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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431895/hemolymph-proteins-of-anopheles-gambiae-larvae-infected-by-escherichia-coli
#1
Xuesong He, Xiaolong Cao, Yan He, Krishna Bhattarai, Janet Rogers, Steve Hartson, Haobo Jiang
Anopheles gambiae is a major vector of human malaria and its immune system in part determines the fate of ingested parasites. Proteins, hemocytes and fat body in hemolymph are critical components of this system, mediating both humoral and cellular defenses. Here we assessed differences in the hemolymph proteomes of water- and E. coli-pricked mosquito larvae by a gel-LC-MS approach. Among the 1756 proteins identified, 603 contained a signal peptide but accounted for two-third of the total protein amount on the quantitative basis...
April 18, 2017: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426765/allatotropin-a-pleiotropic-neuropeptide-that-elicits-mosquito-immune-responses
#2
Salvador Hernández-Martínez, Minerva Sánchez-Zavaleta, Kevin Brito, Antonia Herrera-Ortiz, Sheila Ons, Fernando G Noriega
Allatotropins (AT) are neuropeptides with pleotropic functions on a variety of insect tissues. They affect processes such as juvenile hormone biosynthesis, cardiac rhythm, oviduct and hindgut contractions, nutrient absorption and circadian cycle. The present work provides experimental evidence that AT elicits immune responses in two important mosquito disease vectors, Anopheles albimanus and Aedes aegypti. Hemocytes and an immune-competent mosquito cell line responded to AT by showing strong morphological changes and increasing bacterial phagocytic activity...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424677/responses-of-the-housefly-musca-domestica-to-the-hytrosavirus-replication-impacts-on-host-s-vitellogenesis-and-immunity
#3
Henry M Kariithi, Xu Yao, Fahong Yu, Peter E Teal, Chelsea P Verhoeven, Drion G Boucias
Hytrosaviridae family members replicate in the salivary glands (SGs) of their adult dipteran hosts and are transmitted to uninfected hosts via saliva during feeding. Despite inducing similar gross symptoms (SG hypertrophy; SGH), hytrosaviruses (SGHVs) have distinct pathobiologies, including sex-ratio distortions in tsetse flies and refusal of infected housefly females to copulate. Via unknown mechanism(s), SGHV replication in other tissues results in reduced fecundity in tsetse flies and total shutdown of vitellogenesis and sterility in housefly females...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420790/honeybee-gut-microbiota-promotes-host-weight-gain-via-bacterial-metabolism-and-hormonal-signaling
#4
Hao Zheng, J Elijah Powell, Margaret I Steele, Carsten Dietrich, Nancy A Moran
Social bees harbor a simple and specialized microbiota that is spatially organized into different gut compartments. Recent results on the potential involvement of bee gut communities in pathogen protection and nutritional function have drawn attention to the impact of the microbiota on bee health. However, the contributions of gut microbiota to host physiology have yet to be investigated. Here we show that the gut microbiota promotes weight gain of both whole body and the gut in individual honey bees. This effect is likely mediated by changes in host vitellogenin, insulin signaling, and gustatory response...
April 18, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419954/osmoregulatory-responses-to-cadmium-in-reference-and-historically-metal-contaminated-gammarus-fossarum-crustacea-amphipoda-populations
#5
Paul Dayras, Guy Charmantier, Arnaud Chaumot, Amandine Vigneron, Marina Coquery, Hervé Quéau, Ester Artells, Jehan-Hervé Lignot, Olivier Geffard, Julien Issartel
In order to better understand the variable sensitivities of crustaceans to metals, we investigated the impact of cadmium exposure in 3 populations of Gammarus fossarum from different rivers of France. The first population lives in a Cd-contaminated river from a geochemical background, while the others inhabit Cd-free sites. Osmoregulation, a relevant biomarker to evaluate crustacean health following metal contamination, was used as a proxy to evaluate the intra- and inter-populationnal sensitivities to Cd. Specimens from each population were experimentally exposed to 9 μg Cd(2+)/L Cd for 7 days and hemolymph osmolality (HO) was then individually measured...
