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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28619000/astrocytes-pathology-in-als-a-potential-therapeutic-target
#1
Sonja Johann
The mechanisms underlying neurodegeneration in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) are multifactorial and include genetic and environmental factors. Nowadays, it is well accepted that neuronal loss is driven by non-cell autonomous toxicity. Non-neuronal cells, such as astrocytes, have been described to significantly contribute to motoneuron cell death and disease progression in cell culture experiments and animal models of ALS. Astrocytes are essential for neuronal survival and function by regulating neurotransmitter and ion homeostasis, immune response, blood flow and glucose uptake, antioxidant defence and growth factor release...
June 15, 2017: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28618433/crestal-sinus-augmentation-with-recombinant-human-bone-morphogenetic-protein-2-clinical-and-radiographic-outcomes-of-2-year-pilot-trial
#2
Ulrike Kuchler, Claudia M Rudelstorfer, Barbara Barth, Gabor Tepper, Dominika Lidinsky, Patrick Heimel, Georg Watzek, Reinhard Gruber
PURPOSE: Recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein 2 (rhBMP-2) together with an absorbable collagen carrier (ACS) was approved for augmentation of the maxillary sinus prior to implant placement. The original registration trial was based on a lateral window approach. Clinical outcomes of crestal sinus augmentation with rhBMP-2 have not been reported so far. MATERIALS AND METHODS: An uncontrolled pilot trial in which seven patients with a residual maxillary height below 5 mm were enrolled to receive crestal sinus augmentation with rhBMP-2/ACS was conducted...
June 14, 2017: International Journal of Oral & Maxillofacial Implants
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611661/discovery-and-development-of-calcium-channel-blockers
#3
REVIEW
Théophile Godfraind
In the mid 1960s, experimental work on molecules under screening as coronary dilators allowed the discovery of the mechanism of calcium entry blockade by drugs later named calcium channel blockers. This paper summarizes scientific research on these small molecules interacting directly with L-type voltage-operated calcium channels. It also reports on experimental approaches translated into understanding of their therapeutic actions. The importance of calcium in muscle contraction was discovered by Sidney Ringer who reported this fact in 1883...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28586287/esophageal-penetration-of-the-magnetic-sphincter-augmentation-device-history-repeats-itself
#4
Renato Salvador, Mario Costantini, Giovanni Capovilla, Lino Polese, Stefano Merigliano
BACKGROUND: An alternative approach to the treatment of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) has recently been introduced in clinical practice, involving the implantation of a magnetic sphincter augmentation device (MSAD). This "magnetic ring" is implanted laparoscopically around the lower esophageal sphincter to improve its barrier function. The literature is still limited on the midterm results achieved in controlling reflux because the MSAD is a very new procedure. So far, only a few cases of the MSAD causing erosion of the esophagus have been reported...
June 6, 2017: Journal of Laparoendoscopic & Advanced Surgical Techniques. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28583231/utility-of-intraoperative-flexible-endoscopy-in-frontal-sinus-surgery
#5
Eric T Carniol, Alejandro Vázquez, Tapan D Patel, James K Liu, Jean Anderson Eloy
BACKGROUND: Surgical management of the frontal sinus can be challenging. Extensive frontal sinus pneumatization may form a far lateral or supraorbital recess that can be difficult to reach by conventional endoscopic surgical techniques, requiring extended approaches such as the Draf III (or endoscopic modified Lothrop) procedure. Rigid endoscopes may not allow visualization of these lateral limits to ensure full evacuation of the disease process. METHODS: Here we describe the utility of intraoperative flexible endoscopy in two patients with far lateral frontal sinus disease...
June 1, 2017: Allergy & Rhinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28573516/-persistent-organic-contaminants-in-food-exposure-hazard-potential-and-health-assessment
#6
REVIEW
Ulrike Pabel, Thorsten Buhrke, Klaus Abraham, Thilo Nölke, Matthias Gehling, Alfonso Lampen, Monika Lahrssen-Wiederholt, Reiner Wittkowski
Environmental emissions of organic contaminants are caused by man-made and natural combustion processes, industrial production facilities, and the release from products. Food represents the main source of human exposure for some of these compounds. This is the case for three groups of persistent organic contaminants: (1) per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS), (2) polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and for (3) polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs)...
