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Sanae Kato, Takashi Matsui, Christos Gatsogiannis, Yoshikazu Tanaka
Most molluscs have blue blood because their respiratory molecule is hemocyanin, a type-3 copper-binding protein that turns blue upon oxygen binding. Molluscan hemocyanins are huge cylindrical multimeric glycoproteins that are found freely dissolved in the hemolymph. With molecular masses ranging from 3.3 to 13.5 MDa, molluscan hemocyanins are among the largest known proteins. They form decamers or multi-decamers of 330- to 550-kDa subunits comprising more than seven paralogous functional units. Based on the organization of functional domains, they assemble to form decamers, di-decamers, and tri-decamers...
December 12, 2017: Biophysical Reviews
Lu Wang, Dianzhong Wen
This paper reports the first successful fabrication of an ITO/silkworm hemolymph/Al bio-memristor using silkworm hemolymph as the active layer. Experiments demonstrate that the silkworm hemolymph bio-memristor is a nonvolatile rewritable bipolar memory device with a current switching ratio exceeding 103. The state of the bio-memristor can be retained for more than 104 seconds and remains stable for at least 500 cycles. Tests of 1/f noise have shown that the resistance switching characteristics of the silkworm hemolymph bio-memristor are related to the formation and breaking of conductive filaments, which result from the migration of oxygen ions and the oxidation and reduction of metal cations in the silkworm hemolymph film...
December 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
Jinming Zhou, Jing Yan, Keke You, Xia Chen, Zhineng Yuan, Qiang Zhou, Kai Lu
The brummer (bmm) genes encode the lipid storage droplet-associated triacylglycerols (TAG) lipases, which belong to the Brummer/Nutrin subfamily. These enzymes hydrolyze the ester bonds in TAG in lipid metabolism and act in insect energy homeostasis. Exposure to some agricultural chemicals leads to increased fecundity, which necessarily involves lipid metabolism, in some planthopper species. However, the biological roles of bmm in planthopper lipid storage and mobilization have not been investigated. Here, the open reading frame (ORF) of bmm (Nlbmm) was cloned and sequenced from the brown planthopper (BPH; Nilaparvata lugens)...
December 12, 2017: Archives of Insect Biochemistry and Physiology
Laura E McMillan, Dylan W Miller, Shelley A Adamo
Mounting an immune response consumes resources, which should lead to increased feeding. However, activating the immune system reduces feeding (i.e. illness-induced anorexia) in both vertebrates and invertebrates, suggesting that it may be beneficial. We suggest that illness-induced anorexia may be an adaptive response to conflicts between immune defense and food detoxification. We found that activating an immune response in the caterpillar Manduca sexta increased its susceptibility to the toxin permethrin. Conversely, a sublethal dose of permethrin reduced resistance to the bacterium Serratia marcescens, demonstrating a negative interaction between detoxification and immune defense...
December 7, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
Abrar Muhammad, Ya Fang, Youming Hou, Zhanghong Shi
For invasive insects, the potential roles of gut microbiota in exploiting new food resources and spreading remain elusive. Red palm weevil (RPW), Rhynchophorus ferrugineus Olivier, is an invasive destructive pest which feeds on nutrient-poor tender tissues and has caused extensive mortality of palm trees. The microbes associated with insects can improve their nutrition assimilation. However, experimental evidence on the interactions between RPW and its gut microbiota is still absent. The aim of this study is to determine the dynamics changes and the bacterial entomotype in the RPW gut and its potential physiological roles...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
Saima Kausar, Muhammad Nadeem Abbas, Cen Qian, Baojian Zhu, Jin Gao, Yu Sun, Lei Wang, Guoqing Wei, Chaoliang Liu
Serine protease inhibitors play a key role in the immune system of invertebrates by controlling proteolytic cascades. Besides its importance, the knowledge on immune functions of serpins in most of insects is fragmentary. In the present study, we identified serpin-12 from Antheraea pernyi encoding a predicted 402 amino acid residue protein (Apserpin-12). We expressed the recombinant protein in Escherichia coli and the purified protein was used for the synthesis of rabbit anti-Apserpin-12 polyclonal antibodies and functional studies...
November 29, 2017: Archives of Insect Biochemistry and Physiology
Michele da Silva Aires, Christianne Lorea Paganini, Adalto Bianchini
The estuarine crab Neohelice granulata was maintained under control condition or exposed to sublethal concentrations of dissolved Ni (measured: 128 and 1010μg/L) for 96h at different salinities (2 and 30ppt). After metal exposure, whole-body oxygen consumption was measured and tissue (hemolymph, gills, hepatopancreas and muscle) samples were collected. Control crabs acclimated to 2ppt salinity showed lower hemolymph concentrations of Na+ (33%), Mg2+ (19%) and K+ (30%), as well as increased LPO levels in anterior gills (379%), posterior gills (457%) and hepatopancreas (35%) with respect to those acclimated to 30ppt salinity...
