kwan Kim, Youngsup Song, Jang Hyun Choi, Min-Ji Kang
Triglyceride homeostasis is a key process of normal development and is essential for the maintenance of energy metabolism. Dysregulation of this process leads to metabolic disorders such as obesity and hyperlipidemia. Here, we report a novel function of the Drosophila flightless-I (fliI) gene in lipid metabolism. Drosophila fliI mutants were resistant to starvation and showed increased levels of triglycerides in the fat body and intestine, whereas fliI overexpression decreased triglyceride levels. These flies suffered from metabolic stress indicated by increased levels of trehalose in hemolymph and enhanced phosphorylation of eukaryotic initiation factor 2 alpha (eIF2α)...
June 12, 2018: Molecules and Cells
Tellez German Alberto, Zapata Jesica Alejandra, Toro Lily Johanna, Henao Diana Carolina, Bedoya Juan Pablo, Rivera Juan David, Trujillo Juan Valentin, Rivas Bruno, Richard Onalbi Hoyos Lopez, Castano Jhon Carlos
Maggots from the Lucilia sp. genus are used for debridement of infected and necrotic wounds. Broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity has been described in the excretion/secretions (ES1 ) of these larvae. This study identifies the genetic sequence of a cecropin-like antimicrobial peptide from Lucilia eximia. Total RNA was extracted and used for PCR-RACE amplification of a cecropin, the native peptide was immunolocalized in the tissues and secretions of the larvae, and a synthetic analog was used to explore its antimicrobial, cytotoxic, LPS neutralizing and wound-healing activities in vitro...
June 8, 2018: Acta Tropica
Laura A Palomares, Indresh K Srivastava, Octavio T Ramírez, Manon M J Cox
The insect cell-baculovirus expression system technology (BEST) has a prominent role in producing recombinant proteins to be used as research and diagnostic reagents and vaccines. The glycosylation profile of proteins produced by the BEST is composed predominantly of terminal mannose glycans, and, in Trichoplusia ni cell lines, core α3 fucosylation, a profile different to that in mammals. Insects contain all the enzymatic activities needed for complex N- and O-glycosylation and sialylation, although few reports of complex glycosylation and sialylation by the BEST exist...
June 10, 2018: Advances in Biochemical Engineering/biotechnology
Arne Baudach, Kwang-Zin Lee, Heiko Vogel, Andreas Vilcinskas
The bivoltine European map butterfly ( Araschnia levana ) displays seasonal polyphenism characterized by the formation of two remarkably distinct dorsal wing phenotypes: The spring generation ( A. levana levana ) is predominantly orange with black spots and develops from diapause pupae, whereas the summer generation ( A. levana prorsa ) has black, white, and orange bands and develops from subitaneous pupae. The choice between spring or summer imagoes is regulated by the photoperiod during larval and prepupal development, but polyphenism in the larvae has not been investigated before...
May 2018: Ecology and Evolution
Toshio Shibata, Yuki Kobayashi, Yuto Ikeda, Shun-Ichiro Kawabata
Horseshoe crab hemolymph coagulation is believed to be triggered by the autocatalytic activation of serine protease zymogen factor C to the active form, α-factor C, belonging to the trypsin family, through an active transition state of factor C responding to bacterial LPS, designated factor C*. However, the existence of factor C* is only speculative and its proteolytic activity has not been validated. In addition, it remains unclear whether the proteolytic cleavage of the Phe-737-Ile-738 bond (F737 site) of factor C required for the conversion to α-factor C occurs intramolecularly or intermolecularly between the factor C molecules...
June 4, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Jun Li, Yuehuan Zhang, Fan Mao, Yue Lin, Shu Xiao, Zhiming Xiang, Haitao Ma, Yang Zhang, Ziniu Yu
Hemocytes are the first line of defence of the innate immune system of molluscs. For the first time hemocytes of Crassostrea hongkongensis were morphologically and functionally characterized, identifying circulating cell types and studying their involvement in immune responses. In the present study, two main populations, hyalinocytes and granulocytes, were characterized based on the presence or absence of cytoplasmic granules, using light and electron microscopy (TEM), and flow cytometry analyses. Granulocytes are 7-13 μm in diameter and present evident cytoplasmic granules, and hyalinocytes, 6-15 μm in diameter, with a few or no granules...
