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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230608/combinatorial-therapy-with-two-pro-coagulants-and-one-osmotic-agent-reduces-the-extent-of-the-lesion-in-the-acute-phase-of-spinal-cord-injury-in-the-rat
#1
Mathieu Boutonnet, Elisabeth Laemmel, Eric Vicaut, Jacques Duranteau, Marc Soubeyrand
BACKGROUND: Spinal cord injury (SCI) is a complex disease that leads to a motor, sensitive, and vegetative impairment. So far, single therapies are ineffective for treating SCI in humans and a multifactorial therapeutic approach may be required. The aim of this work was to assess the effect of a triple therapy (TT) associating two pro-coagulant therapies (tranexamic acid and fibrinogen) with an anti-edema therapy (hypertonic saline solution), on the extent of the lesion 24 h post-injury...
December 11, 2017: Intensive Care Medicine Experimental
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29220677/a-powerful-approach-to-estimating-annotation-stratified-genetic-covariance-via-gwas-summary-statistics
#2
Qiongshi Lu, Boyang Li, Derek Ou, Margret Erlendsdottir, Ryan L Powles, Tony Jiang, Yiming Hu, David Chang, Chentian Jin, Wei Dai, Qidu He, Zefeng Liu, Shubhabrata Mukherjee, Paul K Crane, Hongyu Zhao
Despite the success of large-scale genome-wide association studies (GWASs) on complex traits, our understanding of their genetic architecture is far from complete. Jointly modeling multiple traits' genetic profiles has provided insights into the shared genetic basis of many complex traits. However, large-scale inference sets a high bar for both statistical power and biological interpretability. Here we introduce a principled framework to estimate annotation-stratified genetic covariance between traits using GWAS summary statistics...
December 7, 2017: American Journal of Human Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29203043/-blood-pressure-target-in-2017
#3
A Yannoutsos, A Bura-Rivière, P Priollet, J Blacher
OBJECTIVE: The issue of how far blood pressure (BP) should be lowered under antihypertensive treatment is still an important matter of scientific debate. The aim of the present review is to consider the clinical relevance of individualized BP goal under treatment in hypertensive patients according to their age, comorbidities or established cardio-vascular (CV) disease. DATA FROM THE LITERATURE: The French and European recommendations propose a systolic BP target between 130 and 139mmHg (<150mmHg after 80 years) and diastolic BP target <90mmHg in hypertensive patients whatever their level of risk...
December 2017: Journal de Médecine Vasculaire
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29200195/sub-nanometre-channels-embedded-in-two-dimensional-materials
#4
Yimo Han, Ming-Yang Li, Gang-Seob Jung, Mark A Marsalis, Zhao Qin, Markus J Buehler, Lain-Jong Li, David A Muller
Two-dimensional (2D) materials are among the most promising candidates for next-generation electronics due to their atomic thinness, allowing for flexible transparent electronics and ultimate length scaling. Thus far, atomically thin p-n junctions, metal-semiconductor contacts, and metal-insulator barriers have been demonstrated. Although 2D materials achieve the thinnest possible devices, precise nanoscale control over the lateral dimensions is also necessary. Here, we report the direct synthesis of sub-nanometre-wide one-dimensional (1D) MoS2 channels embedded within WSe2 monolayers, using a dislocation-catalysed approach...
December 4, 2017: Nature Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29194417/matrix-assisted-laser-desorption-ionisation-mass-spectrometry-imaging-in-the-study-of-gastric-cancer-a-mini-review
#5
REVIEW
Andrew Smith, Isabella Piga, Manuel Galli, Martina Stella, Vanna Denti, Marina Del Puppo, Fulvio Magni
Gastric cancer (GC) is one of the leading causes of cancer-related deaths worldwide and the disease outcome commonly depends upon the tumour stage at the time of diagnosis. However, this cancer can often be asymptomatic during the early stages and remain undetected until the later stages of tumour development, having a significant impact on patient prognosis. However, our comprehension of the mechanisms underlying the development of gastric malignancies is still lacking. For these reasons, the search for new diagnostic and prognostic markers for gastric cancer is an ongoing pursuit...
