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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727071/feed-efficiency-phenotypes-in-lambs-involve-changes-in-ruminal-colonic-and-small-intestine-located-microbiota
#1
K Perea, K Perz, S K Olivo, A Williams, M Lachman, S L Ishaq, J Thomson, C J Yeoman
Several studies have revealed differences in rumen-located microbes between greatly efficient and inefficient animals; however, how the microbiota vary in the hind gastrointestinal tract (GIT) has only been sparsely explored and how they vary in the small intestine remains to be determined. We therefore sampled the microbiota of the duodenum, jejunum, ileum, colon, and colorectally-obtained feces, in addition to the rumen of 12 lambs that, in a residual feed intake trial, were found to be at either extreme of feed efficiency phenotypes...
June 2017: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726665/-about-the-role-of-digestive-tract-decompression-in-patients-with-acute-bowel-obstruction-mistakes-complications-and-their-prevention
#2
V Benedykt
The purpose of the work is improvement in treatment of patients with acute small bowel obstruction by justification for gastrointestinal decompression and different methods of small intestine intubation for effective evacuation of itscontents. We conducted morphological and morphometric study of the small intestine in 53 white rats. It was established that acute small bowel obstruction causes expansion of all parts of small bowel microvasculature with significant lesions of venous structures. We revealed thinning of intestinal muscular layer 2...
June 2017: Georgian Medical News
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726044/computed-tomographic-characteristics-for-patients-with-unresectable-gastric-cancer-harboring-low-volume-peritoneal-carcinomatosis
#3
Jhe-Cyuan Guo, Chin-Chen Chang, Chung-Yi Yang, Bin-Chi Liao, Jau-Yu Liau, Chin-Hao Chang, Kun-Huei Yeh
Although current staging workups could differentiate most patients with operable from inoperable advanced gastric cancers, there are still some patients with low-volume peritoneal carcinomatosis, defined as only metastasis with multiple subcentimeter lesions in peritoneum, receiving unnecessary open-close procedures. The computed tomography (CT) of the patients with unresectable advanced gastric cancer harboring low-volume peritoneal carcinomatosis was retrospectively identified and then thoroughly reviewed by two independent radiologists unaware of the peritoneal carcinomatosis status...
August 2017: Medical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725312/two-cases-of-pneumatosis-cystoides-intestinalis-with-intraperitoneal-free-air
#4
Kensuke Wada, Nobuhiro Takeuchi, Masakazu Emori, Masanori Takada, Yusuke Nomura, Akihito Otsuka
Intraperitoneal free air (IFA) is sometimes accompanied by pneumatosis cystoides intestinalis (PCI); therefore, proper diagnosis is essential for PCI management. We report two cases of PCI with IFA. A 70-year-old female taking anti-psychotic medication for schizophrenia presented with repeated vomiting and high-grade fever. Computed tomography revealed small, linear gaseous cysts in the intestinal wall along with IFA. Although there was no sign of peritoneal irritation, intestinal perforation was not excluded...
June 2017: Gastroenterology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725308/a-case-with-vitamin-d-deficiency-induced-cytomegalovirus-enteritis-presenting-as-bowel-pseudo-obstruction
#5
Shou-Wu Lee, Chung-Wang Ko, Szu-Chia Liao, Chung-Shihn Chang, Hong-Zen Yeh, Chi-Sen Chang
Cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection in small intestines has rarely been reported. We report a 67-year-old woman with abdominal pain for 2 weeks. Abdominal computed tomography (CT) revealed wall-thickening of the segmental small bowel. Enteroscopy disclosed discrete ulcers at the jejunum, and biopsy histopathology showed positive CMV immunoreactivity. Laboratory tests showed positive blood CMV with a viral load of 9,400 DNA copies/mL and high IgG titer and low vitamin D level. After antiviral therapy and oral vitamin D supply, her symptoms improved...