November 27, 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Toxicology & Pharmacology: CBP
Qingsong Huang, Mingjia Yu, Hongmei Chen, Manhong Zeng, Yan Sun, Tusar T Saha, Dongbo Chen
In bivalve mollusks, circulating hemocyte mediated phagocytosis is one of the primary ways to eliminate invading microbes. Here, we have identified one CgLRFN (leucine-rich repeat and fibronectin type-III domain-containing protein) in the Crassostrea gigas as a novel transmembrane LRR (Leucine-rich repeat) domain containing protein in C. gigas, homologous to the jawless fish VLR protein, that plays an important role in recognizing bacteria and promoting hemocytic phagocytosis. Tissue distribution analysis of CgLRFN in Pacific oyster showed that it is widely expressed in various tissues like the gills, adductor muscles, digestive glands, gonads, heart and in the hemocytes...
November 27, 2017: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
Daniela Romão, Mafalda Cavalheiro, Dalila Mil-Homens, Rui Santos, Pedro Pais, Catarina Costa, Azusa Takahashi-Nakaguchi, Arsénio M Fialho, Hiroji Chibana, Miguel C Teixeira
Persistence and virulence of Candida glabrata infections are multifactorial phenomena, whose understanding is crucial to design more suitable therapeutic strategies. In this study, the putative multidrug transporter CgDtr1, encoded by ORF CAGL0M06281g, is identified as a determinant of C. glabrata virulence in the infection model Galleria mellonella. CgDTR1 deletion is shown to decrease the ability to kill G. mellonella larvae by decreasing C. glabrata ability to proliferate in G. mellonella hemolymph, and to tolerate the action of hemocytes...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
Mary K Mills, Mark G Ruder, Dana Nayduch, Kristin Michel, Barbara S Drolet
Culicoides sonorensis biting midges are confirmed vectors of epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus (EHDV), which causes mortality in white-tailed deer and ruminant populations. Currently, of the seven EHDV serotypes, only 1, 2, and 6 are detected in the USA, and very few studies have focused on the infection time course of these serotypes within the midge. The objective of this current research was to characterize EHDV-2 infection within the midge by measuring infection prevalence, virus dissemination, and viral load over the course of infection...
2017: PloS One
Xiao-Rong Zhuo, Lei Chen, Gui-Jie Wang, Xu-Sheng Liu, Yu-Feng Wang, Ke Liu, Xiao-Qiang Yu, Jia-Lin Wang
Growth-blocking peptide (GBP) is an insect cytokine that stimulates plasmatocyte adhesion, thereby playing a critical role in encapsulation reaction. It has been previously demonstrated that GBP-binding protein (GBPB) is released upon oenocytoid lysis in response to GBP and is responsible for subsequent clearance of GBP from hemolymph. However, current knowledge about GBPB is limited and the mechanism by which insects increase GBPB levels to inactivate GBP remains largely unexplored. Here, we have identified one GBP precursor (HaGBP precursor) gene and two GBPB (namely HaGBPB1 and HaGBPB2) genes from the cotton bollworm, Helicoverpa armigera...
November 22, 2017: Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
Zewdu Ararso, Chuan Ma, Yuping Qi, Mao Feng, Bin Han, Han Hu, Lifeng Meng, Jianke Li
Hemolymph is vital for the immunity of honeybees, and offers a way to investigate their physiological status. To gain novel insight into the functionality and molecular details of the hemolymph in driving increased Royal Jelly (RJ) production, we characterized and compared hemolymph proteomes across the larval and adult ages of Italian bees (ITbs) and Royal Jelly bees (RJbs), a stock selected from ITbs for increasing RJ output. Unprecedented in-depth proteome was attained with the identification of 3394 hemolymph proteins in both bee lines...
November 27, 2017: Journal of Proteome Research
Nanyan Weng, Haibo Jiang, Wen-Xiong Wang
Determining the in situ localization of trace elements at high lateral resolution levels in the biological system is very challenging, but critical for our understanding of metal sequestrationa and detoxification. Here, the cellular and subcellular distributions of Cu and Zn in contaminated oysters of Crassostrea hongkongensis were for the first time mapped using nanoscale secondary ion mass spectrometry (nanoSIMS). Three types of metal-containing cells were revealed in the gill and mantle of oysters, including Cu-specific hemocytes, Cu and Zn-containing granular hemocytes, and Cu and Zn-containing calcium cells...
