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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932027/gut-symbiotic-bacteria-stimulate-insect-growth-and-egg-production-by-modulating-hexamerin-and-vitellogenin-gene-expression
#1
Jun Beom Lee, Kyoung-Eun Park, Seung Ah Lee, Seong Han Jang, Ho Jeong Eo, Ho Am Jang, Chan-Hee Kim, Tsubasa Ohbayashi, Yu Matsuura, Yoshitomo Kikuchi, Ryo Futahashi, Takema Fukatsu, Bok Luel Lee
Recent studies have suggested that gut symbionts modulate insect development and reproduction. However, the mechanisms by which gut symbionts modulate host physiologies and the molecules involved in these changes are unclear. To address these questions, we prepared three different groups of the insect Riptortus pedestris: Burkholderia gut symbiont-colonized (Sym) insects, Burkholderia-non-colonized (Apo) insects, and Burkholderia-depleted (Sym(Burk-)) insects, which were fed tetracycline. When the hemolymph proteins of three insects were analyzed by SDS-PAGE, the hexamerin-α, hexamerin-β and vitellogenin-1 proteins of Sym-adults were highly expressed compared to those of Apo- and Sym(Burk-)-insects...
December 5, 2016: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27925174/natural-selection-on-immune-defense-a-field-experiment
#2
Laura Langeloh, Jasminca Behrmann-Godel, Otto Seppälä
Predicting the evolution of phenotypic traits requires an understanding of natural selection on them. Despite its indispensability in the fight against parasites, selection on host immune defense has remained understudied. Theory predicts immune traits to be under stabilizing selection due to associated trade-offs with other fitness-related traits. Empirical studies, however, report mainly positive directional selection. This discrepancy could be caused by low phenotypic variation in the examined individuals and/or variation in host resource level that confounds trade-offs in empirical studies...
December 7, 2016: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919647/the-functions-of-serpin-3-a-negative-regulator-involved-in-prophenoloxidase-activation-and-antimicrobial-peptides-expression-of-chinese-oak-silkworm-antheraea-pernyi
#3
Xialu Wang, Kailin Wang, Yuanyuan He, Xinrui Lu, Daihua Wen, Chunfu Wu, Jinghai Zhang, Rong Zhang
Serpins are a superfamily of proteins engaged in various physiological processes in all kingdoms of life. To date, many striking results have demonstrated serpins are involved in the invertebrate immune system by regulating the proteolytic cascades. However, in most insect species, the immune functions of serpins in response against pathogen invasion remain obscure. In this study, we identified a full-length cDNA sequence of serpin, named serpin-3, from the Chinese oak silkworm Antheraea pernyi. Sequence alignments have indicated that Apserpin-3 might regulate the melanization reaction via inhibiting prophenoloxidases-activating protease(s) in plasma...
December 2, 2016: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915148/antioxidant-response-of-the-hard-shelled-mussel-mytilus-coruscus-exposed-to-reduced-ph-and-oxygen-concentration
#4
Yanming Sui, Menghong Hu, Yueyong Shang, Fangli Wu, Xizhi Huang, Sam Dupont, Daniela Storch, Hans-Otto Pörtner, Jiale Li, Weiqun Lu, Youji Wang
Ocean acidification (OA) and hypoxic events are increasing worldwide problems, their interactive effects have not been well clarified, although their co-occurrence is prevalent. The East China Sea (the Yangtze River estuary area) suffers from not only coastal hypoxia but also pH fluctuation, representing an ideal study site to explore the combined effect of OA and hypoxia on marine bivalves. We experimentally evaluated the antioxidant response of the mussel Mytilus coruscus exposed to three pH levels (8.1, 7...
December 1, 2016: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913635/screening-and-analysis-of-janelia-flylight-project-enhancer-gal4-strains-identifies-multiple-gene-enhancers-active-during-hematopoiesis-in-normal-and-wasp-challenged-drosophila-larvae
#5
Tsuyoshi Tokusumi, Yumiko Tokusumi, Mark S Brahier, Victoria Lam, Jessica R Stoller-Conrad, Paul T Kroeger, Robert A Schulz
A GFP expression screen has been conducted on greater than one thousand Janelia FlyLight Project enhancer-Gal4 lines to identify transcriptional enhancers active in the larval hematopoietic system. A total of 190 enhancers associated with 87 distinct genes showed activity in cells of the third instar larval lymph gland and hemolymph. That is, gene enhancers were active in cells of the lymph gland posterior signaling center (PSC), medullary zone (MZ), and/or cortical zone (CZ), while certain of the transcriptional control regions were active in circulating hemocytes...
