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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108494/the-rich-club-organization-in-rat-functional-brain-network-to-balance-between-communication-cost-and-efficiency
#1
Xia Liang, Li-Ming Hsu, Hanbing Lu, Akira Sumiyoshi, Yong He, Yihong Yang
Network analyses of structural connectivity in the brain have highlighted a set of highly connected hubs that are densely interconnected, forming a "rich-club" substrate in diverse species. Here, we demonstrate the existence of rich-club organization in functional brain networks of rats. Densely interconnected rich-club regions are found to be distributed in multiple brain modules, with the majority located within the putative default mode network. Rich-club members exhibit high wiring cost (as measured by connection distance) and high metabolic running cost (as surrogated by cerebral blood flow), which may have evolved to achieve high network communications to support efficient brain functions...
January 19, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108320/modulation-on-brain-gray-matter-activity-and-white-matter-integrity-by-apoe-%C3%AE%C2%B54-risk-gene-in-cognitively-intact-elderly-a-multimodal-neuroimaging-study
#2
Suping Cai, Yuanyuan Jiang, Yubo Wang, Xiaoming Wu, Junchan Ren, Min Seob Lee, Sunghoon Lee, Liyu Huang
Apolipoprotein E (APOE) ε4 allele is the genetic risk factor with the most established evidence for sporadic Alzheimer's disease. Previous neuroimaging studies have demonstrated insufficiently consistent functional and structural changes among healthy APOE ε4 carriers when compared to non-carriers. Here, in a cognitively intact elderly group (a total of 110: 45 APOE ε4 carriers, 65 non-carriers), we aimed to investigate the potential role of APOE ε4 in the modulation of grey matter activity, white matter integrity, and brain morphology before the development of clinically significant symptoms and signs, by methods of: amplitude of low frequency fluctuations and regional homogeneity analysis based on resting state fMRI, and fiber tractography approach based on diffusion tensor imaging...
January 17, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107807/continuous-theta-burst-stimulation-may-improve-visuospatial-neglect-via-modulating-the-attention-network-a-randomized-controlled-study
#3
Wei Fu, Lei Cao, Yanming Zhang, Su Huo, JuBao Du, Lin Zhu, Weiqun Song
BACKGROUND: Visuospatial neglect (VSN) is devastating and common after stroke, and is thought to involve functional disturbance of the attention network. Non-invasive theta-burst stimulation (TBS) may help restore the normal function of attention network, therefore facilitating recovery from VSN. OBJECTIVE: This study investigated the effects of continuous TBS on resting-state functional connectivity (RSFC) in the attention network, and behavioral performances of patients with VSN after stroke...
January 20, 2017: Topics in Stroke Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28104737/cerebral-blood-flow-alterations-specific-to-auditory-verbal-hallucinations-in-schizophrenia
#4
Chuanjun Zhuo, Jiajia Zhu, Wen Qin, Hongru Qu, Xiaolei Ma, Chunshui Yu
BACKGROUND: Auditory verbal hallucinations (AVHs) have been associated with deficits in auditory and speech-related networks. However, the resting-state cerebral blood flow (CBF) alterations specific to AVHs in schizophrenia remain unknown. AIMS: To explore AVH-related CBF alterations in individuals with schizophrenia. METHOD: In total, 35 individuals with schizophrenia with AVHs, 41 individuals with schizophrenia without AVHs and 50 controls underwent arterial spin labelling magnetic resonance imaging...
January 19, 2017: British Journal of Psychiatry: the Journal of Mental Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28104639/hippocampal-atrophy-is-associated-with-altered-hippocampus-posterior-cingulate-cortex-connectivity-in-mesial-temporal-lobe-epilepsy-with-hippocampal-sclerosis
#5
Y C Shih, C E Tseng, F-H Lin, H H Liou, W Y I Tseng
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Unilateral mesial temporal lobe epilepsy and hippocampal sclerosis have structural and functional abnormalities in the mesial temporal regions. To gain insight into the pathophysiology of the epileptic network in mesial temporal lobe epilepsy with hippocampal sclerosis, we aimed to clarify the relationships between hippocampal atrophy and the altered connection between the hippocampus and the posterior cingulate cortex in patients with mesial temporal lobe epilepsy with hippocampal sclerosis...