December 1, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29187395/new-approaches-and-therapeutic-options-for-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-in-a-dormant-state
#6
REVIEW
Santiago Caño-Muñiz, Richard Anthony, Stefan Niemann, Jan-Willem C Alffenaar
We are far away from the days when tuberculosis (TB) accounted for 1 in 4 deaths during the 19th century. However, Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC) strains are still the leading cause of morbidity and mortality by a single infectious disease, with 9.6 million cases and 1.5 million deaths reported. One-third of the world's population is estimated by the WHO to be infected with latent TB. During the last decade, several studies have aimed to define the characteristics of dormant bacteria in these latent infections...
January 2018: Clinical Microbiology Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29181146/metastatic-prostate-adenocarcinoma-to-intradural-foramen-magnum
#7
Halil Olgun Peker, Nural Cafer Celik, Ulas Cikla, Mustafa K Baskaya
Intradural metastatic tumors are rarely reported in foramen magnum (FM), including cases of melanoma, pituitary carcinoma, thyroid carcinoma, and prostate carcinoma metastases. We report a 68-year-old male who presented with right-sided headache, progressive swallowing difficulty requiring gastrostomy tube and hoarseness over the course of 1 year. Images revealed a heterogeneous, contrast-enhancing lesion in the FM that compressed the anterior aspect of the medulla and upper spinal cord. Although metastatic tumor was considered in differential diagnosis, presumptive diagnosis was FM meningioma due to lack of bone destruction or sclerosis on CT and T2W isointense and T1W hypointense appearance on MRI...
November 2017: Journal of Surgical Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163034/direct-reprogramming-rather-than-ipsc-based-reprogramming-maintains-aging-hallmarks-in-human-motor-neurons
#8
Yu Tang, Meng-Lu Liu, Tong Zang, Chun-Li Zhang
In vitro generation of motor neurons (MNs) is a promising approach for modeling motor neuron diseases (MNDs) such as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). As aging is a leading risk factor for the development of neurodegeneration, it is important to recapitulate age-related characteristics by using MNs at pathogenic ages. So far, cell reprogramming through induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) and direct reprogramming from primary fibroblasts are two major strategies to obtain populations of MNs. While iPSC generation must go across the epigenetic landscape toward the pluripotent state, directly converted MNs might have the advantage of preserving aging-associated features from fibroblast donors...
2017: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143574/investigating-the-preventive-effects-of-baicalin-and-gallocatechin-aginst-glyoxal-induced-cystatin-aggregation
#9
Aamir Sohail, Waseem Feeroze Bhat, Mohammad Furkan, Aaliya Shah, Bilqees Bano
Several mammalian proteins form pathological deposits under nonphysiological conditions that are associated with many degenerative diseases. Protein aggregation is associated with aging, as well as a variety of diseases, including cystic fibrosis, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), and hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. There is a lack of any potential anti-amyloidogenic agents and therapeutics till date. Polyphenols have been accredited with myriad biological effects. An analysis of the effects of natural agents like baicalin (BC) and gallocatechin (GC) on aggregation process can open new avenues for the treatment of protein misfolding diseases...
November 16, 2017: Journal of Biomolecular Structure & Dynamics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141048/microcirculation-in-open-vs-minimally-invasive-dorsal-stabilization-of-thoracolumbar-fractures
#10
Bergita Ganse, Miguel Pishnamaz, Philipp Kobbe, Christian Herren, Gertraud Gradl-Dietsch, Franziska Böhle, Bernd Johannes, Bong-Sung Kim, Klemens Horst, Matthias Knobe
Standard open and percutaneous minimally invasive surgical procedures co-exist in the treatment of fractures of the thoracolumbar spine. Shorter skin incisions just above the pedicles are used in minimally invasive procedures. Full-length skin incisions and invasive preparations are applied in the standard open approach. While both methods show equivalent rates of intraoperative surgical complications and comparable clinical and radiological outcomes, blood loss and operation time have shown to be decreased in minimally invasive treatment...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132797/cloaca-reconstruction-a-new-algorithm-which-considers-the-role-of-urethral-length-in-determining-surgical-planning
#11
Richard J Wood, Carlos A Reck-Burneo, Daniel Dajusta, Christina Ching, Rama Jayanthi, D Gregory Bates, Molly E Fuchs, Katherine McCracken, Geri Hewitt, Marc A Levitt
BACKGROUND: Cloacal malformations represent a uniquely complex challenge for surgeons. The surgical approach to date has been based on the common channel (CC) length with two patient groups considered: less than or greater than 3cm, which we believe is an oversimplification. We reviewed 19 patients, referred after surgery done elsewhere. Eight had postoperative urinary complications, 3 had constant urinary leakage and had been left after surgery with a urethra <1cm, .5 with an original 3 to 5cm common channel, who had undergone total urogenital mobilization (TUM), experienced peri-operative urethral loss needing a vesicostomy, and later, a Mitrofanoff...
