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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893844/the-florida-harvester-ant-pogonomyrmex-badius-relies-on-germination-to-consume-large-seeds
#1
Walter R Tschinkel, Christina L Kwapich
The Florida harvester ant, Pogonomyrmex badius, is one of many ant species and genera that stores large numbers of seeds in damp, underground chambers for later consumption. A comparison of the sizes of seeds recovered from storage chambers with those of seed husks discarded following consumption revealed that the used seeds are far smaller than stored seeds. This difference in use-rate was confirmed in field and laboratory colonies by offering marked seeds of various sizes and monitoring the appearance of size-specific chaff...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27892396/a-topography-of-free-kicks-in-soccer
#2
Daniel Link, Otto Kolbinger, Hendrik Weber, Michael Stöckl
This study investigates the spatial relationship of performance variables for soccer free kicks. In order to suggest ways in which players might optimise their performance, we collected data from free kicks (<35 m to goal line) of two German Bundesliga seasons (2013/14, 2014/15) (n = 1624). In the analysis, we applied the ISO-map approach using colour gradients to visualise the mean values of a variable on a 2D-map of the pitch. Additionally, variograms were used to describe the degree of spatial dependence of the free kick variables...
December 2016: Journal of Sports Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888345/robust-thalamic-nuclei-segmentation-method-based-on-local-diffusion-magnetic-resonance-properties
#3
Giovanni Battistella, Elena Najdenovska, Philippe Maeder, Naghmeh Ghazaleh, Alessandro Daducci, Jean-Philippe Thiran, Sébastien Jacquemont, Constantin Tuleasca, Marc Levivier, Meritxell Bach Cuadra, Eleonora Fornari
The thalamus is an essential relay station in the cortical-subcortical connections. It is characterized by a complex anatomical architecture composed of numerous small nuclei, which mediate the involvement of the thalamus in a wide range of neurological functions. We present a novel framework for segmenting the thalamic nuclei, which explores the orientation distribution functions (ODFs) from diffusion magnetic resonance images at 3 T. The differentiation of the complex intra-thalamic microstructure is improved by using the spherical harmonic (SH) representation of the ODFs, which provides full angular characterization of the diffusion process in each voxel...
November 25, 2016: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27804261/a-dental-prosthesis-from-the-early-modern-age-in-tuscany-italy
#4
Simona Minozzi, Daniele Panetta, Massimo De Sanctis, Valentina Giuffra
BACKGROUND: During archaeological excavation, carried out in the S. Francesco Monastery at Lucca (Tuscany, Italy), a golden dental appliance was discovered. The prosthesis was found, together with commingled human remains, in the collective tomb of the aristocratic family of the Guinigi, a powerful family who governed Lucca from 1392 until 1429. The exact archaeological dating of the prosthesis was not possible, but some elements suggest a dating to the beginning of the 17th century. PURPOSE: Aim of the paper is to study and describe the dental appliance trough a multidisciplinary approach...
November 1, 2016: Clinical Implant Dentistry and related Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27778199/the-watson-forbes-biogeographical-controversy-untangled-170%C3%A2-years-later
#5
Simone Fattorini
Hewett Cottrell Watson and Edward Forbes were two naturalists of the Victorian age. They were protagonists on a dispute that generated comment and serves as an illuminating case study of misunderstanding in priority issues. Watson accused Forbes of having plagiarized his original classification of the British plants into groups on the basis of their geographical distribution. This controversy originated mostly from a so-far-ignored basic difference in Watson's and Forbes' ideas about biogeographical regionalization...