January 19, 2017: AJNR. American Journal of Neuroradiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103527/distinct-cortico-striatal-connections-with-subthalamic-nucleus-underlie-facets-of-compulsivity
#6
Laurel S Morris, Kwangyeol Baek, Valerie Voon
The capacity to flexibly respond to contextual changes is crucial to adapting to a dynamic environment. Compulsivity, or behavioural inflexibility, consists of heterogeneous subtypes with overlapping yet discrete neural substrates. The subthalamic nucleus (STN) mediates the switch from automatic to controlled processing to slow, break or stop behaviour when necessary. Rodent STN lesions or inactivation are linked with perseveration or repetitive, compulsive responding. However, there are few studies examining the role of latent STN-centric neural networks and compulsive behaviour in healthy individuals...
December 29, 2016: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101529/cortico-cortical-connections-of-primary-sensory-areas-and-associated-symptoms-in-migraine
#7
Duncan J Hodkinson, Rosanna Veggeberg, Aaron Kucyi, Koene R A van Dijk, Sophie L Wilcox, Steven J Scrivani, Rami Burstein, Lino Becerra, David Borsook
Migraine is a recurring, episodic neurological disorder characterized by headache, nausea, vomiting, and sensory disturbances. These events are thought to arise from the activation and sensitization of neurons along the trigemino-vascular pathway. From animal studies, it is known that thalamocortical projections play an important role in the transmission of nociceptive signals from the meninges to the cortex. However, little is currently known about the potential involvement of cortico-cortical feedback projections from higher-order multisensory areas and/or feedforward projections from principle primary sensory areas or subcortical structures...
November 2016: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096673/apathy-and-intrinsic-functional-connectivity-networks-in-amnestic-mild-cognitive-impairment
#8
Soo Hyun Joo, Chang Uk Lee, Hyun Kook Lim
BACKGROUND: Although several prior works reported that apathy is associated with conversion to Alzheimer's disease in individuals with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI), effects of apathy on the functional connectivity (FC) of the brain remain unclear. In this study, we assessed the pattern of association between apathy and default mode network (DMN), salience network and central executive network (CEN) in aMCI subjects. METHODS: Fifty subjects with aMCI and 50 controls (CONs) participated in this study...
2017: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28094464/test-retest-reliability-of-functional-connectivity-networks-during-naturalistic-fmri-paradigms
#9
Jiahui Wang, Yudan Ren, Xintao Hu, Vinh Thai Nguyen, Lei Guo, Junwei Han, Christine Cong Guo
Functional connectivity analysis has become a powerful tool for probing the human brain function and its breakdown in neuropsychiatry disorders. So far, most studies adopted resting-state paradigm to examine functional connectivity networks in the brain, thanks to its low demand and high tolerance that are essential for clinical studies. However, the test-retest reliability of resting-state connectivity measures is moderate, potentially due to its low behavioral constraint. On the other hand, naturalistic neuroimaging paradigms, an emerging approach for cognitive neuroscience with high ecological validity, could potentially improve the reliability of functional connectivity measures...
January 17, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093358/mapping-the-functional-connectome-traits-of-levels-of-consciousness
#10
Enrico Amico, Daniele Marinazzo, Carol Di Perri, Lizette Heine, Jitka Annen, Charlotte Martial, Mario Dzemidzic, Murielle Kirsch, Vincent Bonhomme, Steven Laureys, Joaquín Goñi
Examining task-free functional connectivity (FC) in the human brain offers insights on how spontaneous integration and segregation of information relate to human cognition, and how this organization may be altered in different conditions, and neurological disorders. This is particularly relevant for patients in disorders of consciousness (DOC) following severe acquired brain damage and coma, one of the most devastating conditions in modern medical care. We present a novel data-driven methodology, connICA, which implements Independent Component Analysis (ICA) for the extraction of robust independent FC patterns (FC-traits) from a set of individual functional connectomes, without imposing any a priori data stratification into groups...