November 27, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
Austin Browne, Michael J O'Donnell
Hemolymph calcium homeostasis in insects is achieved by the Malpighian tubules, primarily by sequestering excess Ca(2+) within internal calcium stores (Ca-rich granules) most often located within type I (principal) tubule cells. Using both the scanning ion-selective electrode technique and the Ramsay secretion assay this study provides the first measurements of basolateral and transepithelial Ca(2+) fluxes across the Malpighian tubules of an Orthopteran insect, the house cricket Acheta domesticus. Ca(2+) transport was specific to midtubule segments, where 97% of the Ca(2+) entering the tubule is sequestered within intracellular calcium stores and the remaining 3% is secreted into the lumen...
November 21, 2017: Archives of Insect Biochemistry and Physiology
Hongkuan Zhang, Dewei Cheng, Hongxing Liu, Huaiping Zheng
Being lack of specific immune system, both enzymes and non-enzymatic antioxidants play crucial roles in immune of invertebrates. In the present study, in order to investigate immune roles of enzyme (thioredoxin, TRX) and antioxidants (carotenoids), Golden scallops with golden shell and golden muscle rich in carotenoids content and Brown scallops with brown shell and white muscle less carotenoids content of the noble scallop Chlamys nobilis were challenged by Vibrio parahaemolyticus for 48 h. Firstly, a cDNA of TRX protein gene from the scallop (named as CnTRX) was cloned and characterized...
November 13, 2017: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
Lauren E Des Marteaux, Soheila Khazraeenia, Gil Y Yerushalmi, Andrew Donini, Natalia G Li, Brent J Sinclair
Cold-acclimated insects defend ion and water transport function during cold exposure. We hypothesized that this is achieved via enhanced active transport. The Malpighian tubules and rectum are likely targets for such transport modifications, and recent transcriptomic studies indicate shifts in Na(+)-K(+) ATPase (NKA) and V-ATPase expression in these tissues following cold acclimation. Here we quantify the effect of cold acclimation (one week at 12°C) on active transport in the ionoregulatory organs of adult Gryllus pennsylvanicus field crickets...
November 13, 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology
Kathirvelu Baskar, Jeevanantham Ananthi, Savarimuthu Ignacimuthu
Many commercially available agro and household chemicals are used as pesticides, repellents, and growth inhibitors against insect pests. The repeated uses of these chemicals against insect pests have caused the development of resistance in them; they also cause ill effects on nontarget organisms. The present study was aimed to evaluate the antifeedant, larvicidal, pupicidal, and biochemical effects of the solvent extracts of Solanum xanthocarpum against third instar larvae of Helicoverpa armigera. Hexane, chloroform and ethyl acetate extracts were subjected to phytochemical analysis...
November 15, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Laura E Bagge, Stephen T Kinsey, Justin Gladman, Sönke Johnsen
Whole-body transparency, an effective camouflage strategy in many aquatic species, can be disrupted by environmental and/or physiological stressors. We found that tail-flip escape responses temporarily disrupt the transparency of the anemone shrimp Ancylomenes pedersoni After as few as three tail flips, the previously transparent abdominal muscle became cloudy. Eliciting additional tail flips to the point of exhaustion (16±1 s.e.m.; n=23) resulted in complete opacity, though the original transparency returned after 20-60 min of inactivity...
November 15, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
Julianna Bozler, Balint Z Kacsoh, Giovanni Bosco
Immune challenges, such as parasitism, can be so pervasive and deleterious that they constitute an existential threat to a species' survival. In response to these ecological pressures, organisms have developed a wide array of novel behavioral, cellular, and molecular adaptations. Research into these immune defenses in model systems has resulted in a revolutionary understanding of evolution and functional biology. As the field has expanded beyond the limited number of model organisms our appreciation of evolutionary innovation and unique biology has widened as well...
2017: PloS One
Euan R O Allan, Benjamin Gourbal, Camila B Dores, Anais Portet, Christopher J Bayne, Michael S Blouin
Schistosomiasis is one of the most detrimental neglected tropical diseases. Controlling the spread of this parasitic illness requires effective sanitation, access to chemotherapeutic drugs, and control over populations of the freshwater snails, such as Biomphalaria glabrata, that are essential intermediate hosts for schistosomes. Effectively controlling this disease, while minimising ecological implications of such control, will require an extensive understanding of the immunological interactions between schistosomes and their molluscan intermediate hosts...
November 12, 2017: International Journal for Parasitology
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