June 1, 2017: Bundesgesundheitsblatt, Gesundheitsforschung, Gesundheitsschutz
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28569184/large-schwannoma-of-the-femur-a-common-tumor-at-an-unusual-site-a-case-report-and-review-of-the-literature
#7
Niranthi Perera, Chandu de Silva, Vasantha Perera
BACKGROUND: Schwannomas are benign nerve sheath tumors and are most frequently encountered as soft tissue tumors of peripheral nerves of the head and neck or the extensor extremities. Osseous involvement is very uncommon with fewer than 200 cases described in the world literature, the majority of which arise in the skull (including mandible), vertebrae, and sacrum. Long bone involvement is highly unusual and of the approximately 20 cases described thus far, only five have been documented to arise in the femur...
May 31, 2017: Journal of Medical Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538069/normocephalic-pancraniosynostosis-a-report-of-a-surgical-technique
#8
Marcin Czerwinski, Sharon Monsivais
Normocephalic pancraniosynostosis is defined as the premature fusion of 3 or, more major sutures in the absence of another primary etiology, including primary, microcephaly, ventriculoperitoneal shunting, hypothyroidism, rickets, mucopolysaccharidoses, or other lysosomal storage diseases. It is very rare, thus far only 6 patients have been reported in the literature. Patients tend to present much later than those with single sutural, synostoses, and up to half have evidence of elevated intracranial pressure...
May 19, 2017: Journal of Craniofacial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521360/exposure-of-the-external-carotid-artery-through-the-posterior-triangle-of-the-neck-a-novel-approach-to-facilitate-bypass-procedures-to-the-posterior-cerebral-circulation
#9
Ali Tayebi Meybodi, Michael T Lawton, Pooneh Mokhtari, Olivia Kola, Ivan H El-Sayed, Arnau Benet
BACKGROUND: The external carotid artery (ECA) is the main high-flow donor for extracranial-intracranial revascularization procedures. However, anatomic restraints limit the availability of ECA in posterior exposures of the craniocervical junction aimed for bypass to distal vertebral artery segments. OBJECTIVE: To examine the feasibility and safety of exposure of the ECA through the posterior triangle of the neck. METHODS: A preliminary feasibility study on the posterior neck exposure of the ECA was performed in 1 cadaveric head (2 sides) followed by a morphometric study on 9 cadaveric heads (18 sides)...
June 1, 2017: Operative Neurosurgery (Hagerstown, Md.)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521347/sequential-extradural-release-of-the-v3-vertebral-artery-to-facilitate-intradural-v4-vertebral-artery-reanastomosis-feasibility-of-a-novel-revascularization-technique
#10
Ali Tayebi Meybodi, Michael T Lawton, Arnau Benet
BACKGROUND: Revascularization of the intradural vertebral artery (VA) usually involves V3-V4 bypass using an interposition graft. The interposition of a graft increases surgical time, adds risks, and requires 2 suture lines. OBJECTIVE: To assess the feasibility of an excision-reanastomosis of V4 by sequentially releasing V3. METHODS: Twenty specimens were prepared for surgical simulation of a far-lateral approach. The third and fourth segments of the VA were exposed through the far-lateral approach bilaterally...
June 1, 2017: Operative Neurosurgery (Hagerstown, Md.)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28516212/anatomical-visualization-of-neural-course-and-distribution-of-anterior-ascending-aortic-plexus
#11
Tomokazu Kawashima, Fumi Sato
The aim of this study was to document the detailed anatomy of neural course and distribution on the anterior ascending aorta, to identify the high and low density areas of the anterior ascending aortic plexus for further understandings in cardiovascular surgery. The embalmed hearts of 42 elderly individuals were submacroscopically and microscopically examined, after excluding any that were macroscopically abnormal. With its origins in the anterior ascending aortic plexus, the right coronary plexus substantially innervated the right coronary artery, the right atrium and ventricle, and the sinus node...