December 2, 2016: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913622/a-venom-serpin-splicing-isoform-of-the-endoparasitoid-wasp-pteromalus-puparum-suppresses-host-prophenoloxidase-cascade-by-forming-complexes-with-host-hemolymph-proteinases
#6
Zhichao Yan, Qi Fang, Yang Liu, Shan Xiao, Lei Yang, Fei Wang, Chunju An, John H Werren, Gongyin Ye
To ensure successful parasitism, parasitoid wasps inject venom along with their eggs into their hosts. The venom serves to suppress host immune responses, including melanization. Venom from Pteromalus puparum, a pupal endoparasitoid, inhibits melanization of host hemolymph in vitro in a dose-dependent manner. Using assay guided fractionation, a serpin splicing isoform with phenoloxidase (PO) inhibitory activity was identified as P. puparum serpin-1, venom isoform (PpS1V). This serpin gene has 16 predicted splicing isoforms that differ only in the C-terminal region...
December 2, 2016: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27901314/effects-of-hypoxia-and-hypercapnic-hypoxia-on-oxygen-transport-and-acid-base-status-in-the-atlantic-blue-crab-callinectes-sapidus-during-exercise
#7
Mark P Lehtonen, Louis E Burnett
The responses of estuarine invertebrates to hypoxic conditions are well established. However, many studies have investigated hypoxia as an isolated condition despite its frequent co-occurrence with hypercapnia (elevated CO2 ). Although many studies suggest deleterious effects, hypercapnia has been observed to improve blue crab walking performance in hypoxia. To investigate the physiological effects of combined hypercapnic hypoxia, we measured Po2 , pH, [l-lactate], Pco2 , and total O2 in pre- and postbranchial hemolymph sampled from blue crabs during walking exercise...
November 30, 2016: Journal of Experimental Zoology. Part A, Ecological Genetics and Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896559/antiviral-activity-of-hemolymph-of-podalia-against-rubella-virus
#8
N D Carvalho, R Z Mendonça, M I Oliveira, S P Curti, T F Barbosa, P E Silva, N N Taniwaki, M Tonelotto, D N S Giovanni, R H P Moraes, C A Figueiredo
Many active principles produced by animals, plants and microorganisms have been employed in the development of new drugs for the treatment of human diseases. Among animals known to produce pharmacologically active molecules that interfere in human cell physiology. Rubella virus (genus Rubivirus, family Togaviridae) is a single stranded RNA virus of positive genome polarity. Rubella virus infection of susceptible women during the first trimester of pregnancy often results in long-term virus persistence in the fetus causing multiple organ abnormalities...
November 28, 2016: Cytotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893749/differential-protein-expression-in-the-hemolymph-of-bithynia-siamensis-goniomphalos-infected-with-opisthorchis-viverrini
#9
Kulwadee Suwannatrai, Apiporn Suwannatrai, Pairat Tabsripair, Jariya Umka Welbat, Sirikachorn Tangkawattana, Cinzia Cantacessi, Jason Mulvenna, Smarn Tesana, Alex Loukas, Javier Sotillo
Bithynia siamensis goniomphalos is a freshwater snail that serves as the first intermediate host of the human liver fluke Opisthorchis viverrini. This parasite is a major public health problem in different countries throughout the Greater Mekong sub-region (Thailand, southern Vietnam, Lao PDR and Cambodia). Chronic O. viverrini infection also results in a gradual increase of fibrotic tissues in the biliary tract that are associated with hepatobiliary diseases and contribute to cholangiocarcinoma (a fatal type of bile duct cancer)...
November 2016: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890716/a-field-study-of-hemolymph-yolk-protein-levels-in-a-bivalve-unio-tumidus-and-future-considerations-for-bivalve-yolk-protein-as-endocrine-biomarker
#10
Jane E Morthorst
Induction of yolk protein in male fish is a recognized biomarker for estrogenic exposure because the estrogen-dependent induction mechanism is well investigated and there is a clear difference in yolk protein levels of unexposed males and females. Attempts have been made to use induction of bivalve yolk protein as biomarker for estrogenic exposure. However, several biomarker validation criteria have not yet been investigated e.g. an in-depth understanding of the induction mechanism and background variability is needed and reliable detection assays are yet to be developed...
