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Ranajit Nivrutti Shinde, G Siva Kumar, Shahbaz Eqbal, M Elizabeth Sobhia
Protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B) is a validated therapeutic target for Type 2 diabetes due to its specific role as a negative regulator of insulin signaling pathways. Discovery of active site directed PTP1B inhibitors is very challenging due to highly conserved nature of the active site and multiple charge requirements of the ligands, which makes them non-selective and non-permeable. Identification of the PTP1B allosteric site has opened up new avenues for discovering potent and selective ligands for therapeutic intervention...
2018: PloS One
Jonathon A Siva-Jothy, Arun Prakash, Radhakrishnan B Vasanthakrishnan, Katy M Monteith, Pedro F Vale
The fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster is one of the best developed model systems of infection and innate immunity. While most work has focused on systemic infections, there has been a recent increase of interest in the mechanisms of gut immunocompetence to pathogens, which require methods to orally infect flies. Here we present a protocol to orally expose individual flies to an opportunistic bacterial pathogen (Pseudomonas aeruginosa) and a natural bacterial pathogen of D. melanogaster (Pseudomonas entomophila)...
May 31, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Fatih Demirci, Nursenem Karaca, Mehmet Tekin, Betül Demirci
Thymus sipyleus BOISS. subsp. sipyleus BOISS. var. sipyleus L. of the Lamiaceae, locally known as thyme scented lemon, which is an endemic taxon collected from Sivas in Anatolia, was investigated in this study due to its folk medicine use against rhinosinusitis. The aromatic characteristics of the plant material gave the idea for the detailed evaluation of the volatiles and essential oil thereof. Consequently, the oil was obtained by Clevenger type hydrodistillation followed by gas chromatography-flame ionization detector (GC-FID) and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) analyses for phytochemical characterization...
June 13, 2018: Microbial Pathogenesis
Ravi Pant, Siva Shakthi A, Anjali B Yelikar
Wideband excitation and control of Fano resonance and electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT), both of which rely on coherent interaction between two excitation paths, is challenging. It requires precise control and tuning of interacting resonances or coupling between different resonant structures over a wide frequency range. Gain (Stokes) and absorption (anti-Stokes) resonances associated with the stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) process can be excited and controlled over a wide frequency range by tuning the pump frequency, its power and profile...
June 15, 2018: Scientific Reports
Christian Gampe, Amy C Seila White, Swetha Siva, Frédéric Zécri, John Diener
Successful implementation of mRNA gene therapy is facing many hurdles, for example poor expression levels of the exogenously delivered mRNA transcripts. Herein we describe the synthesis of various 3'-modified RNA oligonucleotides, and we show that 3'-modification drastically stabilizes these oligonucleotides in cell extracts. Modification of the 3'-terminus of gaussia luciferase mRNA results in 3-fold increased and extended (>48 h) translation of the mRNA. Our findings suggest 3'-modification of RNA-transcripts as a valid approach to increase expression levels for application in mRNA gene therapy...
June 4, 2018: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters
Filiz Sivas, Fatma Gül Yurdakul, Ayşegül Kiliçarslan, Semra Duran, Bedriye Başkan, Hatice Bodur
Objectives: This study aims to investigate the relationship between smoking and structural damage, autoimmune antibodies, and disability in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients. Patients and methods: This cross-sectional study included 165 RA patients (36 males, 129 females; mean age 52.4±12.8 years; range 21 to 82 years). Disease duration, age at disease onset, smoking habits, rheumatoid factor (RF), and anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide levels were recorded. Morning stiffness, pain with visual analog scale, Health Assessment Questionnaire Scores And Disease Activity Score 28 were calculated...
March 2018: Archives of Rheumatology
Martin C Pearce, John T Gamble, Prasad R Kopparapu, Edmond F O'Donnell, Monica J Mueller, Hyo Sang Jang, Julie A Greenwood, Arnold C Satterthwait, Robert L Tanguay, Xiao-Kun Zhang, Siva Kumar Kolluri
Resistance to chemotherapy is a major cause of treatment failure and poor overall survival in patients with lung cancer. Identification of molecular targets present in resistant cancer cells is essential for addressing therapeutic resistance and prolonging lung cancer patient survival. Members of the B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2) family of proteins are associated with chemotherapeutic resistance. In this study, we found that pro-survival protein Bcl-2 is upregulated in paclitaxel resistant cells, potentially contributing to chemotherapy resistance...