October 24, 2016: Journal of the History of Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27753836/sy-05-2-progression-of-hypertensive-heart-disease-new-therapeutic-approach
#6
Masatsugu Horiuchi
Hypertensive patients have greater chances of such cardiovascular events as stroke, coronary heart disease, heart or renal failure, peripheral artery disease, and dementia. It is also well recognized that diabetes increases the cardiovascular risks in concert with hypertension. Therefore, main goals for an innovation of anti-hypertensive therapy would be to achieve further risk reduction by targeting the functional, metabolic, and structural alterations associated with hypertension. Professors Dzau and Braunwald et al proposed the concept of "the cardiovascular disease continuum" in 1991, and that hypertension may trigger the chain of events, leading to end-stage heart disease; however, this concept was quite new at that time, and there was some discussion whether "the cardiovascular disease continuum" is true or not...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27743071/robotic-assisted-versus-laparoscopic-left-lateral-sectionectomy-analysis-of-surgical-outcomes-and-costs-by-a-propensity-score-matched-cohort-study
#7
Chady Salloum, Chetana Lim, Eylon Lahat, Concepcion Gomez I Gavara, Eric Levesque, Philippe Compagnon, Daniel Azoulay
BACKGROUND: After comparing with open approach, left lateral sectionectomy (LLS) has become standard in terms of short-term outcomes without jeopardizing long-term survival when performed for malignancy. The aim of this study was to compare the short-term and economic outcomes of laparoscopic (L-LLS) and robotic (R-LLS) LLS. METHODS: All consecutive patients who underwent L-LLS or R-LLS from 1997 to 2014 were analyzed. Short-term and economic outcomes were compared between the two groups using a propensity score matching (PSM)...
October 14, 2016: World Journal of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27739941/biomechanical-evaluation-of-the-craniovertebral-junction-after-unilateral-joint-sparing-condylectomy-implications-for-the-far-lateral-approach-revisited
#8
Varun R Kshettry, Andrew T Healy, Robb Colbrunn, Dylan T Beckler, Edward C Benzel, Pablo F Recinos
OBJECTIVE The far lateral transcondylar approach to the ventral foramen magnum requires partial resection of the occipital condyle. Early biomechanical studies suggest that occipitocervical (OC) fusion should be considered if 50% of the condyle is resected. In clinical practice, however, a joint-sparing condylectomy has often been employed without the need for OC fusion. The biomechanics of the joint-sparing technique have not been reported. Authors of the present study hypothesized that the clinically relevant joint-sparing condylectomy would result in added stability of the craniovertebral junction as compared with earlier reports...
October 14, 2016: Journal of Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27715436/midline-and-off-midline-infratentorial-supracerebellar-approaches-to-the-pineal-gland
#9
Satoshi Matsuo, Serhat Baydin, Abuzer Güngör, Koichi Miki, Noritaka Komune, Ryota Kurogi, Koji Iihara, Albert L Rhoton
OBJECTIVE A common approach to lesions of the pineal region is along the midline below the torcula. However, reports of how shifting the approach off midline affects the surgical exposure and relationships between the tributaries of the vein of Galen are limited. The purpose of this study is to examine the microsurgical and endoscopic anatomy of the pineal region as seen through the supracerebellar infratentorial approaches, including midline, paramedian, lateral, and far-lateral routes. METHODS The quadrigeminal cisterns of 8 formalin-fixed adult cadaveric heads were dissected and examined with the aid of a surgical microscope and straight endoscope...
October 7, 2016: Journal of Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27709057/arthroscopic-iliac-crest-bone-grafting-to-the-anterior-glenoid
#10
Chad M Fortun, Ivan Wong, Joseph P Burns
Failed arthroscopic soft-tissue stabilization and anterior glenoid bone loss have been shown to have high failure rates after standard arthroscopic stabilization techniques. For patients with recurrent glenohumeral instability, the Bristow-Latarjet procedure is currently the standard of care. It is predominantly performed through an open deltopectoral approach but has recently been described arthroscopically. Although providing excellent clinical outcomes, the Bristow-Latarjet procedure violates the subscapularis muscle, has a steep learning curve with a high complication rate, and permanently changes the anterior shoulder anatomy, making any future revision surgery more challenging...