June 2017: Gastroenterology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725198/3d-reconstruction-of-the-digestive-system-in-octopus-vulgaris-cuvier-1797-embryos-and-paralarvae-during-the-first-month-of-life
#6
Raquel Fernández-Gago, Martin Heß, Heidemarie Gensler, Francisco Rocha
Octopus vulgaris aquaculture is limited due to poor biological knowledge of the paralarval stages (e.g., digestive system functionality), their nutritional requirements (e.g., adequate live diet) and standardization of rearing techniques. These factors are important in explaining the high mortality rate observed in this developmental stage under culture conditions. For a better understanding of nutrition biology of this species, we investigated the 3D microanatomy of the digestive tract of the embryo and paralarvae during the first month of life...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724787/disrupted-apical-exocytosis-of-cargo-vesicles-causes-enteropathy-in-fhl5-patients-with-munc18-2-mutations
#7
Georg F Vogel, Jorik M van Rijn, Iris M Krainer, Andreas R Janecke, Carsten Posovzsky, Marta Cohen, Claire Searle, Prevost Jantchou, Johanna C Escher, Natalie Patey, Ernest Cutz, Thomas Müller, Sabine Middendorp, Michael W Hess, Lukas A Huber
Familial hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis 5 (FHL5) is an autosomal recessive disease caused by mutations in STXBP2, coding for Munc18-2, which is required for SNARE-mediated membrane fusion. FHL5 causes hematologic and gastrointestinal symptoms characterized by chronic enteropathy that is reminiscent of microvillus inclusion disease (MVID). However, the molecular pathophysiology of FHL5-associated diarrhea is poorly understood. Five FHL5 patients, including four previously unreported patients, were studied...
July 20, 2017: JCI Insight
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724701/integrative-physiology-of-transcellular-and-paracellular-intestinal-absorption
#8
REVIEW
William H Karasov
Glucose absorption by the small intestine has been studied for nearly a century. Despite extensive knowledge about the identity, functioning and regulation of the relevant transporters, there has been and there remains controversy about how these transporters work in concert to determine the overall epithelial absorption of key nutrients (e.g. sugars, amino acids) over a wide range of dietary and/or luminal concentrations. Our broader, integrative understanding of intestinal absorption requires more than the reductionist dissection of all the components and their elaboration at molecular and genetic levels...
July 15, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724276/fatal-small-intestinal-ischemia-due-to-methamphetamine-intoxication-report-of-a-case-with-autopsy-results
#9
Hamid Attaran
Methamphetamine is one of the most common abused drugs, so its various effects on different body organs should be familiar to all physicians. Regarding its gastrointestinal sequels, there are few reports of ischemic colitis induced by its vasoconstrictive effects. This is the first report of isolated small intestinal infarction resulting in death following methamphetamine toxicity. A 40-year-old woman with a past history of medical treatment for obesity referred to hospital with severe chest and back pain, perspiration, nausea, agitation, high blood pressure, bradycardia and subsequent lethargy and vasomotor instability...
May 2017: Acta Medica Iranica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723751/early-laparotomy-and-timely-reconstruction-for-patients-with-abdominal-electrical-injury-five-case-reports-and-literature-review
#10
Pi-Hong Zhang, Zan Liu, Li-Cheng Ren, Ji-Zhang Zeng, Geng-Wen Huang, Mu-Zhang Xiao, Jie Zhou, Peng-Fei Liang, Ming-Hua Zhang, Xiao-Yuan Huang
INTRODUCTION: High-tension electricity can cause devastating injuries that may result in abdominal wall loss, visceral damage, and sometimes major threat to life. The visceral organ may be exposed after debridement and require flap cover, but the tensile strength of abdominal wall may be lack even if flap transplanted. METHODS: From April 2007 through May 2015, 5 patients with severe abdominal electrical injury were treated at our hospital. Exploratory laparotomy was performed based on their clinical manifestations and debridement findings of abdominal wall at early stage, and decision regarding technique for reconstruction of abdominal wall was based on an assessment of the location and extent of the defect...
July 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723687/small-intestine-submucosa-is-a-potential-material-for-intrauterine-adhesions-treatment-in-a-rat-model
#11
Desheng Kong, Lin Zhang, Xin Xu, Jingkun Zhang, Yanan Li, Xianghua Huang
OBJECTIVE: To study whether small intestine submucosa (SIS) could be a treatment option for preventing the formation of intrauterine adhesions (IUAs). METHODS: The IUAs model was established by mechanical curettage and infectious injury in a rat model. One uterine horn of the rat model was treated with the transplantation of SIS (SIS group) and the other one was left without any treatment (control group). The endometrium was evaluated with endometrial thickness, number of glands and fibrosis area...
