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Yifan Zhai, Zhiming Zhang, Huanhuan Gao, Hao Chen, Meng Sun, Wenqing Zhang, Yi Yu, Li Zheng
Diapause is a physiological adaptation that allows an organism to survive adverse environmental conditions. Diapause occurs at a specific developmental stage in each species. There are few reports regarding the molecular regulatory mechanism of nymphal diapause in Laodelphax striatellus, which is an important graminaceous crop pest. Our previous studies identified the conditions for nymphal diapause in this species. Here, we combined RNA sequencing transcriptomics and quantitative proteomic analyses to identify nymphal diapause-related genes and proteins...
October 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
Wenshi Li, Xixiang Tang, Yan Chen, Wanwei Sun, Yan Liu, Yi Gong, Xiaobo Wen, Shengkang Li
As a member of the immunoglobulin superfamily, Down syndrome cell adhesion molecule (Dscam) could function in the innate immunity of invertebrates. Recently, it is shown that arthropod Dscams play similar functions as antibodies in the adaptive immune system. Dscam could produce thousands of isoforms by alternative splicing and specifically bind to various pathogens. In the present study, we cloned the first Dscam from mud crab Scylla paramamosain (SpDscam), with full-length cDNA 7363 bp containing an open reading frame (ORF) of 6069bp and encoding 2022 amino acids, which had typical domain architecture as other arthropods, i...
October 14, 2017: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
Yuk-Ting Lau, Lauren Sussman, Emmanuelle Pales Espinosa, Selma Katalai, Bassem Allam
Bivalve hemocytes are involved in a variety of physiological and immunological functions. Circulating hemocytes in the hemolymph represent the main component of the internal self-defense system while hemocytes present in the extrapallial space (between the mantle and the shell) are actively involved in biomineralization and shell formation. This study focused on the characterization of hemocytes from different body fluids of the eastern oyster Crassostrea virginica. Hemocytes present in the hemolymph were compared to those contained in the extrapallial fluid...
October 14, 2017: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
Adrian Brückner, Hans Klompen, Andrew Iain Bruce, Rosli Hashim, Christoph von Beeren
A great variety of parasites and parasitoids exploit ant societies. Among them are the Mesostigmata mites, a particularly common and diverse group of ant-associated arthropods. While parasitism is ubiquitous in Mesostigmata, parasitoidism has only been described in the genus Macrodinychus. Yet information about the basic biology of most Macrodinychus species is lacking. Out of 24 formally described species, information about basic life-history traits is only available for three species. Here we formally describe two new Macrodinychus species, i...
2017: PeerJ
Hai-Zhong Yu, Shang-Zhi Zhang, Yan Ma, Dong-Qiong Fei, Bing Li, Li-Ang Yang, Jie Wang, Zhen Li, Azharuddin Muhammad, Jia-Ping Xu
Ferritins are conserved iron-binding proteins that are primarily involved in iron storage, detoxification and the immune response. Despite the importance of ferritin in organisms, little is known about their roles in the eri-silkworm (Samia cynthia ricini). We previously identified a ferritin heavy chain subunit named ScFerHCH in the S. c. ricini transcriptome database. The full-length S. c. ricini ferritin heavy chain subunit (ScFerHCH) was 1863 bp and encoded a protein of 231 amino acids with a deduced molecular weight of 25...
October 14, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Taoyan Wu, Ya Zhao, Zhenying Wang, Qisheng Song, Zengxia Wang, Qiuwen Xu, Yingjuan Wang, Libao Wang, Yiqiang Zhang, Congjing Feng
Pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) are biosensor proteins that bind to non-self pathogen associated molecular patterns (PAMPs). β-1,3-glucan recognition proteins (βGRPs) play an essential role in immune recognition and signaling pathway of insect innate immunity. Here, we report the cloning and characterization of cDNA of OfβGRP3 from Ostrinia furnacalis larvae. The OfβGRP3 contains 1455 bp open reading frame, encoding a predicted 484 amino acid residue protein. In hemocytes, the expression levels of OfβGRP3 in Escherichia coli-challenged group were higher than those of Bacillus subtilis-challenged group at 2, 4, 8, 10 and 12 h post injection (HPI)...
October 12, 2017: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
Yonggyun Kim, Dae-Weon Lee, Jin Kyo Jung
A subtropical insect, Maruca vitrata (F.) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), is invasive to temperate zones, in which low temperatures during winter would be a serious challenge for colonization. This study assessed cold tolerance and cold-hardening of M. vitrata to understand its overwintering mechanism. Supercooling capacity was confirmed in all developmental stages exhibiting body freezing points at lower than -10°C, in which supercooling points (SCPs) were significantly different among developmental stages, with eggs having the lowest SCP (at -22...
