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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214762/paracaecal-hernia-a-case-report-on-the-evolving-role-of-laparoscopy
#1
Ammar Tayaran, Haider Abdulrasool, Hai T Bui
A paracaecal hernia, a type of pericaecal hernias, is a rare cause of small intestinal obstruction. Failure of early recognition and reduction of this type of internal hernia may lead to strangulation of the herniated intestine. There has been a number of case reports in the literature about the different types of pericaecal hernias, however the anatomy of these hernias is still poorly understood and the management is still evolving. We are presenting a 75year old woman, who presented clinically and radiologically with distal small intestinal obstruction...
January 17, 2017: International Journal of Surgery Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214603/the-impact-of-reduced-gastric-acid-secretion-on-dissolution-of-salts-of-weak-bases-in-the-fasted-upper-gastrointestinal-lumen-data-in-biorelevant-media-and-in-human-aspirates
#2
Chara Litou, Maria Vertzoni, Wei Xu, Filippos Kesisoglou, Christos Reppas
PURPOSE: To propose media for simulating the intragastric environment under reduced gastric acid secretion in the fasted state at three levels of simulation of the gastric environment and evaluate their usefulness in evaluating the intragastric dissolution of salts of weak bases. To evaluate the importance of bicarbonate buffer in biorelevant in vitro dissolution testing when using Level II biorelevant media simulating the environment in the fasted upper small intestine, regardless of gastric acid secretions...
February 15, 2017: European Journal of Pharmaceutics and Biopharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214380/application-of-the-mechpeff-model-to-predict-passive-effective-intestinal-permeability-in-the-different-regions-of-the-rodent-small-intestine-and-colon
#3
D Pade, M Jamei, A Rostami-Hodjegan, D B Turner
A major component of Physiologically-Based Pharmacokinetic (PBPK) models is prediction of the rate and extent of absorption of orally dosed drugs for which knowledge of effective passive intestinal permeability (Peff ) is essential. Single pass intestinal perfusion (SPIP) studies are used to establish effective permeability in vivo but are difficult to perform in rodents while mechanistic models to predict drug Peff in rat and mouse have not been published. This work evaluates the predictive performance of the 'MechPeff' model to predict Peff in the rodent intestine based upon knowledge of regional gut physiology and drug-specific physicochemical parameters...
February 18, 2017: Biopharmaceutics & Drug Disposition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213824/an-approach-to-the-research-on-ion-and-water-properties-in-the-interphase-between-the-plasma-membrane-and-bulk-extracellular-solution
#4
REVIEW
Hiroshi Hibino, Madoka Takai, Hidenori Noguchi, Seishiro Sawamura, Yasufumi Takahashi, Hideki Sakai, Hitoshi Shiku
In vivo, cells are immersed in an extracellular solution that contains a variety of bioactive substances including ions and water. Classical electrophysiological analyses of epithelial cells in the stomach and small intestine have revealed that within a distance of several hundred micrometers above their apical plasma membrane, lies an extracellular layer that shows ion concentration gradients undetectable in the bulk phase. This "unstirred layer", which contains stagnant solutes, may also exist between the bulk extracellular solution and membranes of other cells in an organism and may show different properties...
February 17, 2017: Journal of Physiological Sciences: JPS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213807/in-liver-metastases-from-small-intestinal-neuroendocrine-tumors-sstr2a-expression-is-heterogeneous
#5
Mongkon Charoenpitakchai, Eric Liu, Zhiguo Zhao, Tatsuki Koyama, Won Jae Huh, Jordan Berlin, Kenneth Hande, Ronald Walker, Chanjuan Shi
We examined somatostatin receptor type 2A (SSTR2A) expression in primary and metastatic small intestinal neuroendocrine tumors (SI-NETs). We retrieved 156 liver metastases from 26 patients (10 males, 16 females) who had two or more liver lesions resected. A representative formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded section of tumor tissue from each liver metastasis and from the primary tumor, when available, were immunohistochemically stained for SSTR2A. SSTR2A expression was evaluated by the Her2/neu-scoring system and the scoring system proposed by Volante et al...