April 6, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28411389/the-comet-assay-in-folsomia-candida-a-suitable-approach-to-assess-genotoxicity-in-collembolans
#6
Diogo N Cardoso, Ana Rita R Silva, Andreia Cruz, Joana Lourenço, Joana Neves, Catarina Malheiro, Sónia Mendo, Amadeu M V M Soares, Susana Loureiro
The present study shows the comet assay technique being successfully applied for the first time to one of the most widely used soil organisms in standardized ecotoxicological tests, Folsomia candida, providing a step forward in assessing the genotoxicity induced by xenobiotics. Because collembolans have a high content of chitin, a new methodology was developed in which the heads of the collembolans were separated from the rest of the body, allowing the hemolymph to leak out. This procedure allows the cells to be released, and after lysis the genetic material is available for the comet assay...
March 16, 2017: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28400214/characterization-of-pmsp%C3%B3-tzle-1-from-the-black-tiger-shrimp-peneaus-monodon
#7
Sittichai Boonrawd, Ravi Mani, Sirikwan Ponprateep, Premruethai Supungul, Promsin Masrinoul, Anchalee Tassanakajon, Vichien Rimphanitchayakit
Spätzle is a signaling ligand in innate immune response that signals pathogenic infection via Toll receptor and Toll pathway into the cells for the synthesis of antimicrobial proteins. Herein, three PmSpӓtzle isoforms were identified in Penaeus monodon, namely PmSpz1, 2 and 3. The PmSpz1 was chosen for detailed study. The PmSpz1 gene was expressed in all nine tissues tested including the hemocytes, stomach, hepatopancreas, gill, lymphoid tissue, eyestalk, muscle, intestine and heart. Its expression was up-regulated upon white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) infection...
April 8, 2017: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28397606/clock-and-hormonal-controls-of-an-eclosion-gate-in-the-flesh-fly-sarcophaga-crassipalpis
#8
Miki Yamamoto, Koji Nishimura, Sakiko Shiga
The eclosion gate in insect development is controlled by the circadian clock and hormonal cascade. To study mechanisms underlying the eclosion gate, we examined eclosion-timing signals from the circadian clock, and the role of 20-hydroxyecdysone in the eclosion gate of the flesh fly, Sarcophaga crassipalpis. Phase responses of the eclosion rhythm were examined by applying a low-temperature pulse in the day prior to the first eclosion peak. A low-temperature pulse applied about 5.4 h before eclosion advanced an eclosion peak by 0...
April 2017: Zoological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28392374/evaluation-of-the-toxic-effect-of-endocrine-disruptor-bisphenol-a-bpa-in-the-acute-and-chronic-toxicity-tests-with-pomacea-lineata-gastropod
#9
André Lucas Correa de Andrade, Priscila Rafaela Leão Soares, Stephannie Caroline Barros Lucas da Silva, Marília Cordeiro Galvão da Silva, Thamiris Pinheiro Santos, Marilia Ribeiro Sales Cadena, Pierre Castro Soares, Pabyton Gonçalves Cadena
Bisphenol A (BPA) is a plasticizer and a risk when it interacts with organisms, and can cause changes in the development and reproduction of them. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of BPA, by acute and chronic toxicity tests with neonates and adults of Pomacea lineata. Adults and neonates were divided into groups exposed to BPA (1-20mg/L), or 17β-estradiol (1mg/L) and control in the acute and chronic toxicity tests. Behavior, heart rate, reproduction and hemolymph biochemical analysis were measured...
April 6, 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Toxicology & Pharmacology: CBP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28390875/effect-of-non-nutritive-sugars-to-decrease-the-survivorship-of-spotted-wing-drosophila-drosophila-suzukii
#10
Man-Yeon Choi, Siew Bee Tang, Seung-Joon Ahn, Kaushalya G Amarasekare, Peter Shearer, Jana C Lee
In this study, we investigated the effects of non-nutritive sugars and sugar alcohols on the survivorship of spotted wing drosophila, Drosophila suzukii, and found erythritol and erythrose as potentially insecticidal to the fly. In a dose-dependent study, erythritol and erythrose significantly reduced fly longevity, with 100% mortality with 1, 0.5, 0.1 & 0.05M doses after feeding for 7days. When sucrose and erythritol solutions were provided separately to flies for 7days, there was no effect on survivorship regardless of erythritol concentrations...