July 20, 2017: Gynecologic and Obstetric Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723416/unravelling-the-pharmacologic-opportunities-and-future-directions-for-targeted-therapies-in-gastro-intestinal-cancers-part-2-neuroendocrine-tumours-hepatocellular-carcinoma-and-gastro-intestinal-stromal-tumours
#12
REVIEW
Cindy Neuzillet, Louis de Mestier, Benoît Rousseau, Olivier Mir, Mohamed Hebbar, Hemant M Kocher, Philippe Ruszniewski, Christophe Tournigand
Until the 1990s, cytotoxic chemotherapy has been the cornerstone of medical therapy for gastrointestinal (GI) cancers. Better understanding of the cancer cell molecular biology has led to the therapeutic revolution of targeted therapies, i.e. monoclonal antibodies or small molecule inhibitors directed against proteins that are specifically overexpressed or mutated in cancer cells. These agents, being more specific to cancer cells, were expected to be less toxic than conventional cytotoxic agents. However, their effects have sometimes been disappointing, due to intrinsic or acquired resistance mechanisms, or to an activity restricted to some tumour settings, illustrating the importance of patient selection and early identification of predictive biomarkers of response to these therapies...
July 16, 2017: Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722571/more-poop-more-precision-improving-epidemiologic-surveillance-of-soil-transmitted-helminths-with-multiple-fecal-sampling-using-the-kato-katz-technique
#13
Chengfang Liu, Louise Lu, Linxiu Zhang, Yu Bai, Alexis Medina, Scott Rozelle, Darvin Scott Smith, Changhai Zhou, Wei Zang
Soil-transmitted helminths, or parasitic intestinal worms, are among the most prevalent and geographically widespread parasitic infections in the world. Accurate diagnosis and quantification of helminth infection are critical for informing and assessing deworming interventions. The Kato-Katz thick smear technique, the most widely used laboratory method to quantitatively assess infection prevalence and infection intensity of helminths, has often been compared with other methods. Only a few small-scale studies, however, have considered ways to improve its diagnostic sensitivity...
July 3, 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722259/l-ornithine-and-l-lysine-stimulate-gastrointestinal-motility-via-transient-receptor-potential-vanilloid-1
#14
Junya Nakato, Yee Yin Ho, Ryo Omae, Takafumi Mizushige, Kunitoshi Uchida, Makoto Tominaga, Minji Kim, Tsuyoshi Goto, Nobuyuki Takahashi, Teruo Kawada, Saori Akiduki, Ryuhei Kanamoto, Kousaku Ohinata
SCOPE: The gastrointestinal (GI) tract senses and responds to intraluminal nutrients and these interactions often affect GI functions. We found that, among basic amino acids, L-ornithine (Orn) and L-lysine (Lys) stimulated but L-arginine (Arg) suppressed GI motility after oral administration (24 mmol/kg) in mice (Orn and Lys, 14.3 and 26.4% promotion; Arg, 7.7% suppression). We investigated the mechanism of the action of Orn and Lys on GI motility. METHODS AND RESULTS: Orn-induced promotion of small intestinal transit was significantly inhibited (P<0...
July 18, 2017: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721849/effective-protection-of-mice-against-shigella-flexneri-with-a-new-self-adjuvant-multicomponent-vaccine
#15
Yadira Pastor, Ana Camacho, Ana Gloria Gil, Rocío Ramos, Adela López de Ceráin, Iván Peñuelas, Juan M Irache, Carlos Gamazo
PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to develop an immunogenic protective product against Shigella flexneri by employing a simple and safe heat treatment-based strategy. METHODOLOGY: The physicochemical characteristics of naturally produced (OMV) and heat-induced (HT) outer-membrane vesicles from S. flexneri were examined, including a comparison of the protein content of the products. Toxicological and biodistribution studies, and a preliminary experiment to examine the protective effectiveness of HT in a murine model of S...
July 18, 2017: Journal of Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721191/small-bowel-obstruction-due-to-mesenteric-abscess-caused-by-mycobacterium-avium-complex-in-an-hiv-patient-a-case-report-and-literature-review
#16
S M Mohar, Saqib Saeed, Alexius Ramcharan, Hector Depaz
Small bowel obstruction in HIV patients is reportedly caused by inflammatory pseudotumor, Kaposi's sarcoma, cryptococcal lymphadenopathy and intestinal tuberculosis. The incidence of Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) infection in HIV patients is 3% for CD4 cell count of 100-199 /mm(3). MAC causing small bowel obstruction is rarely reported in the literature. We report a rare case of MAC causing mesenteric abscess with small bowel obstruction in a HIV patient with a CD4 cell count of 144 /mm(3). Patient was a 35-year-old HIV-positive male on highly active antiretroviral therapy who presented with partial small bowel obstruction secondary to mesenteric abscess...