February 17, 2017: Virchows Archiv: An International Journal of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213655/molecular-characterization-of-the-unique-mesostephanus-appendiculatus-trematoda-cyathocotylidae-by-small-ribosomal-rna-from-egypt
#6
Nasr M El-Bahy, Eman K Bazh, Shimaa S Sorour, Nagwa M Elhawary
M esostephanus appendiculatus (Family: Cyathocotylidae) is one of the unique trematodes that complete their cycles in human and animal intestines in many countries of the world. The main source of its transmission is eating raw or undercooked infected fish muscle. Earliest analyses of genes to different parasites supported the analysis of helminthes either biological or morphological. This paper detected M. appendiculatus sequence with GenBank accession number gb (KY026782). Comparison of M. appendiculatus with other helminthes using BioEdit 7 and MEGA7 program shows some similarity in different points along its sequence...
February 18, 2017: Parasitology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212895/the-influence-of-enteral-obestatin-administration-to-suckling-rats-on-intestinal-contractility
#7
M Słupecka, P Grzesiak, J Kwiatkowski, M Gajewska, A Kuwahara, I Kato, J Woliński
This study investigated the effect of enteral administration of obestatin on the contractility of whole-thickness preparations of duodenum and middle jejunum, as well as on the morphology of the enteric nervous system (ENS). Suckling rats were assigned to 3 groups (n=12) treated with: C- saline solution; LO- obestatin (125 nmol/kg b.wt); HO-obestatin (250 nmol/kg b.wt). Saline solution or obestatin were administered twice daily, from the 14(th) to the 21(st) day of life. Sections were studied in an organ bath, for isometric recording in the presence of acetylocholine (ACh), atropine (ATR) and tetradotoxin (TTX)...
February 14, 2017: General and Comparative Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212834/death-associated-protein-1-dap-1-positively-regulates-virus-replication-and-apoptosis-of-hemocytes-in-shrimp-marsupenaeus-japonicus
#8
Wen-Li Xia, Li-Hua Kang, Chang-Bin Liu, Cui-Jie Kang
Death-associated protein 1 (DAP1) is a small proline-rich cytoplasmic protein that functions both in the apoptosis and autophage process of mammalian and in the clinical cancer of human. However, little knowledge is known about the homologue gene of DAP1 and its roles in the physiological process of invertebrates. In this paper, we report a novel function of DAP1 in the antivirus immunity of shrimp. A homologue gene of DAP1 was cloned from Marsupenaeus japonicus and named as Mjdap-1. The full-length of Mjdap-1 was 1761 bp with a 309 bp open reading frame that encoded 102 amino acids...
February 14, 2017: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212351/black-box%C3%A2-gastrointestinal%C3%A2-tract-needs%C3%A2-and%C3%A2-prospects%C3%A2-of%C3%A2-gaining%C3%A2-insights%C3%A2-of%C3%A2-fate%C3%A2-of%C3%A2-fat-%C3%A2-protein-%C3%A2-and%C3%A2-starch%C3%A2-in%C3%A2-case%C3%A2-of%C3%A2-exocrine%C3%A2-pancreatic%C3%A2-insufficiency%C3%A2-by%C3%A2-using%C3%A2-fistulated%C3%A2-pigs
#9
REVIEW
Anne Mößeler, Josef Kamphues
Exocrine pancreatic insufficiency (EPI) results in the maldigestion and malabsorption of nutrients. The digestive processes in humans and other monogastric species like rat and pig are characterized by a predominantly enzymatic digestion within the small intestine and microbial fermentation located in the hindgut. For protein, it is doctrine that only prececally absorbed amino acids can be transferred to the amino acid pool of the host, while postileal absorption of nitrogen-containing compounds occurs mainly in the form of ammonia, being a burden rather than a benefit for the organism...
February 16, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211365/converging-biofabrication-and-organoid-technologies-the-next-frontier-in-hepatic-and-intestinal-tissue-engineering
#10
Kerstin Schneeberger, Bart Spee, Pedro Costa, Norman Sachs, Hans Clevers, Jos Malda
Adult tissue stem cells can form self-organizing 3D organoids in vitro. Organoids resemble small units of their organ of origin and have great potential for tissue engineering, as well as models of disease. However, current culture technology limits the size, architecture and complexity of organoids. Here, we review the establishment of intestinal and hepatic organoids and discuss how the convergence of organoids and biofabrication technologies can help overcome current limitations, and thereby further advance the translational application of organoids in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine...