August 2016: Arthroscopy Techniques
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27704043/depth-resolved-mid-infrared-photothermal-imaging-of-living-cells-and-organisms-with-submicrometer-spatial-resolution
#11
Delong Zhang, Chen Li, Chi Zhang, Mikhail N Slipchenko, Gregory Eakins, Ji-Xin Cheng
Chemical contrast has long been sought for label-free visualization of biomolecules and materials in complex living systems. Although infrared spectroscopic imaging has come a long way in this direction, it is thus far only applicable to dried tissues because of the strong infrared absorption by water. It also suffers from low spatial resolution due to long wavelengths and lacks optical sectioning capabilities. We overcome these limitations through sensing vibrational absorption-induced photothermal effect by a visible laser beam...
September 2016: Science Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27698042/reaction-diffusion-basis-of-retroviral-infectivity
#12
S Kashif Sadiq
Retrovirus particle (virion) infectivity requires diffusion and clustering of multiple transmembrane envelope proteins (Env3) on the virion exterior, yet is triggered by protease-dependent degradation of a partially occluding, membrane-bound Gag polyprotein lattice on the virion interior. The physical mechanism underlying such coupling is unclear and only indirectly accessible via experiment. Modelling stands to provide insight but the required spatio-temporal range far exceeds current accessibility by all-atom or even coarse-grained molecular dynamics simulations...
November 13, 2016: Philosophical Transactions. Series A, Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27697612/exploring-sex-differences-in-the-adult-zebra-finch-brain-in-vivo-diffusion-tensor-imaging-and-ex-vivo-super-resolution-track-density-imaging
#13
Julie Hamaide, Geert De Groof, Gwendolyn Van Steenkiste, Ben Jeurissen, Johan Van Audekerke, Maarten Naeyaert, Lisbeth Van Ruijssevelt, Charlotte Cornil, Jan Sijbers, Marleen Verhoye, Annemie Van der Linden
Zebra finches are an excellent model to study the process of vocal learning, a complex socially-learned tool of communication that forms the basis of spoken human language. So far, structural investigation of the zebra finch brain has been performed ex vivo using invasive methods such as histology. These methods are highly specific, however, they strongly interfere with performing whole-brain analyses and exclude longitudinal studies aimed at establishing causal correlations between neuroplastic events and specific behavioral performances...
September 30, 2016: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27687257/topoisomerases-resistance-versus-sensitivity-how-far-we-can-go
#14
Sandhya Bansal, Priyanka Bajaj, Stuti Pandey, Vibha Tandon
DNA topoisomerases are ubiquitously present remarkable molecular machines that help in altering topology of DNA in living cells. The crucial role played by these nucleases during DNA replication, transcription, and recombination vis-à-vis less sequence similarity among different species makes topoisomerases unique and attractive targets for different anticancer and antibacterial drugs. However, druggability of topoisomerases by the existing class of molecules is increasingly becoming questationable due to resistance development predominated by mutations in the corresponding genes...
September 30, 2016: Medicinal Research Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27683697/far-lateral-microdiscectomy-a-minimally-invasive-surgical-technique-for-the-treatment-of-far-lateral-lumbar-disc-herniation
#15
Kevin Phan, Alexander E Dunn, Prashanth J Rao, Ralph J Mobbs
Lumbar disc herniation arises when the annulus fibrosus of the vertebral disc fails, thus allowing displacement of the nucleus pulposus and other tissue. The term far lateral is used variably in the literature and usually refers to an extraforaminal displacement in the peridiscal zone peripheral to the sagittal plane of the most lateral part of the pedicle at the same level. Non-surgical treatments of far lateral disc herniation include physical therapy, anti-inflammatory medication, and corticosteroid injections...