May 25, 2018: Oncotarget
Naga Sai Visweswar Kambhampati, Swayamsiddha Kar, Sai Siva Kumar Pinnepalli, Janardhana Chelli, Mukesh Doble
Betulinic acid (BA), a pentacyclic triterpenoid, is a very promising therapeutic drug with varied medicinal properties but it has low water solubility and consequentially low bioavailability. Cyclic β-(1 → 3),(1 → 6)-glucans (CBG), microbial cyclooligosaccharides produced by Bradyrhizobium japonicum ATCC 10324 having a cavity structure and good solubility in water have been tested for their ability to encapsulate betulinic acid and drug-binding interactions of CBG and BA were studied. First, in silico approach was employed to study the scope of any interaction between the CBG and BA...
May 28, 2018: Spectrochimica Acta. Part A, Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy
Sneha P, Elaheh Ahmad Ebrahimi, Sara Ahmed Ghazala, Thirumal Kumar D, Siva R, George Priya Doss C, Hatem Zayed
Galactosemia type 2 is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by the deficiency of galactokinase (GALK) enzyme due to missense mutations in GALK1 gene, which is associated with various manifestations such as hyper galactosemia and formation of cataracts. GALK enzyme catalyzes the adenosine triphosphate (ATP)-dependent phosphorylation of α-d-galactose to galactose-1-phosphate. We searched 4 different literature databases (Google Scholar, PubMed, PubMed Central, and Science Direct) and 3 gene-variant databases (Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man, Human Gene Mutation Database, and UniProt) to collect all the reported missense mutations associated with GALK deficiency...
June 12, 2018: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
Mizanur Rahman, Jennifer E Hewitt, Frank Van-Bussel, Hunter Edwards, Jerzy Blawzdziewicz, Nathaniel J Szewczyk, Monica Driscoll, Siva A Vanapalli
Muscle strength is a functional measure of quality of life in humans. Declines in muscle strength are manifested in diseases as well as during inactivity, aging, and space travel. With conserved muscle biology, the simple genetic model C. elegans is a high throughput platform in which to identify molecular mechanisms causing muscle strength loss and to develop interventions based on diet, exercise, and drugs. In the clinic, standardized strength measures are essential to quantitate changes in patients; however, analogous standards have not been recapitulated in the C...
June 12, 2018: Lab on a Chip
Deepak Pathania, Chetna Verma, Poonam Negi, Inderjeet Tyagi, Mohammad Asif, Nadavala Siva Kumar, Ebrahim H Al-Ghurabi, Shilpi Agarwal, Vinod Kumar Gupta
Nanohydrogel of tragacanth gum using microwave radiations is used for the controlled release of ampicillin. Tragacanth gum was grafted with itaconic acid, employing graft copolymerization in the presence of N, N1 -methylene-bis-acrylamide (MBA) as cross linker, and potassium persulphate as initiator. The prepared nanohydrogel was characterized using FTIR, XRD, SEM, and TEM. Besides, the hydrogel was evaluated for in vitro drug release in distilled water and different pH values, and antimicrobial efficacy against E...
September 15, 2018: Carbohydrate Polymers
M Aravintha Siva, R Mahalakshmi, Dipita Bhakta-Guha, Gunjan Guha
In the recent years, the reported cases of mitochondrial disorders have reached a colossal number. These disorders spawn a sundry of pathological conditions, which lead to pernicious symptoms and even fatality. Due to the unpredictable etiologies, mitochondrial diseases are putatively referred to as "mystondria" (mysterious diseases of mitochondria). Although present-day research has greatly improved our understanding of mitochondrial disorders, effective therapeutic interventions are still at the precursory stage...
June 8, 2018: Mitochondrion
Enrico Borrelli, Siva Balasubramanian, Giacinto Triolo, Piero Barboni, SriniVas R Sadda, Alfredo A Sadun
PURPOSE: To study the macular microvascular networks in patients affected by chronic Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON) using optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA), and to quantify these changes in different macular sectors. DESIGN: Prospective cross-sectional study. METHODS: Patients with a clinical and molecularly confirmed diagnosis of LHON (affected patients in the chronic stage) were enrolled from the neuro-ophthalmology clinic at the Doheny-UCLA...