February 17, 2017: Biofabrication
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210937/imp3-expression-in-small-intestine-neuroendocrine-neoplasms-a-new-predictor-of-recurrence
#11
Sara Massironi, Alessandro Del Gobbo, Federica Cavalcoli, Stefano Fiori, Dario Conte, Alessio Pellegrinelli, Massimo Milione, Stefano Ferrero
PURPOSE: Small-intestine neuroendocrine neoplasms are heterogeneous neoplasms arising from endocrine cells of the intestinal mucosa. Ki-67 is the main determinant of prognosis in neuroendocrine neoplasms. However, the search for new prognostic makers represents a key point with regard to small-intestine neuroendocrine neoplasms. The oncofetal protein IMP3 plays a role in cell growth and its expression has a prognostic value in lung neoplasms. METHODS: From January 1998 to August 2015, all the consecutive small-intestine neuroendocrine neoplasms patients suitable for surgery were included: 51 patients (32 males, median age 68 years) had small-intestine neuroendocrine neoplasms classified according to the WHO 2010 classification...
February 17, 2017: Endocrine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210767/crohn-s-disease-diagnosis-treatment-approach-and-management-paradigm-what-the-radiologist-needs-to-know
#12
Parakkal Deepak, Sang Hyoung Park, Eric C Ehman, Stephanie L Hansel, Jeff L Fidler, David H Bruining, Joel G Fletcher
Crohn's disease is one of the major subtypes of idiopathic inflammatory bowel disease and is characterized by chronic transmural intestinal inflammation of the gastrointestinal tract anywhere from mouth to the anus, with a predilection for the small bowel. Cross-sectional imaging with computed tomography and magnetic resonance enterography plays a key role in confirming diagnosis, identifying and managing complications, assessing disease severity, and identifying response to medical therapy. This review will focus on the role of radiologists in the diagnosis and assessment of Crohn's disease...
February 16, 2017: Abdominal Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209957/-the-role-of-small-intestine-length-in-the-development-of-short-bowel-syndrome
#13
R R Khasanov, A A Gumerov, L M Vessel
AIM: To define the the role of small bowel length in development of SBS. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Seventeen patients with SBS after small bowel resection in neonatal period were included into the study. Total small bowel length ranged from 5 to 55 cm (11.8±5.59% from normal length for certain age). RESULTS: Described small bowel length has high risk of SBS/IF development irrespective to other factors (specific segment of small bowel that was resected, preserved intestinal segment state, absence of colon and/or ileocecal valve)...
2017: Khirurgiia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209206/rethinking-the-role-of-alpha-toxin-in-clostridium-perfringens-associated-enteric-diseases-a-review-on-bovine-necro-haemorrhagic-enteritis
#14
REVIEW
Evy Goossens, Bonnie R Valgaeren, Bart Pardon, Freddy Haesebrouck, Richard Ducatelle, Piet R Deprez, Filip Van Immerseel
Bovine necro-haemorrhagic enteritis is an economically important disease caused by Clostridium perfringens type A strains. The disease mainly affects calves under intensive rearing conditions and is characterized by sudden death associated with small intestinal haemorrhage, necrosis and mucosal neutrophil infiltration. The common assumption that, when causing intestinal disease, C. perfringens relies upon specific, plasmid-encoded toxins, was recently challenged by the finding that alpha toxin, which is produced by all C...
February 16, 2017: Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208934/enteric-duplication-cyst-leading-to-volvulus-an-unusual-cause-of-acute-intestinal-obstruction-a-case-report
#15
Raju Rangaswamy, Kuotho T Nyuwi, Chabungbam Gyan Singh, Ty Apila Sangtam, Lalhruaitluanga Varte
Enteric Duplication Cysts (EDC) is a rare congenital malformation, usually found in mesenteric side of Gastrointestinal (GI) tract. Generally patients present with non-specific symptoms depending on size and location of the cyst in GI tract. EDC presenting as small bowel volvulus is a rare clinical entity. Herein, we are reporting a 16-year-old adolescent girl who presented to Emergency Department (ED) with the features of acute bowel obstruction with septicemia. Patient underwent exploratory laparotomy which revealed dilated, twisted, gangrenous bowel due to a cystic lesion adjacent to the mesenteric side...