March 2016: Journal of Spine Surgery (Hong Kong)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27683691/surgical-treatment-of-far-lateral-lumbar-disc-herniation-a-safe-and-simple-approach
#16
REVIEW
Darweesh O Al-Khawaja, Tamadur Mahasneh, Jonathan C Li
Lumbar discectomy is one of the most commonly performed neurosurgical procedure. Far lateral disc herniations (FLDH) make up a minor portion of the total discectomy workload for spine surgeons. Due to their lower incidence, as well as their different anatomical positioning compared to the more common para-median disc herniation, the surgical procedures involved in releasing the neural compression caused by FLDHs are often challenging and at times frustrating to most spine surgeons, resulting in suboptimal outcomes for the patient related to the higher risk of spinal instability from facet joint disruption and may even be associated with nerve root injury...
March 2016: Journal of Spine Surgery (Hong Kong)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27679694/depth-of-pleural-effusion-in-thoracentesis-comparison-of-lateral-posterolateral-and-posterior-approaches-in-the-supine-position
#17
Jeong Min Ko, Jisoon Kim, Soo-An Park, Kwang Nam Jin, Myeong Im Ahn, Seok-Chan Kim, Dae Hee Han
BACKGROUND: In patients who have difficulty sitting, thoracentesis is attempted in a supine position via lateral approach. Recently, a new table has been designed for supine thoracentesis. This table has gaps that allow access to the posterolateral and posterior hemithorax. OBJECTIVES: To compare important safety-related parameters between lateral, posterolateral, and posterior approaches in supine thoracentesis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: First, two cadavers were placed supine on a table featuring gaps allowing access to the posterolateral and posterior hemithorax...
April 2016: Iranian Journal of Radiology: a Quarterly Journal Published By the Iranian Radiological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27642889/sy-05-2-progression-of-hypertensive-heart-disease-new-therapeutic-approach
#18
Masatsugu Horiuchi
Hypertensive patients have greater chances of such cardiovascular events as stroke, coronary heart disease, heart or renal failure, peripheral artery disease, and dementia. It is also well recognized that diabetes increases the cardiovascular risks in concert with hypertension. Therefore, main goals for an innovation of anti-hypertensive therapy would be to achieve further risk reduction by targeting the functional, metabolic, and structural alterations associated with hypertension. Professors Dzau and Braunwald et al proposed the concept of "the cardiovascular disease continuum" in 1991, and that hypertension may trigger the chain of events, leading to end-stage heart disease; however, this concept was quite new at that time, and there was some discussion whether "the cardiovascular disease continuum" is true or not...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27638693/using-stage-and-slit-scanning-to-improve-contrast-and-optical-sectioning-in-dual-view-inverted-light-sheet-microscopy-dispim
#19
Abhishek Kumar, Ryan Christensen, Min Guo, Panos Chandris, William Duncan, Yicong Wu, Anthony Santella, Mark Moyle, Peter W Winter, Daniel Colón-Ramos, Zhirong Bao, Hari Shroff
Dual-view inverted selective plane illumination microscopy (diSPIM) enables high-speed, long-term, four-dimensional (4D) imaging with isotropic spatial resolution. It is also compatible with conventional sample mounting on glass coverslips. However, broadening of the light sheet at distances far from the beam waist and sample-induced scattering degrades diSPIM contrast and optical sectioning. We describe two simple improvements that address both issues and entail no additional hardware modifications to the base diSPIM...
August 2016: Biological Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27627712/direct-tubular-lumbar-microdiscectomy-for-far-lateral-disc-herniation-a-modified-approach
#20
Timothy L T Siu, Kainu Lin
OBJECTIVE: The concept of minimally invasive tubular discectomy is based on precise placement of the retractor over the surgical target to minimize collateral tissue trauma. For far lateral disc herniation, the junction between the pars and the transverse process has generally been adopted as the target for facilitating early nerve root exposure; however, this may limit access to the disc space and increase the risks of iatrogenic neuralgia. An alternative approach to help address these issues involving docking the retractor caudally directly over the disc space with the aid of a microscope is here proposed...
August 2016: Orthopaedic Surgery
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