July 2017: Journal of Surgical Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721067/phase-i-dose-escalation-study-of-long-acting-pasireotide-in-patients-with-neuroendocrine-tumors
#17
James C Yao, Jennifer A Chan, Alain C Mita, Madan G Kundu, Karina Hermosillo Reséndiz, Ke Hu, Shoba Ravichandran, Jonathan R Strosberg, Edward M Wolin
This phase I study aimed at determining the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) and characterizing the safety, tolerability, pharmacokinetics (PKs), and efficacy of pasireotide in patients with advanced neuroendocrine tumors (NETs). Patients were enrolled in two phases: dose-escalation phase (to determine the MTD) at a starting dose of 80 mg pasireotide long-acting release (LAR) i.m. followed by a dose-expansion phase (to evaluate safety and prelimi-nary efficacy). Associations between PK/pharmacodynamic parameters and clinical outcomes were evaluated using linear regression analysis...
2017: OncoTargets and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720378/a-novel-technique-carbon-dioxide-gas-assisted-total-peritonectomy-diaphragm-and-intestinal-meso-stripping-in-open-surgery-for-advanced-ovarian-cancer-%C3%A3-ukurova-technique
#18
Ghanim Khatib, Ahmet Baris Guzel, Umran Kucukgoz Gulec, Mehmet Ali Vardar
OBJECTIVE: Most of the ovarian cancers are diagnosed at advanced stages. As peritoneal carcinomatosis increases, especially when it extends to the diaphragm and intestinal mesos, probability of obtaining complete cytoreduction is reduced. Complete cytoreduction (residue zero: R0) is one of the main factors affecting survival [1-3]. Here we present a novel technique of stripping the peritoneal surfaces as a part of cytoreductive surgery in such cases. METHODS: A 55year-old woman diagnosed with peritoneal carcinomatosis was considered appropriate for primary cytoreduction after assessment of her thorax-abdominopelvic tomography, which revealed resectable intra-abdominal disease...
July 15, 2017: Gynecologic Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719961/artyfechinostomum-malayanum-metacercariae-encysted-in-pila-sp-snails-purchased-from-phnom-penh-cambodia
#19
Woon-Mok Sohn, Tai-Soon Yong, Keeseon S Eom, Muth Sinuon, Hoo-Gn Jeoung, Jong-Yil Chai
The metacercariae of Artyfechinostomum malayanum (Leiper, 1911) Mendheim, 1943 were discovered in Pila sp. snails purchased from a market in Phnom Penh, Cambodia. They were isolated from the snails using the artificial digestion technique and were orally fed to 2 hamsters, 1 rat, and 2 mice to obtain the adult flukes. The metacercariae were round, 145-165 μm in diameter, having a cyst wall of 6-10 μm in thickness, a head collar and collar spines, and characteristic features of excretory granules. Adult flukes were recovered in the small intestines of the animals at days 14 and 32 post infection and were morphologically observed using a light microscope and a scanning electron microscope...
June 2017: Korean Journal of Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719468/etv6-gene-rearrangements-characterize-a-morphologically-distinct-subset-of-sinonasal-low-grade-non-intestinal-type-adenocarcinoma-a-novel-translocation-associated-carcinoma-restricted-to-the-sinonasal-tract
#20
Simon Andreasen, Alena Skálová, Abbas Agaimy, Justin A Bishop, Jan Laco, Ilmo Leivo, Alessandro Franchi, Stine R Larsen, Daiva Erentaite, Benedicte P Ulhøi, Christian von Buchwald, Linea C Melchior, Michal Michal, Katalin Kiss
Low-grade sinonasal adenocarcinomas (low-grade SNACs) of the sinonasal tract comprise a poorly characterized and histologically heterogeneous group of tumors. We describe three cases of a histologically distinct variant of low-grade SNAC characterized by ETV6 gene rearrangements. The patients included 2 women (aged 32 and 88 y) and a man (aged 75 y); all were initially treated with surgery alone. Follow-up ranged from 9 to 170 months with one patient having 2 local recurrences and none experiencing distant or regional metastases...
July 17, 2017: American Journal of Surgical Pathology
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