September 23, 2017: Environmental Entomology
Wendy Kloezen, Florianne Parel, Roger Brüggemann, Khalid Asouit, Marilyn Helvert-van Poppel, Ahmed Fahal, Johan Mouton, Wendy van de Sande
Mycetoma is a tropical neglected disease characterized by large subcutaneous lesions in which the causative organisms reside in the form of grains. The most common causative agent is Madurella mycetomatis. Antifungal therapy often fails due to these grains, but to identify novel treatment options has been difficult since grains do not form in vitro. We recently used Galleria mellonella larvae to develop an in vivo grain model. In the current study, we set out to determine the therapeutic efficacy of commonly used antifungal agents in this larval model...
September 14, 2017: Medical Mycology: Official Publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology
Toshio Shibata, Shun-Ichiro Kawabata
Transglutaminase (TG) catalyzes the formation of an isopeptide bond between glutamine and lysine residues and amine incorporation into specific glutamine residues. TG is conserved in all metazoans and functions both intracellularly and extracellularly. Here we review the existing knowledge of Drosophila TG with an emphasis on its pluripotency: Drosophila TG (i) plays a key role in cuticular morphogenesis, hemolymph coagulation, and entrapment against invading pathogens, (ii) suppresses the immune deficiency pathway to enable immune tolerance against commensal bacteria through the incorporation of polyamines into the NF-κB-like transcription factor Relish as well as through the protein-protein cross-linking of Relish, (iii) forms a physical matrix in the gut through cross-linking of chitin-binding proteins, and (iv) is involved in the maintenance of homeostasis in microbiota in the gut...
September 5, 2017: Journal of Biochemistry
HuaJian Zhang, BaoZhen Tang, YaPing Lin, ZhiMing Chen, XiaFang Zhang, TianLiang Ji, XiaoMei Zhang, YouMing Hou
A typical characteristic of the insect innate immune system is the activation of the serine protease cascade in the hemolymph. As being the terminal component of the extracellular serine protease cascade in the prophenoloxidase (proPO) activating system, proPO-activating factors (PPAFs) activated by the upstream cascade may generate active phenoloxidase, which then induces downstream melanization. In the present study, we reported three PPAFs from the nipa palm hispid beetle Octodonta nipae (Maulik) (designated as OnPPAF1, OnPPAF2, OnPPAF3)...
October 8, 2017: Archives of Insect Biochemistry and Physiology
Yan He, Yang Wang, Picheng Zhao, Subrahmanyam Rayaprolu, Xiuhong Wang, Xiaolong Cao, Haobo Jiang
Serpins are a superfamily of proteins, most of which inhibit cognate serine proteases by forming inactive acyl-enzyme complexes. In the tobacco hornworm Manduca sexta, serpin-1, -3 through -7 negatively regulate a hemolymph serine protease system that activates precursors of the serine protease homologs (SPHs), phenoloxidases (POs), Spätzles, and other cytokines. Here we report the cloning and characterization of M. sexta serpin-9 and -13. Serpin-9, a 402-residue protein most similar to Drosophila Spn77Ba, has R(366) at the P1 position right before the cleavage site; Serpin-13, a 444-residue ortholog of Drosophila Spn28Dc, is longer than the other seven serpins and has R(410) as the P1 residue...
October 5, 2017: Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
Yuichi Masuda, Ren Tanaka, A Ganesan, Takayuki Doi
PF1171 hexapeptides, a family of cyclic hexapeptides produced by fungi, exhibit paralyzing effects on the larvae of silkworms via oral administration. To elucidate the structural features of PF1171 hexapeptides that are crucial for bioactivity, the relationship among 3D structure, bioactivity, and membrane permeability of PF1171F (the peptide with the highest bioavailability) was systematically analyzed through the synthesis of 22 analogues. The PF1171F analogues were prepared by the solid-phase synthesis of a linear precursor and subsequent solution-phase macrolactamization...
October 16, 2017: Journal of Organic Chemistry
Hengchuan Xia, Dandan Shao, Xiaoyong Liu, Qiang Wang, Yang Zhou, Keping Chen
Vps20-associated 1 (Vta1) positively regulates Vacuolar protein sorting 4 (Vps4) to disassemble endosomal sorting complex required for transport III (ESCRT-III) for repeated uses in multivesicular body (MVB) pathway, virus budding and other processes. Currently, these proteins have mainly been studied in yeast and mammalian cells, while identities of them in insects remain largely unknown. We previously identified BmVps4, a Vps4 homologue from Bombyx mori. Here, we report the identification of a homologue for Vta1, designated as BmVta1...