January 13, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092321/dexmedetomidine-disrupts-the-local-and-global-efficiencies-of-large-scale-brain-networks
#11
Javeria A Hashmi, Marco L Loggia, Sheraz Khan, Lei Gao, Jieun Kim, Vitaly Napadow, Emery N Brown, Oluwaseun Akeju
BACKGROUND: A clear understanding of the neural basis of consciousness is fundamental to research in clinical and basic neuroscience disciplines and anesthesia. Recently, decreased efficiency of information integration was suggested as a core network feature of propofol-induced unconsciousness. However, it is unclear whether this finding can be generalized to dexmedetomidine, which has a different molecular target. METHODS: Dexmedetomidine was administered as a 1-μg/kg bolus over 10 min, followed by a 0...
January 16, 2017: Anesthesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089677/global-signal-regression-acts-as-a-temporal-downweighting-process-in-resting-state-fmri
#12
Alican Nalci, Bhaskar D Rao, Thomas T Liu
In resting-state functional MRI (rsfMRI), the correlation between blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) signals across different brain regions is used to estimate the functional connectivity of the brain. This approach has led to the identification of a number of resting-state networks, including the default mode network (DMN) and the task positive network (TPN). Global signal regression (GSR) is a widely used pre-processing step in rsfMRI that has been shown to improve the spatial specificity of the estimated resting-state networks...
January 9, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089676/multimodal-evaluation-of-the-amygdala-s-functional-connectivity
#13
Rebecca Kerestes, Henry W Chase, Mary L Phillips, Cecile D Ladouceur, Simon B Eickhoff
The amygdala is one of the most extensively studied human brain regions and undisputedly plays a central role in many psychiatric disorders. However, an outstanding question is whether connectivity of amygdala subregions, specifically the centromedial (CM), laterobasal (LB) and superficial (SF) nuclei, are modulated by brain state (i.e., task vs. rest). Here, using a multimodal approach, we directly compared meta-analytic connectivity modeling (MACM) and specific co-activation likelihood estimation (SCALE)-derived estimates of CM, LB and SF task-based co-activation to the functional connectivity of these nuclei as assessed by resting state fmri (rs-fmri)...
January 9, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088482/combined-spatiotemporal-ica-stica-for-continuous-and-dynamic-lag-structure-analysis-of-mreg-data
#14
Ville Raatikainen, Niko Huotari, Vesa Korhonen, Aleksi Rasila, Janne Kananen, Lauri Raitamaa, Tuija Keinänen, Jussi Kantola, Osmo Tervonen, Vesa Kiviniemi
This study investigated lag structure in the resting-state fMRI by applying a novel independent component (ICA) method to magnetic resonance encephalography (MREG) data. Briefly, the spatial ICA (sICA) was used for defining the frontal and back nodes of the default mode network (DMN), and the temporal ICA (tICA), which is enabled by the high temporal resolution of MREG (TR=100ms), was used to separate both neuronal and physiological components of these two spatial map regions. Subsequently, lag structure was investigated between the frontal (DMNvmpf) and posterior (DMNpcc) DMN nodes using both conventional method with all-time points and a sliding-window approach...
January 11, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28080965/feeling-learning-from-and-being-aware-of-inner-states-interoceptive-dimensions-in-neurodegeneration-and-stroke
#15
Indira García-Cordero, Lucas Sedeño, Laura de la Fuente, Andrea Slachevsky, Gonzalo Forno, Francisco Klein, Patricia Lillo, Jesica Ferrari, Clara Rodriguez, Julian Bustin, Teresa Torralva, Sandra Baez, Adrian Yoris, Sol Esteves, Margherita Melloni, Paula Salamone, David Huepe, Facundo Manes, Adolfo M García, Agustín Ibañez
Interoception is a complex process encompassing multiple dimensions, such as accuracy, learning and awareness. Here, we examined whether each of those dimensions relies on specialized neural regions distributed throughout the vast interoceptive network. To this end, we obtained relevant measures of cardiac interoception in healthy subjects and patients offering contrastive lesion models of neurodegeneration and focal brain damage: behavioural variant fronto-temporal dementia (bvFTD), Alzheimer's disease (AD) and fronto-insular stroke...
