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small intestine

Etan Marks, Yang Shi
Duodenal-type follicular lymphoma (D-FL) is a newly recognized entity in the 2016 World Health Organization classification update. It has an immunophenotype similar to that of other FLs and usually carries the typical t(14;18)(q32;q21) translocation. However, unlike other FLs, D-FL is almost always diagnosed at a low stage and stays localized to the small intestine, most commonly the second portion of the duodenum, whereas the vast majority of other FLs are diagnosed at an advanced stage. Additionally, D-FL gene expression and pathogenesis appear to be more closely related to extranodal marginal zone lymphoma of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue than to other types of FL...
April 2018: Archives of Pathology & Laboratory Medicine
Yue Li, Hao Zhang, Weipeng Su, Zhixiong Ying, Yueping Chen, Lili Zhang, Zhaoxin Lu, Tian Wang
Background: The focus of recent research has been directed toward the probiotic potential of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens (BA) on the gut health of animals. However, little is known about BA's effects on piglets with intra-uterine growth retardation (IUGR). Therefore, this study investigated the effects of BA supplementation on the growth performance, intestinal morphology, inflammatory response, and microbiota of IUGR piglets. Methods: Eighteen litters of newborn piglets were selected at birth, with one normal birth weight (NBW) and two IUGR piglets in each litter (i...
2018: Journal of Animal Science and Biotechnology
Hiroki Fujikawa, Toshio Kuwai, Toshiki Yamaguchi, Ryoichi Miura, Yuki Sumida, Takeshi Takasago, Yuki Miyasako, Tomoyuki Nishimura, Sumio Iio, Hiroki Imagawa, Atsushi Yamaguchi, Hirotaka Kouno, Hiroshi Kohno
We report a case of a 59-year-old woman who was diagnosed with gastric and small intestinal anisakiasis, which was successfully treated with endoscopic extraction and Gastrografin therapy. She was admitted to our hospital with epigastric pain and vomiting one day after eating raw fish. She exhibited tenderness in the epigastrium without obvious rebound tenderness or guarding. Computed tomography (CT) demonstrated segmental edema of the intestinal wall with proximal dilatation and a small number of ascites. Because enteric anisakiasis was suspected based on the patient's history of recent raw fish consumption and abdominal CT, we performed gastroscopy and confirmed that nine Anisakis larvae were attached to the gastric mucosa...
March 16, 2018: World Journal of Gastrointestinal Endoscopy
J Scott Crowe, Kevin J Roberts, Timothy M Carlton, Luana Maggiore, Marion F Cubitt, Simon Clare, Katherine Harcourt, Jill Reckless, Thomas T MacDonald, Keith P Ray, Anna Vossenkämper, Michael R West
TNFα is an important cytokine in inflammatory bowel disease. V565 is a novel anti-TNFα domain antibody developed for oral administration in IBD patients, derived from a llama domain antibody and engineered to enhance intestinal protease resistance. V565 activity was evaluated in TNFα-TNFα receptor-binding ELISAs as well as TNFα responsive cellular assays and demonstrated neutralisation of both soluble and membrane TNFα with potencies similar to those of adalimumab. Although sensitive to pepsin, V565 retained activity after lengthy incubations with trypsin, chymotrypsin, and pancreatin, as well as mouse small intestinal and human ileal and faecal supernatants...
March 21, 2018: Scientific Reports
Lonneke Onrust, Karolien Van Driessche, Richard Ducatelle, Koen Schwarzer, Freddy Haesebrouck, Filip Van Immerseel
Valeric acid is a C5 fatty acid, naturally produced in low concentrations by specific members of the microbiota of the lower intestinal tract. Effects of valeric acid on intestinal health have been poorly investigated. Valeric acid derivatives can be produced as glyceride esters and added to broiler feed. In the current study, experiments were carried out to evaluate the effect of valeric acid glycerides (GVA) on growth performance, on the morphology of the small intestinal mucosa and on protection against necrotic enteritis...
March 16, 2018: Poultry Science
Fengyuan Wang, Zhicai Zuo, Kejie Chen, Caixia Gao, Zhuangzhi Yang, Song Zhao, Jianzhen Li, Hetao Song, Xi Peng, Jing Fang, Hengmin Cui, Ping Ouyang, Yi Zhou, Gang Shu, Bo Jing
To explore AFB₁-induced damage of the small intestine, the changes in structure and expression of TLRs (Toll-like Receptors) in the small intestine of chickens were systematically investigated. Ninety healthy neonatal Cobb chickens were randomized into a control group (0 mg/kg AFB₁) and an AFB₁ group (0.6 mg/kg AFB₁). The crypt depth of the small intestine in the AFB₁ group was significantly increased in comparison to the control chickens, while the villus height and area were evidently decreased, as well as the villus:crypt ratio and epithelial thickness...