October 12, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128954/surgical-approach-to-posterior-inferior-cerebellar-artery-aneurysms
#12
Biagia La Pira, Carmelo Lucio Sturiale, Giuseppe Maria Della Pepa, Alessio Albanese
BACKGROUND: The far-lateral is a standardised approach to clip aneurysms of the posterior inferior cerebellar artery (PICA). Different variants can be adopted to manage aneurysms that differ in morphology, topography, ruptured status, cerebellar swelling and surgeon preference. METHOD: We distinguished five paradigmatic approaches aimed to manage aneurysms that are: proximal unruptured; proximal ruptured requiring posterior fossa decompression (PFD); proximal ruptured not requiring PFD; distal unruptured; distal ruptured...
November 11, 2017: Acta Neurochirurgica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29112683/targeting-de-novo-lipogenesis-as-a-novel-approach-in-anti-cancer-therapy
#13
Katharina Stoiber, Olga Nagło, Carla Pernpeintner, Siwei Zhang, Andreas Koeberle, Melanie Ulrich, Oliver Werz, Rolf Müller, Stefan Zahler, Theobald Lohmüller, Jochen Feldmann, Simone Braig
BACKGROUND: Although altered membrane physiology has been discussed within the context of cancer, targeting membrane characteristics by drugs being an attractive therapeutic strategy has received little attention so far. METHODS: Various acetyl-CoA carboxylase 1 (ACC1), and fatty acid synthase (FASN) inhibitors (like Soraphen A and Cerulenin) as well as genetic knockdown approaches were employed to study the effects of disturbed phospholipid composition on membrane properties and its functional impact on cancer progression...
November 7, 2017: British Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29098570/intracranial-melanotic-schwannomas-a-rare-variant-with-unusual-adherent-features
#14
D Mahato, T Vivas-Buitrago, K Gassie, M Jentoft, D Tavanaiepour, A Quiñones-Hinojosa
Intracranial melanotic schwannomas (IMSch) are extremely rare nerve sheath tumors with features of Schwann cells that produce melanin. After a thorough review of the available literature since 1967, we report not only the 20th case of IMSch but a comprehensive modern-era analysis of radiographic and histological key-points to be considered when diagnosing and treating patients with this rare known entity. This is the case of a 43 years-old woman who presented with severe headaches 9 years ago (2008). At that time, MRI of the brain showed a 1...
November 2, 2017: Journal of Neuro-oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29080003/percutaneous-posterolateral-approach-for-the-simulation-of-a-far-lateral-disc-herniation-in-an-ovine-model
#15
Stefan Schwan, Christopher Ludtka, Ingo Wiesner, Andre Baerthel, Andrea Friedmann, Felix Göhre
PURPOSE: This work describes a minimally invasive damage model for ovine lumbar discs via partial nucleotomy using a posterolateral approach. METHODS: Two cadavers were dissected to analyze the percutaneous corridor. Subsequently, 28 ovine had their annulus fibrosus punctured via awl penetration under fluoroscopic control and nucleus pulposus tissue removed via rongeur. Efficacy was assessed by animal morbidity, ease of access to T12-S1 disc spaces, and production of a mechanical injury as verified by discography, radiography, and histology...