November 19, 2016: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079059/co-variation-of-peripheral-levels-of-mir-1202-and-brain-activity-and-connectivity-during-antidepressant-treatment
#16
Juan Pablo Lopez, Fabricio Pereira, Stéphane Richard-Devantoy, Marcelo Berlim, Eduardo Chachamovich, Laura M Fiori, Paola Niola, Gustavo Turecki, Fabrice Jollant
MicroRNAs are short non-coding molecules that play a major role in regulating gene expression. Peripheral levels of miR-1202 have been shown to predict and mediate antidepressant response. However, it is not clear to what extent these peripheral measures reflect central neural changes in vivo. We approached this problem with the combined use of peripheral miR-1202 measures and neuroimaging. At baseline and after 8 weeks of Desvenlafaxine (50-100 mg die), twenty patients were scanned with 3T Magnetic Resonance Imaging, first at rest then during the Go/NoGo task, a classical test of response inhibition...
January 12, 2017: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077714/formation-of-long-term-locomotor-memories-is-associated-with-functional-connectivity-changes-in-the-cerebellar-thalamic-cortical-network
#17
Firas Mawase, Simona Bar-Haim, Lior Shmuelof
: Although motor adaptation is typically rapid, accumulating evidence shows that it is also associated with long-lasting behavioral and neuronal changes. Two processes were suggested to explain the formation of long-term motor memories: recall, reflecting a retrieval of previous motor actions, and faster relearning, reflecting an increased sensitivity to errors. Although these manifestations of motor memories were initially demonstrated in the context of adaptation experiments in reaching, indications of long-term motor memories were also demonstrated recently in other kinds of adaptation such as in locomotor adaptation...
January 11, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074926/disrupted-global-metastability-and-static-and-dynamic-brain-connectivity-across-individuals-in-the-alzheimer-s-disease-continuum
#18
Aldo Córdova-Palomera, Tobias Kaufmann, Karin Persson, Dag Alnæs, Nhat Trung Doan, Torgeir Moberget, Martina Jonette Lund, Maria Lage Barca, Andreas Engvig, Anne Brækhus, Knut Engedal, Ole A Andreassen, Geir Selbæk, Lars T Westlye
As findings on the neuropathological and behavioral components of Alzheimer's disease (AD) continue to accrue, converging evidence suggests that macroscale brain functional disruptions may mediate their association. Recent developments on theoretical neuroscience indicate that instantaneous patterns of brain connectivity and metastability may be a key mechanism in neural communication underlying cognitive performance. However, the potential significance of these patterns across the AD spectrum remains virtually unexplored...
January 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074492/confirmation-of-resting-state-bold-fluctuations-in-the-human-brainstem-and-spinal-cord-after-identification-and-removal-of-physiological-noise
#19
Shreyas Harita, Patrick W Stroman
PURPOSE: Resting-state functional MRI (rs-fMRI) has been used to investigate networks within the cortex, but its use in the brainstem (BS) and spinal cord (SC) has been limited. This region presents challenges for fMRI, partly because of sources of physiological noise. This study aims to quantify noise contributions to rs-fMRI, and to obtain evidence of resting-state blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) fluctuations. METHODS: Resting-state-fMRI data were obtained from the BS/SC in 16 participants, at 3 Tesla, with T2 -weighted single-shot fast spin-echo imaging...
January 11, 2017: Magnetic Resonance in Medicine: Official Journal of the Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070912/role-of-testosterone-and-y-chromosome-genes-for-the-masculinization-of-the-human-brain
#20
Ivanka Savic, Louise Frisen, Amirhossein Manzouri, Anna Nordenstrom, Angelica Lindén Hirschberg
: Women with complete androgen insensitivity syndrome (CAIS) have a male (46,XY) karyotype but no functional androgen receptors. Their condition, therefore, offers a unique model for studying testosterone effects on cerebral sex dimorphism. We present MRI data from 16 women with CAIS and 32 male (46,XY) and 32 female (46,XX) controls. METHODS: FreeSurfer software was employed to measure cortical thickness and subcortical structural volumes. Axonal connections, indexed by fractional anisotropy, (FA) were measured with diffusion tensor imaging, and functional connectivity with resting state fMRI...
January 10, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
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