April 5, 2017: Journal of Insect Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28378380/re-evaluation-of-insect-melanogenesis-research-views-from-the-dark-side
#11
REVIEW
Miranda M A Whitten, Christopher J Coates
Melanins (eumelanin and pheomelanin) are synthesised in insects for several purposes including cuticle sclerotisation and color patterning, clot formation, organogenesis and innate immunity. Traditional views of insect immunity detail the storage of pro-phenoloxidases inside specialized blood cells (hemocytes) and their release upon recognition of foreign bodies. Activated phenoloxidases convert monophenols into reactive quinones in a two-step enzymatic reaction, and until recently, the mechanism of tyrosine hydroxylation remained a mystery...
April 4, 2017: Pigment Cell & Melanoma Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28377201/expression-of-a-novel-complement-c3-gene-in-the-razor-clam-sinonovacula-constricta-and-its-role-in-innate-immune-response-and-hemolysis
#12
Maoxiao Peng, Donghong Niu, Zhiyi Chen, Tianyi Lan, Zhiguo Dong, Thi-Nga Tran, Jiale Li
Complement component 3 (C3) is a core component of the complement system, and directly participates in immune regulation and immune defense. Isoforms of C3 have been reported in several species of vertebrate, but invertebrates, and more specifically clams, have been less well studied. An isoform of C3, named ScC3-2, was identified in Sinonovacula constricta (Chinese razor clam). ScC3-2 included eight conserved regions, a thioester bond and two predicted junction sites (α-β and α-γ). The gene was expressed in the liver, gill, foot, hemolymph, mantle, gonad and siphon tissues...
April 1, 2017: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28376312/vitellogenin-receptor-selectively-endocytoses-female-specific-and-highly-expressed-hemolymph-proteins-in-the-silkworm-bombyx-mori
#13
Chaoshan Han, Enxiang Chen, Guanwang Shen, Peng Zhixin, Yinying Xu, Haiyan Zhang, Hongling Liu, Yandi Zhang, Jinxin Wu, Ying Lin, Qingyou Xia
Vitellogenin receptor (VgR), a member of the low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) family, functions to transport vitellogenin into the ovaries to protome ovarian growth and embryonic development. In insects, the only widely accepted ligand of VgR is Vg. Recently, Bombyx mori VgR (BmVgR) has been shown to interact with Bombyx mori storage protein (BmSP1) in vitro. Therefore, in this study, we evaluated whether BmVgR could transport BmSP1 into certain cells. Although BmVgR could combine with Bombyx mori Vg (BmVg) and BmSP1, BmVgR did not affect the amount of BmSP1 taken up by Sf9 cells...
April 4, 2017: Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Biochimie et Biologie Cellulaire
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28369996/morphological-basis-for-a-tonotopic-design-of-an-insect-ear
#14
Jennifer Hummel, Manfred Kössl, Manuela Nowotny
The tonotopically organized hearing organs of bushcrickets provide the opportunity for a detailed correlation of morphological and structural properties within hearing organs that are needed to establish tonotopic gradients. In the present study of a tonotopic insect hearing organ, we combine mechanical measurements of sound-induced hearing organ motion and detailed anatomical investigations to explore the anatomical basis of tonotopy. We compare mechanical data of frequency responses along the auditory organ to several anatomical parameters...
March 29, 2017: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28369112/crustacean-hyperglycemic-hormone-is-synthesized-in-the-eyestalk-and-brain-of-the-crayfish-procambarus-clarkii
#15
Rosaura Loredo-Ranjel, María Luisa Fanjul-Moles, Elsa G Escamilla-Chimal
Crustacean hyperglycemic hormone (CHH) is a neuropeptide that is synthesized, stored, and released by brain and eyestalk structures in decapods. CHH participates in the regulation of several mechanisms, including increasing the level of glucose in hemolymph. Although CHH mRNA levels have been quantified and the CHH protein has been localized in various structures of the crayfish P. clarkii, CHH synthesis has only been reported in the X-organ-sinus gland (XO-SG). Therefore, the aim of this study was to use in situ hybridization to determine whether CHH mRNA is located in other structures, including the putative pacemaker, eyestalk and brain, of crayfish P...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28366787/manduca-sexta-hemolymph-protease-1-activated-by%C3%A2-an%C3%A2-unconventional-non-proteolytic-mechanism-mediates%C3%A2-immune%C3%A2-responses
#16
Yan He, Yang Wang, Fan Yang, Haobo Jiang
Tissue damage or pathogen invasion triggers the auto-proteolysis of an initiating serine protease (SP), rapidly leading to sequential cleavage activation of other cascade members to set off innate immune responses in insects. Recently, we presented evidence that Manduca sexta hemolymph protease-1 zymogen (proHP1) is a member of the SP system in this species, and may activate proHP6. HP6 stimulates melanization and induces antimicrobial peptide synthesis. Here we report that proHP1 adopts an active conformation (*) to carry out its function, without a requirement for proteolytic activation...