May 1, 2017: Journal of Insect Science
Kishore Dhara, Nimai Chandra Saha, Arpan Kumar Maiti
Molluscs have long been regarded as promising bioindicator and biomonitoring subjects for heavy metals as molluscs are highly tolerant to heavy metals and exhibit high accumulation in their body. In spite of several previous studies about the impact of cadmium on molluscs, little information exists in literatures concerning the toxic effects of cadmium on Lymnaea acuminata, especially pertaining to behavioral and hematological changes as these are considered effective bioindicators and biomonitoring variables for detecting heavy metals in polluted water bodies...
October 2, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Chuanfei Yuan, Longsheng Xing, Manli Wang, Xi Wang, Mengyi Yin, Qianran Wang, Zhihong Hu, Zhen Zou
Melanization, an important insect defense mechanism, is mediated by clip-domain serine protease (cSP) cascades and is regulated by serpins. Here we show that proteolytic activation of prophenoloxidase (PPO) and PO-catalyzed melanization kill the baculovirus in vitro. Our quantitative proteomics and biochemical experiments revealed that baculovirus infection of the cotton bollworm, Helicoverpa armigera, reduced levels of most cascade members in the host hemolymph and PO activity. By contrast, serpin-9 and serpin-5 were sequentially upregulated after the viral infection...
September 2017: PLoS Pathogens
June-Sun Yoon, Dhandapani Gurusamy, Subba Reddy Palli
RNA interference (RNAi) efficiency varies among insects studied. The barriers for successful RNAi include the presence of double-stranded ribonucleases (dsRNase) in the lumen and hemolymph that could potentially digest double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) and the variability in the transport of dsRNA into and within the cells. We recently showed that the dsRNAs are transported into lepidopteran cells, but they are not processed into small interference RNAs (siRNAs) because they are trapped in acidic bodies. In the current study, we focused on the identification of acidic bodies in which dsRNAs accumulate in Sf9 cells...
September 23, 2017: Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
Mads Kuhlmann Andersen, Heath A MacMillan, Andrew Donini, Johannes Overgaard
Insect chill tolerance is strongly associated with the ability to maintain ion and water homeostasis during cold exposure. Maintenance of K(+) balance is particularly important due to its role in setting the cell membrane potential that is involved in many aspects of cellular function and viability. In most insects, K(+) balance is maintained through secretion at the Malpighian tubules balancing reabsorption from the hindgut and passive leak arising from the gut lumen. Here, we used a scanning ion-selective electrode technique (SIET) system at benign (23°C) and low (6°C) temperature to examine K(+) flux across the Malpighian tubules and the rectal pads in the hindgut in five Drosophila species that differ in cold tolerance...
September 25, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
Vadim Yu Krukov, Oksana G Tomilova, Olga A Luzina, Olga N Yaroslavtseva, Yuriy B Akhanaev, Maksim V Tyurin, Bahytzhan A Duisembekov, Nariman F Salakhutdinov, Viktor V Glupov
BACKGROUND: The search for compounds that interact synergistically with entomopathogenic fungi is aimed at enhancing the efficacy and stability of biological products against pest insects e.g., against the Colorado potato beetle (CPB). We hypothesized that fluorine-containing derivatives of usnic acid (FUA) could be candidates for development of multi-component bio-insecticides. The aim of this study was to analyze the co-influence of FUA and Beauveria bassiana on the survival and immune-physiological reactions of CPB larvae...
September 25, 2017: Pest Management Science
Shengping Zhong, Yong Mao, Jun Wang, Min Liu, Man Zhang, Yongquan Su
Kuruma shrimp (Marsupenaeus japonicus) is one of the most valuable crustacean species in capture fisheries and mariculture in the Indo-West Pacific. White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) is a highly virulent pathogen which has seriously threatened Kuruma shrimp aquaculture sector. However, little information is available in relation to underlying mechanisms of host-virus interaction in Kuruma shrimp. In this study, we performed a transcriptome analysis from the hepatopancreas of Kuruma shrimp challenged by WSSV, using Illumina-based RNA-Seq...
September 21, 2017: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
Michał Kobiałka, Anna Michalik, Marcin Walczak, Teresa Szklarzewicz
The symbiotic systems (types of symbionts, their distribution in the host insect body, and their transovarial transmission between generations) of four Deltocephalinae leafhoppers: Fieberiella septentrionalis, Graphocraerus ventralis, Orientus ishidae, and Cicadula quadrinotata have been examined by means of histological, ultrastructural, and molecular techniques. In all four species, two types of symbionts are present: bacterium Sulcia (phylum Bacteroidetes) and yeast-like symbionts closely related to the entomopathogenic fungi (phylum Ascomycota, class Sordariomycetes)...
September 23, 2017: Microbial Ecology
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