June 6, 2018: American Journal of Ophthalmology
Yangjie Wei, Nicholas R Larson, Siva K Angalakurthi, C Russell Middaugh
The goal of protein formulation development is to identify optimal conditions for long-term storage. Certain commercial conditions (e.g., high protein concentration or turbid adjuvanted samples) impart additional challenges to biophysical characterization. Formulation screening studies for such conditions are usually performed using a simplified format in which the target protein is studied at a low concentration in a clear solution. The failure of study conditions to model the actual formulation environment may cause a loss of ability to identify the optimal condition for target proteins in their final commercial formulations...
June 1, 2018: SLAS Technology
Aravindakshan Ajith Kumar, Nadimpalli Siva Kumar
Acidic α-mannosidase is an important enzyme and is reported from many different plants and animals. Lysosomal α-mannosidase helps in the catabolism of glycoproteins in the lysosomes thereby playing a major role in cellular homeostasis. In the present study lysosomal α-mannosidase from the gonads of echinoderm Asterias rubens was isolated and purified. The crude protein sample from ammonium sulfate precipitate contained two isoforms of mannosidase as tested by the MAN2B1 antibody, which were separated by anion exchange chromatography...
June 7, 2018: Protein Journal
Rossada Adiarti, Retno Ekantini, Angela Nurini Agni, Tien Yin Wong, Muhammad Bayu Sasongko
PURPOSE: Glaucomatous optic disc (GOD) might represent various sub-clinical processes. However, whether the presence of GOD is related to vascular processes is less clear. This study aimed to assess the retinal vessel diameter, as surrogate markers of vascular regulation, in healthy young adults with GOD compared to normal. METHODS: This was a clinic-based case-control study of 54 participants, aged between 18 to 30 years in this study. We included patients with GOD (confirmed with slit-lamp and optical coherence tomography [OCT] examination having cup-to-disc ratio [CDR] ≥0...
June 5, 2018: Journal of Glaucoma
Haitham H Hassane, Mirza M Beg, Chokkalingam Siva, Celso Velázquez
BACKGROUND Systemic vasculitis can present with a multitude of symptoms involving multiple organ systems. Clinicians should avoid anchoring bias and be cognizant that different types of vasculitides can be present in the same patient and that the diagnosis of one should not preclude the subsequent diagnosis of another. CASE REPORT A 67-year-old woman was referred for evaluation of episodes of epistaxis and recurrent severe sinusitis. Her physical examination showed nasal congestion and purpuric rash on the lower extremities...
June 6, 2018: American Journal of Case Reports
Hasmukh A Patel, John Selberg, Dhafer Salah, Haoyuan Chen, Yijun Liao, Siva Krishna Mohan Nalluri, Omar K Farha, Randall Q Snurr, Marco Rolandi, J Fraser Stoddart
Exactly 50 years ago, the ground-breaking discovery of dibenzo[18]crown-6 (DB18C6) by Charles Pedersen, led to the use of DB18C6 as a receptor in supramolecular chemistry and a host in host‒guest chemistry. We have demonstrated proton conductivity in Tröger's base-linked polymers through hydrogen-bonded networks formed from adsorbed water molecules on the oxygen atoms of DB18C6 under humid conditions. Tröger's base-linked polymers - poly(TBL‒DB18C6)-t and poly(TBL‒DB18C6)-c - synthesized by the in situ alkylation and cyclization of either trans- or cis-di(aminobenzo) [18]crown-6 at room temperature have been isolated as high molecular weight polymers...
June 5, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Siva L S Velivelli, Kazi T Islam, Eric Hobson, Dilip M Shah
Defensins are small cysteine-rich endogenous host defense peptides expressed in all higher plants. They are thought to be important players in the defense arsenal of plants against fungal and oomycete pathogens. However, little is known regarding the antibacterial activity of these peptides. The genome of the model legume Medicago truncatula contains 63 genes each encoding a defensin with a tetradisulfide array. A unique bi-domain defensin, designated MtDef5, was recently characterized for its potent broad-spectrum antifungal activity...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
K Mohanrasu, N Premnath, G Siva Prakash, Muniyasamy Sudhakar, T Boobalan, A Arun
There are copious of bacteria exist in marine environment and it is very important to screen the potential microbes that has the ability to produce biopolymer polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) as well as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) degradation and conventional plastic high density polyethylene (HDPE) biodegradation. Numerous studies have been investigated individually on either one of characteristic feature like PHB production, PAHs and high density polyethylene (HDPE) degradation, but not all together...
May 19, 2018: Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology. B, Biology
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