March 21, 2018: Toxins
Shintaro Akiyama, Masakazu Nagahori, Shinya Oooka, Mariko Negi, Takashi Ito, Kento Takenaka, Kazuo Ohtsuka, Mamoru Watanabe
RATIONALE: The small intestine (SI) does not commonly harbor cancer but is occasionally involved by metastatic cancer from other organs. To manage SI cancer appropriately, surveillance for primary origin outside the SI is essential. PATIENT CONCERNS: This study presents a 54-year-old Thai man diagnosed with SI obstruction which required laparoscopy- assisted partial ileal resection. DIAGNOSES: On the basis of the expression pattern of cytokeratins (CKs) and mucins (MUCs) in the resected SI adenocarcinoma, we suspected this was metastasized from the pancreatobiliary tract...
March 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
Misael Chinchilla
The endogenous life cycle of Eimeria caliginosa was studied in experimentally-infected dusky rice rats, Melanomys caliginosus. All endogenous stages were located in the epithelial cells of villi in the small intestine. Both Giemsa-stained mucosal scrapings and histological sections were studied for the diagnosis of all the life cycle stages. Eimeria caliginosa has 3 generations of meronts (M) that differ by size, shape, and number of merozoites (m), which also differ in their size, shape, and location of their nuclei within the cytoplasm of the meronts...
March 21, 2018: Journal of Parasitology
A V Sazhin, A E Tyagunov, S E Larichev, I S Lebedev, G B Makhuova, I P Marchenko, V G Polushkin, A A Tyagunov, I V Sazhin, T V Nechay, G B Ivakhov, S M Titkova, M V Anurov, M M Gasanov, A V Kolygin, A T Mirzoyan, N S Glagolev, L S Kurashinova
AIM: To define optimal terms of surgery for acute adhesive non-strangulatory small bowel obstruction. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The analysis included 703 publications from e-LIBRARI.RU (342 works) and NCBI (361 works) databases for acute adhesive intestinal obstruction. The vast majority of articles presented retrospective analysis of single-center experience. RESULTS: It has been established that short course of medication is predominantly used for acute adhesive intestinal obstruction in the Russian Federation...
2018: Khirurgiia
Shaimaa Elkholy, Sherif Mogawer, Ali Farag
Nodular lymphoid hyperplasia (NLH) is a rare benign condition that is characterized by diffuse hyperplasia of the lymphoid follicles of the gastrointestinal tract (GIT). During endoscopy, NLH appears as multiple or occasionally innumerable nodules measuring a few millimeters in diameter. NLH occurs mainly in the small intestine, less commonly in the large intestine and rarely involves the stomach. There are multiple associated diseases such as immunoglobulin deficiency syndromes, giardiasis, Helicobacter pylori (H...
July 2017: Acta Gastro-enterologica Belgica
Mathieu Struyve, Geert Robaeys
Ectopic varices are dilated portosystemic venous collaterals located outside of the gastro-esophageal region. Whereas they are common endoscopic findings in patients with portal hypertension, ectopic variceal bleeding is rather rare and accounts for only 1 to 5 % of all variceal bleedings. The rectum and the duodenum are the most common sites for ectopic varices, but they can be present along the whole intestinal tract and neighborhood. At present, there is no consensus well established on diagnostic workup for ectopic variceal bleeding and their therapeutic strategies...
July 2017: Acta Gastro-enterologica Belgica
H Ooms, H U De Schepper, T G Moreels
BACKGROUND AND STUDY AIMS: Small bowel ulceration poses a limited, but difficult differential diagnosis. The most common causes are Crohn's disease (CD), NSAID-associated enteritis, lymphoma, cytomegaly virus infection and tuberculosis. A less known and relatively novel differential diagnosis is cryptogenic multifocal ulcerative stenosing enteritis (CMUSE). PATIENTS AND METHODS: ive patients referred for balloon-assisted enteroscopy for various reasons showed endoscopic features of CMUSE...
July 2017: Acta Gastro-enterologica Belgica
Xue-Fen Wu, Xiao-Li Chen, Xue-Na Zheng, Xin Guo, Zhi-Qiang Xie, Li Liu, Xin-Ran Wei, Zeng-Hui Yue
OBJECTIVE: To observe the effect of different strength of electroacupuncture (EA) stimulation on gastrointestinal motility and Ras homolog gene family member (RhoA)/Rho associated coiled-coil forming protein kinase (ROCK) signaling in diabetic gastroparesis (DGP) rats, so as to reveal the underlying mechanisms of EA for improving DGP. METHODS: Sixty SD rats were randomly and equally divided into blank control, DGP model, weak EA, medium EA, and strong EA groups ( n =12 rats in each)...
March 25, 2018: Zhen Ci Yan Jiu, Acupuncture Research
Yao Yao Lu, Hui Dong, Yong Jie Feng, Kai Wang, Yi Bao Jiang, Long Xian Zhang, Yu Rong Yang
Toxoplasma gondii has a complex life cycle and pathogenic mechanisms. Acute T. gondii infections in mice often result in death, whereas in chronic infections, the parasites may persist in the host tissues as intraneuronal or intramuscular cysts. However, the virulence of T. gondii strains in mice varies with its genetic background. The present study investigated the pathogenicity and pathological lesions of two T. gondii isolates from China: namely, TgCatCHn2 (ToxoDB#17) and TgCatCHn4 (ToxoDB#9). The virulent (ToxoDB#216) and avirulent (VEG) strains were employed as controls...