November 24, 2016: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Toxicology & Pharmacology: CBP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889557/identification-of-a-hemolin-protein-from-actias-selene-mediates-immune-response-to-pathogens
#11
Cen Qian, Fang Wang, Baojian Zhu, Lei Wang, Guoqing Wei, Yu Sun, Sheng Li, Chaoliang Liu
Hemolins play an important role in development and innate immunity in insects. In this study, a hemolin cDNA of 1412bp in Actias selene (As-HEM) was isolated and its open reading frames (ORFs) were 420 amino acid residues. Sequence analysis indicated As-HEM was homologous to those hemolins from other insects species. The recombinant protein of As-HEM was expressed in Escherichia coli, and anti-As-HEM antibodies were prepared. Real-time quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) and western blot results revealed that mRNA and protein levels of As-HEM were mostly detected in hemocytes and hemolymph...
November 24, 2016: International Immunopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885043/aedes-aegypti-rhesus-glycoproteins-contribute-to-ammonia-excretion-by-larval-anal-papillae
#12
Andrea C Durant, Helen Chasiotis, Lidiya Misyura, Andrew Donini
In larval Aedes aegypti, transcripts of the Rhesus-like glycoproteins AeRh50-1 and AeRh50-2 have been detected in the anal papillae, sites of ammonia (NH3/NH4(+)) excretion; however, these putative ammonia transporters have not been previously localised or functionally characterized. In this study we show that the AeRh50s co-immunolocalise with apical V-type H(+) ATPase as well as with basal Na(+)/K(+) ATPase in the epithelium of anal papillae. The double-stranded RNA mediated knockdown of AeRh50-1 and AeRh50-2 resulted in a significant reduction in AeRh50 protein abundance in the anal papillae and this was coupled to decreased ammonia excretion...
November 24, 2016: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27879459/clinical-and-epidemiological-features-of-paederus-dermatitis-among-nut-farm-workers-in-turkey
#13
Emel Uzunoğlu, Işıl Deniz Oğuz, Büşra Kır, Cihangir Akdemir
Paederus dermatitis is an acute irritant dermatitis resulting from contact with the hemolymph of Paederus beetles. This dermatitis mimics other infectious skin disorders, often resulting in diagnostic dilemmas. This study of 46 patients was conducted to increase awareness about Paederus dermatitis. Possible causes of a number of cases of Paederus dermatitis in Giresun, Turkey, were investigated using climate data and telephone interviews with the patients about risk factors. Insects caught by patients were identified at the species level...
November 22, 2016: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27876966/evaluation-of-sodium-fluoride-toxicity-in-schistosoma-infected-snails-assessment-of-antioxidants-antiapoptotic-hypoprotein-and-hypocholesterol-activities
#14
Khaled M M Koriem, Radziyah B Shamsuri, Asliza M Ubaidillah
The snails' tissues represents an intermediate or secondary host for Schistosoma sporocysts where, germ cells within the secondary sporocyst begin to divide to produce thousands of cercariae capable of infecting humans. The aim of the study was to evaluate the toxicity of sodium fluoride in Schistosoma snails' tissue homogenates. A total number of 264 different Schistosoma snails were collected from eight drainage water resources and divided into control uninfected and infected snails; where infected snails divided into four group; the first group without any treatment while second, third and fourth groups immersed in 25, 50 and 100 mg sodium fluoride/L during the period of 4 weeks then the snails' hemolymph and tissue homogenates were prepared to evaluate the snail' tissue antioxidants, protein content, lipid profile and apoptosis...
December 2016: Journal of Parasitic Diseases: Official Organ of the Indian Society for Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27871830/characterization-and-antiviral-activity-of-a-newly-identified-defensin-like-peptide-hedefensin-in-the-hard-tick-haemaphysalis-longicornis
#15
Melbourne Rio Talactac, Yurika Yada, Kentaro Yoshii, Emmanuel Pacia Hernandez, Kodai Kusakisako, Hiroki Maeda, Remil Linggatong Galay, Kozo Fujisaki, Masami Mochizuki, Tetsuya Tanaka
Tick defensins are antimicrobial peptides that play a major role in the innate immunity of ticks by providing a direct antimicrobial defense. In this study, we identified and characterized a defensin-like encoding gene, HEdefensin, from the expressed sequence tags (EST) database of hemolymph from the hard tick Haemaphysalis longicornis. Expression of the gene in whole adult ticks and in different organs was upregulated during blood feeding, though not after Langat virus (LGTV) challenge. A synthetic HEdefensin peptide demonstrated significant virucidal activity against LGTV but not against an adenovirus in co-incubation virucidal assays...