June 1, 2018: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
Fernanda Silva Dos Santos, Raquel Almeida Ferrando Neves, Wanderson Fernandes de Carvalho, Natascha Krepsky, Mirian Araújo Carlos Crapez
The mussel Perna perna is an intertidal bivalve that is widely distributed, cultivated and consumed in South Africa, Brazil and Venezuela. Among marine resources, bivalve mollusks are one of the most impacted by anthropogenic pollution, as they can accumulate pathogenic bacteria and water pollutants. Hemocytes are molluscan defense cells, and their abundance and functions can be affected in response to contaminants, such as bacterial load. However, no previous study has investigated the immune response of P...
June 1, 2018: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
Günther Pass
Insect wings consist almost entirely of lifeless cuticle; yet their veins host a complex multimodal sensory apparatus and other tissues that require a continuous supply of water, nutrients and oxygen. This review provides a survey of the various living components in insect wings, as well as the specific contribution of the circulatory and tracheal systems to provide all essential substances. In most insects, hemolymph circulates through the veinal network in a loop flow caused by the contraction of accessory pulsatile organs in the thorax...
May 30, 2018: Arthropod Structure & Development
Yuqi Bai, Donghong Niu, Yulin Bai, Yan Li, Tianyi Lan, Maoxiao Peng, Zhiguo Dong, Jiale Li
Galectins are soluble lectins that perform a pattern recognition function in invertebrate immunity and specifically recognise β-galactoside residues via conserved carbohydrate recognition domains. However, their function in bivalve molluscs has received little attention. Herein, a galectin (ScGal2) in razor clam (Sinonovacula constricta) consisting of a 507 bp open reading frame encoding a protein of 168 amino acids was identified and characterised. The protein includes a carbohydrate recognition domain (CRD), and several residues involved in dimerisation were found...
May 26, 2018: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
André C Pimentel, Ignacio G Barroso, Jéssica M J Ferreira, Renata O Dias, Clélia Ferreira, Walter R Terra
Until now there is no molecular model of starch digestion and absorption of the resulting glucose molecules along the larval midgut of Musca domestica. For addressing to this, we used RNA-seq analyses from seven sections of the midgut and carcass to evaluate the expression level of the genes coding for amylases, maltases and sugar transporters (SP). An amylase related protein (Amyrel) and two amylase sequences, one soluble and one with a predicted GPI-anchor, were identified. Three highly expressed maltase genes were correlated with biochemically characterized maltases: one soluble, other glycocalyx-associated, and another membrane-bound...
May 24, 2018: Journal of Insect Physiology
Nicolás Pedrini
Entomopathogenic fungi of the order Hypocreales infect their insect hosts mainly by penetrating through the cuticle and colonize them by proliferating throughout the body cavity. In order to ensure a successful infection, fungi first produce a variety of degrading enzymes that help to breach the insect cuticle, and then secrete toxic secondary metabolites that facilitate fungal invasion of the hemolymph. In response, insect hosts activate their innate immune system by triggering both cellular and humoral immune reactions...
June 2018: Fungal Biology
Claudio Cubillos, Juan Carlos Cáceres, Cristopher Villablanca, Pablo Villarreal, Marcelo Baeza, Ricardo Cabrera, Steffen P Graether, Claudio Veloso
Two strategies have been described for cold tolerance in arthropods: (1) freeze-tolerant organisms, which can survive the formation of ice crystals and (2) freeze-avoidant organisms, which prevent the ice crystal formation by super cooling their internal fluids. We studied two arthropods from the Andean Range in central Chile (2400 m a.s.l.), the stick insect Agathemera crassa commonly named as "Chinchemolle", and the tarantula spider Euathlus condorito commonly named as "Araña pollito", in order to evaluate how they respond to low temperatures at the physiological and molecular levels...
May 2018: Journal of Thermal Biology
Fan Yang, Yang Wang, Niranji Sumathipala, Xiaolong Cao, Michael R Kanost, Haobo Jiang
Insect prophenoloxidase activation is coordinated by a serine protease network, which is regulated by serine protease inhibitors of the serpin superfamily. The enzyme system also leads to proteolytic processing of a Spätzle precursor. Binding of Spätzle to a Toll receptor turns on a signaling pathway to induce the synthesis of defense proteins. Previous studies of the tobacco hornworm Manduca sexta have revealed key members of the protease cascade, which generates phenoloxidase for melanogenesis and Spätzle to induce immunity-related genes...
August 2018: Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
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