December 2016: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208686/identification-of-autophagy-related-genes-and-their-regulatory-mirnas-associated-with-celiac-disease-in-children
#16
Sergio Comincini, Federico Manai, Cristina Meazza, Sara Pagani, Carolina Martinelli, Noemi Pasqua, Gloria Pelizzo, Marco Biggiogera, Mauro Bozzola
Celiac disease (CD) is a severe genetic autoimmune disorder, affecting about one in 100 people, where the ingestion of gluten leads to damage in the small intestine. Diagnosing CD is quite complex and requires blood tests and intestinal biopsy examinations. Controversy exists regarding making the diagnosis without biopsy, due to the large spectrum of manifesting symptoms; furthermore, small-intestinal gastroscopy examinations have a relatively complex management in the pediatric population. To identify novel molecular markers useful to increase the sensitivity and specificity in the diagnosis of pediatric CD patients, the expression levels of two key autophagy executor genes (ATG7 and BECN1) and their regulatory validated miRNAs (miR-17 and miR-30a, respectively) were analyzed by relative quantitative real-time-PCR on a cohort of confirmed CD patients compared to age-related controls...
February 12, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207824/evaluation-of-surgical-anti-adhesion-products-to-reduce-postsurgical-intra-abdominal-adhesion-formation-in-a-rat-model
#17
Long-Xiang Lin, Fang Yuan, Hui-Hui Zhang, Ni-Na Liao, Jing-Wan Luo, Yu-Long Sun
BACKGROUND: Adhesions frequently occur after abdominal surgery. Many anti-adhesion products have been used in clinic. However, the evidences are short for surgeons to reasonably choose the suitable anti-adhesion produces in clinical practice. This study provided such evidence by comparing the efficiency of five products to prevent abdominal adhesion formation in a rat model. METHODS: Fifty-six Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into seven groups: sham-operation group, adhesion group, and five product groups (n = 8)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207301/mucosal-chemokines
#18
Marcela Hernández-Ruiz, Albert Zlotnik
Several chemokines have important functions in mucosal immunity. While there are many chemokines, 4 of them (CCL25, CCL28, CXCL14, and CXCL17) are especially important in mucosal immunity because they are homeostatically expressed in mucosal tissues. Of these, only CCL25 and CCL28 have been widely recognized as mucosal chemokines. In this study, we review the physiology of these chemokines with specific emphasis on their function in mucosal immunity. CCL25 recruits certain important subsets of T cells that express CCR9 to the small intestine...
February 2017: Journal of Interferon & Cytokine Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28206961/lynch-syndrome-related-small-intestinal-adenocarcinomas
#19
Sun-Young Jun, Eui-Jin Lee, Mi-Ju Kim, Sung Min Chun, Young Kyung Bae, Soon Uk Hong, Jene Choi, Joon Mee Kim, Kee-Taek Jang, Jung Yeon Kim, Gwang Il Kim, Soo Jin Jung, Ghilsuk Yoon, Seung-Mo Hong
Lynch syndrome is an autosomal-dominant disorder caused by defective DNA mismatch repair (MMR) genes and is associated with increased risk of malignancies in multiple organs. Small-intestinal adenocarcinomas are common initial manifestations of Lynch syndrome. To define the incidence and characteristics of Lynch syndrome-related small-intestinal adenocarcinomas, meticulous familial and clinical histories were obtained from 195 patients with small-intestinal adenocarcinoma, and MMR protein immunohistochemistry, microsatellite instability, MLH1 methylation, and germline mutational analyses were performed...
February 11, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28206729/gut-microbiota-and-gastric-disease
#20
Dolores Sgambato, Agnese Miranda, Lorenzo Romano, Marco Romano
The gut microbiota may be considered a crucial "organ" of human body because of its role in the maintenance of the balance between health as well as disease. It is mainly located in the small bowel and colon, while, the stomach was long thought to be sterile in particular for its high acid production. In particular, stomach was considered "an hostile place" for bacterial growth until the identification of Helicobacter pylori (HP). Now, the stomach and its microbiota can be considered as two different "organs" that share the same place and they have an impact on each other...
15, 2017: Minerva Gastroenterologica e Dietologica
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