March 31, 2017: Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28363588/effects-of-synbiotics-on-immunity-and-disease-resistance-of-narrow-clawed-crayfish-astacus-leptodactylus-leptodactylus-eschscholtz-1823
#17
Omid Safari, Marina Paolucci, Hamidreza Ahmadnia Motlagh
The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of prebiotics (mannanoligosaccharide and xylooligosaccharide), probiotics (Enterococcus faecalis and Pediococcus acidilactici) and synbiotics for 126 days on the immune responses, hemolymph indices, antioxidant enzymes, and biological responses after a 48-hour Aeromonas hydrophila exposure of sub-adult crayfish (11.45 ± 1.87 g). Most antibacterial activities were observed in the shell mucus of crayfish fed a diet containing xylooligosaccharide + E. faecalis and mannanoligosaccharide + Pediococcus acidilactici against Nocardia brasilience and Vibrio harveyi (p < 0...
May 2017: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28361038/tick-thioester-containing-proteins-and-phagocytosis-do-not-affect-transmission-of-borrelia-afzelii-from-the-competent-vector-ixodes-ricinus
#18
Veronika Urbanová, Ondřej Hajdušek, Helena Hönig Mondeková, Radek Šíma, Petr Kopáček
The present concept of the transmission of Lyme disease from Borrelia-infected Ixodes sp. ticks to the naïve host assumes that a low number of spirochetes that manage to penetrate the midgut epithelium migrate through the hemocoel to the salivary glands and subsequently infect the host with the aid of immunomodulatory compounds present in tick saliva. Therefore, humoral and/or cellular immune reactions within the tick hemocoel may play an important role in tick competence to act as a vector for borreliosis...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28359947/the-hot-water-extract-of-leaves-of-noni-morinda-citrifolia-promotes-the-immunocompetence-of-giant-freshwater-prawn-macrobrachium-rosenbergii
#19
Atika Marisa Halim, Pai-Po Lee, Zhong-Wen Chang, Chin-Chyuan Chang
The hot-water Morinda citrifolia leaf extract (HMLE) was prepared for in vitro assessment on phenoloxidase (PO) activity, respiratory bursts (RBs), and phagocytic activity (PA). Furthermore, the HMLE was administrated in the diet at 0.6, 3, and 6 g (kg diet)(-1) for Macrobrachium rosenbergii, and the potential effects on the immunocompetence of prawns were evaluated. PO activity, RBs, and PA in hemocytes incubated with the HMLE at 140, 20, 20, and 140 mg l(-1) significantly increased. The immune parameters of the total hemocyte count (THC), differential hemocyte count (DHC), RBs, PO activity, superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, PA, transglutaminase (TG) activity and hemolymph clotting time were evaluated before and after 1, 3, 5, 7, and 9 weeks of the feeding trial...
May 2017: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28355530/effects-of-benzo-a-pyrene-dietary-intake-to-antioxidative-enzymes-of-lymantria-dispar-lepidoptera-lymantriidae-larvae-from-unpolluted-and-polluted-forests
#20
Anja Gavrilović, Larisa Ilijin, Marija Mrdaković, Milena Vlahović, Aleksandra Mrkonja, Dragana Matić, Vesna Perić-Mataruga
Anthropogenic activity in industrial development has imposed great threats to the environment and wildlife in the form of persistent organic pollutants. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) tend to accumulate in vegetation foliage which is the main food source of polyphagous insect species Lymantria dispar L. Origin and multigenerational adaptation of L. dispar population to environmental challenges strongly condition the enzymes' sensitivity to pollutants. In this study, our aim was to investigate response of the superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione S-transferase (GST) to the chronic dietary exposure of benzo[a]pyrene in the midgut tissues and hemolymph of two L...
March 22, 2017: Chemosphere
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