March 15, 2018: Veterinary Parasitology
Zhangxia Lyu, Jingru Shao, Min Xue, Qingqing Ye, Bing Chen, Yan Qin, Jianfan Wen
BACKGROUND: Giardia spp. are flagellated protozoan parasites that infect humans and many other vertebrates worldwide. Currently seven species of Giardia are considered valid. RESULTS: Here, we report a new species, Giardia cricetidarum n. sp. in hamsters. Trophozoites of G. cricetidarum n. sp. are pear-shaped with four pairs of flagella and measure on average 14 μm (range 12-18 μm) in length and 10 μm (range 8-12 μm) in width. The trophozoites of the new species are generally larger and stouter than those of most of the other Giardia spp...
March 20, 2018: Parasites & Vectors
Joelle Khairallah, Shima Sadeghi Ekbatan, Kebba Sabally, Michèle M Iskandar, Raza Hussain, Atef Nassar, Lekha Sleno, Laetitia Rodes, Satya Prakash, Danielle J Donnelly, Stan Kubow
A multistage human gastrointestinal model was used to digest a polyphenol-rich potato extract containing chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid, ferulic acid, and rutin as the primary polyphenols, to assess for their microbial biotransformation and to measure changes in antioxidant capacity in up to 24 h of digestion. The biotransformation of polyphenols was assessed by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Antioxidant capacity was measured by the ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assay. Among the colonic reactors, parent (poly)phenols were detected in the ascending (AC), but not the transverse (TC) or descending (DC) colons...
March 20, 2018: Antioxidants (Basel, Switzerland)
Andrew J Clulow, Malinda Salim, Adrian Hawley, Elliot P Gilbert, Ben Boyd
Efforts to develop orally-administered drugs tend to place an exceptional focus on aqueous solubility as this is an essential criterion for their absorption in the gastro-intestinal tract. In this work we examine the solid state behaviour and solubility of OZ439, a promising single-dose cure for malaria being developed as the highly water-soluble mesylate salt. The aqueous phase behaviour of the OZ439 mesylate salt was determined using a combination of small angle neutron and X-ray scattering (SANS and SAXS, respectively)...
March 20, 2018: Molecular Pharmaceutics
Hiroyuki Yamauchi, Kazue Honma, Kazuki Mochizuki, Toshinao Goda
Jejunal sodium/glucose co-transporter (Sglt1) displays circadian expression. The jejunum was collected every 4 h from mice, and we examined histone acetylation and binding of bromodomain-containing protein-4 (BRD4) around of the gene. Histone acetylation increased in the transcribed region of Sglt1 prior to induction of the gene. Furthermore, the binding of mRNA elongation factor around the gene showed circadian rhythm.
March 20, 2018: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
Makoto Saito, Hajime Senjo, Minoru Kanaya, Koh Izumiyama, Akio Mori, Masanori Tanaka, Masanobu Morioka, Kencho Miyashita, Yusuke Ishida
Duodenal metastasis from renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is rare. The current case report presents a very rare case of late duodenal metastasis from RCC with newly developed malignant lymphoma (diffuse large B-cell lymphoma: DLBCL) at the same time. A 64-year-old man with systemic lymph nodes swelling who had undergone left nephrectomy for RCC 25 years previously, was admitted to the present hospital. Inguinal lymph node biopsy was performed, leading to a diagnosis of DLBCL. fluorine-18-fluorodeoxy-glucose (18 F-FDG)-positron emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography (CT) revealed multiple lymph nodes, spleen, and ileocecal lesions...
April 2018: Molecular and Clinical Oncology
Mohamed Salla, Rodrigo Aguayo-Ortiz, Danmaliki Gaddafi Ibrahim, Alaa Zare, Ahmed Said, Jack Moore, Vrajeshkumar Pandya, Robin Manaloor, Sunny Fong, Anna R Blankstein, Spencer Gibson, Laura Ramos Garcia, Pascal Meier, Khushwant S Bhullar, Basil P Hubbard, Yahya Fiteh, Harissios Vliagoftis, Ing Swie Goping, Dion Brocks, Peter Hwang, Jose Carlos A Martinez Velazquez, Shairaz Baksh
Receptor interacting protein kinase 2 (RIP2 or RICK herein referred to as RIPK2) is linked to the pathogen pathway that activates NFkB and autophagic activation. Using molecular modeling (docking) and chemoinformatics analyses we utilized the RIPK2/ponatinib crystal structure and searched in chemical databases for small molecules exerting binding interactions similar to those exerted by ponatinib. The identified RIPK2 inhibitors potently inhibited the proliferation of cancer cells by > 70% as well as inhibition of NFkB activity...
March 19, 2018: Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics
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