October 27, 2017: European Spine Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29067352/combined-mnemonic-strategy-training-and-high-definition-transcranial-direct-current-stimulation-for-memory-deficits-in-mild-cognitive-impairment
#16
Benjamin M Hampstead, Krishnankutty Sathian, Marom Bikson, Anthony Y Stringer
INTRODUCTION: Memory deficits characterize Alzheimer's dementia and the clinical precursor stage known as mild cognitive impairment. Nonpharmacologic interventions hold promise for enhancing functioning in these patients, potentially delaying functional impairment that denotes transition to dementia. Previous findings revealed that mnemonic strategy training (MST) enhances long-term retention of trained stimuli and is accompanied by increased blood oxygen level-dependent signal in the lateral frontal and parietal cortices as well as in the hippocampus...
September 2017: Alzheimer's & Dementia: Translational Research & Clinical Interventions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29047488/composite-reflective-absorptive-ir-blocking-filters-embedded-in-metamaterial-antireflection-coated-silicon
#17
C D Munson, S K Choi, K P Coughlin, J J McMahon, K H Miller, L A Page, E J Wollack
Infrared (IR)-blocking filters are crucial for controlling the radiative loading on cryogenic systems and for optimizing the sensitivity of bolometric detectors in the far-IR. We present a new IR filter approach based on a combination of patterned frequency-selective structures on silicon and a thin (25-75 μm thick) absorptive composite based on powdered reststrahlen absorbing materials. For a 300 K blackbody, this combination reflects ∼50% of the incoming light and blocks >99.8% of the total power with negligible thermal gradients and excellent low-frequency transmission...
July 1, 2017: Applied Optics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040399/toward-completion-of-the-earth-s-proteome-an-update-a-decade-later
#18
Pablo Mier, Miguel A Andrade-Navarro
Protein databases are steadily growing driven by the spread of new more efficient sequencing techniques. This growth is dominated by an increase in redundancy (homologous proteins with various degrees of sequence similarity) and by the incapability to process and curate sequence entries as fast as they are created. To understand these trends and aid bioinformatic resources that might be compromised by the increasing size of the protein sequence databases, we have created a less-redundant protein data set. In parallel, we analyzed the evolution of protein sequence databases in terms of size and redundancy...
October 12, 2017: Briefings in Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29032218/the-hypoglossal-nerve-anatomical-study-of-its-entire-course
#19
Giorgio Iaconetta, Domenico Solari, Alessandro Villa, Clotilde Castaldo, Rosa Maria Gerardi, Gianluigi Califano, Stefania Montagnani, Paolo Cappabianca
OBJECT: Only a few anatomic studies concerning the entire course of the hypoglossal nerve (cranial nerve XII) have been reported. The purpose of the present study is to analyze all the relationships of the XII nerve with the surrounding structures from the brainstem to the tongue through a microscopic perspective. A comprehensive anatomically and clinically oriented classification of its different segments is proposed. METHODS: Ten formalin-fixed adult human cadaveric heads (20 sides) were dissected with the aim to explore the entire course of the XII cranial nerve via the lateral suboccipital, the far lateral partial or total transcondilar routes...
October 11, 2017: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29018654/double-crush-of-l5-spinal-nerve-root-due-to-l4-5-lateral-recess-stenosis-and-bony-spur-formation-of-lumbosacral-transitional-vertebra-pseudoarticulation-a-case-report-and-review
#20
Motoyuki Iwasaki, Masahiko Akiyama, Izumi Koyanagi, Yoshimasa Niiya, Tatsuo Ihara, Kiyohiro Houkin
We present a case of double-crushed L5 nerve root symptoms caused by inside and outside of the spinal canal with spur formation of the lumbosacral transitional vertebra (LSTV). A 78-year-old man presented with 7-year history of moderate paresis of his toe and left leg pain when walking. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed spinal stenosis at the L3/4 and 4/5 spinal levels and he underwent wide fenestration of both levels. Leg pain disappeared and 6-min walk distance (6MWD) improved after surgery, however, the numbness in his toes increased and 6MWD decreased 9 months after surgery...
October 2017: NMC Case Report Journal
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