November 18, 2016: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27864430/apol1-g1-in-nephrocytes-induces-hypertrophy-and-accelerates-cell-death
#16
Yulong Fu, Jun-Yi Zhu, Adam Richman, Yi Zhang, Xuefang Xie, Jharna R Das, Jinliang Li, Patricio E Ray, Zhe Han
People of African ancestry carrying certain APOL1 mutant alleles are at elevated risk of developing renal diseases. However, the mechanisms underlying APOL1-associated renal diseases are unknown. Because the APOL1 gene is unique to humans and some primates, new animal models are needed to understand the function of APOL1 in vivo We generated transgenic Drosophila fly lines expressing the human APOL1 wild type allele (G0) or the predominant APOL1 risk allele (G1) in different tissues. Ubiquitous expression of APOL1 G0 or G1 in Drosophila induced lethal phenotypes, and G1 was more toxic than was G0...
November 18, 2016: Journal of the American Society of Nephrology: JASN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27862209/leg-injuries-and-wound-repair-among-cosmetid-harvestmen-arachnida-opiliones-laniatores
#17
Victor R Townsend, Maynard H Schaus, Tatyana Zvonareva, Jeffrey J Illinik, John T Evans
Previous studies of leg injuries in harvestmen have focused on the fitness consequences for individuals that use autospasy (voluntary detachment of the leg) as a secondary defense mechanism. Leg damage among non-autotomizing species of laniatorean harvestmen has not been investigated. Under laboratory conditions, we damaged femur IV of Cynorta marginalis and observed with scanning electron microscopy (SEM) the changes in these wounds over ten days. We also used SEM to examine leg damage from individuals of three species of cosmetid harvestmen that were collected in the field...
November 8, 2016: Journal of Morphology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27859898/structural-and-ultrastructural-features-of-the-malpighian-tubules-of-dolycoris-baccarum-linnaeus-1758-heteroptera-pentatomidae
#18
Nurcan Özyurt, Damla Amutkan, Irmak Polat, Tenay Kocamaz, Selami Candan, Zekiye Suludere
The morphology and ultrastructure of the Malpighian tubules of Dolycoris baccarum were analyzed by scanning (SEM) and transmission (TEM) electron microscopy in order to determine their functional organization. The Malpighian tubules are compared with similar structures of other insects based on cell structure and functional organization. The Malpighian tubules of D. baccarum extend from the midgut-hindgut region of the digestive tract. The Malpighian tubules are divided into two regions: the proximal segment is short and flattened and the distal segment is long, stringy in shape and free in hemolymph...
November 11, 2016: Microscopy Research and Technique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27858185/a-facultative-ectoparasite-attains-higher-reproductive-success-as-a-parasite-than-its-free-living-conspecifics
#19
Lien T Luong, Dewmi Subasinghe
Comparative and phylogenetic studies reveal that parasites evolved from free-living ancestors, but the underlying processes and mechanisms are not well understood. In order for selection to favor the evolution of parasitism, there must be pre-existing adaptations for host exploitation and a fitness advantage favoring the transition to parasitism. Here, we experimentally investigate the differential reproductive success of a facultative parasite, Macrocheles subbadius. Lifetime reproductive success was higher among female mites that fed on fruit fly hemolymph as parasites compared to free-living mites...
November 17, 2016: Experimental & Applied Acarology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27847418/morphological-and-molecular-identification-of-the-brown-dog-tick-rhipicephalus-sanguineus-and-the-camel-tick-hyalomma-dromedarii-acari-ixodidae-vectors-of-rickettsioses-in-egypt
#20
Hend H A M Abdullah, Amal El-Molla, Fayez A Salib, Nesreen A T Allam, Alaa A Ghazy, Sobhy Abdel-Shafy
AIM: Rickettsioses have an epidemiological importance that includes pathogens, vectors, and hosts. The dog tick Rhipicephalus sanguineus and the camel tick Hyalomma dromedarii play important roles as vectors and reservoirs of Rickettsiae. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of Rickettsiae in ixodid ticks species infesting dogs and camels in Egypt, in addition to, the morphological and molecular identification of R. sanguineus and H. dromedarii. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 601 and 104 of ticks' specimens were collected from dogs and camels, respectively, in Cairo, Giza and Sinai provinces...
October 2016: Veterinary World
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