May 17, 2017: Heart and Vessels
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28512043/endoscopic-assisted-supraorbital-keyhole-approach-or-endoscopic-endonasal-approach-in-case-of-tuberculum-sellae-meningioma-which-surgical-route-should-be-favoured
#12
Stefan Linsler, Gerrit Fischer, Volodymyr Skliarenko, Axel Stadie, Joachim Oertel
OBJECTIVE: Keyhole approaches are currently under investigation for skull base tumor surgery. They are expected to have a low complication rate with the same successful resection rate compared to endoscopic endonasal procedures. In this study, the authors compare their current series of tuberculum sellae meningiomas resected via an endoscopic endonasal or microsurgical supraorbital keyhole approach. METHODS: Between 2011 and 2016, 16 patients were treated using the supraorbital keyhole procedure and 6 patients received an endoscopic endonasal procedure...
May 13, 2017: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28508158/how-i-do-it-surgical-ligation-of-craniocervical-junction-dural-av-fistulas
#13
Thomas J Sorenson, Biagia La Pira, Joshua Hughes, Giuseppe Lanzino
BACKGROUND: Dural arteriovenous fistulas (DAVFs) of the craniocervical junction are uncommon vascular lesions, which often require surgical treatment even in the endovascular era. METHODS: Most commonly, the fistula is placed laterally, and surgical ligation is performed through a lateral suboccipital craniotomy. After dural opening, the area is inspected, and the arterialized vein is identified emerging from the dura, often adjacent to the entry point of the vertebral artery, and ligated...
May 15, 2017: Acta Neurochirurgica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28463239/subcortical-brain-structure-and-suicidal-behaviour-in-major-depressive-disorder-a-meta-analysis-from-the-enigma-mdd-working-group
#14
M E Rentería, L Schmaal, D P Hibar, B Couvy-Duchesne, L T Strike, N T Mills, G I de Zubicaray, K L McMahon, S E Medland, N A Gillespie, S N Hatton, J Lagopoulos, D J Veltman, N van der Wee, T G M van Erp, K Wittfeld, H J Grabe, A Block, K Hegenscheid, H Völzke, I M Veer, H Walter, K Schnell, E Schramm, C Normann, D Schoepf, C Konrad, B Zurowski, B R Godlewska, P J Cowen, B W J H Penninx, N Jahanshad, P M Thompson, M J Wright, N G Martin, H Christensen, I B Hickie
The aetiology of suicidal behaviour is complex, and knowledge about its neurobiological mechanisms is limited. Neuroimaging methods provide a noninvasive approach to explore the neural correlates of suicide vulnerability in vivo. The ENIGMA-MDD Working Group is an international collaboration evaluating neuroimaging and clinical data from thousands of individuals collected by research groups from around the world. Here we present analyses in a subset sample (n=3097) for whom suicidality data were available. Prevalence of suicidal symptoms among major depressive disorder (MDD) cases ranged between 29 and 69% across cohorts...
May 2, 2017: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28458950/carotid-cavernous-fistula-after-percutaneous-balloon-compression-for-trigeminal-neuralgia-endovascular-treatment-with-coils
#15
Luana A M Gatto, Rafaella Tacla, Gelson L Koppe, Zeferino Demartini Junior
BACKGROUND: Percutaneous ganglyolysis treatment of trigeminal neuralgia is rarely associated with vascular complications, such as hematoma, subarachnoid hemorrhage, and stroke. Internal carotid artery injury may also occur after misguided needle placement, particularly far posteriorly or medially, resulting in carotid cavernous fistula. Anatomical variations of the foramen ovale can predispose those complications. CASE DESCRIPTION: A young woman diagnosed with trigeminal neuralgia during 11 years was submitted to a balloon rhizotomy by percutaneous approach to the trigeminal ganglion, with severe intraoperative bleeding...
2017: Surgical Neurology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28454192/-religious-spiritual-needs-and-psychosocial-burden-of-melanoma-patients
#16
Annette Haußmann, Norbert Schäffeler, Martin Hautzinger, Birgit Weyel, Thomas Eigentler, Stephan Zipfel, Martin Teufel
Questions of meaning and purpose in life are becoming relevant during cancer. Studies have shown that most patients have spiritual needs and that religion/spirituality can be an important ressource in coping with illness. So far, only few studies examine the psychosocial burden and the role of spiritual needs during the treatment process of patients with malignant melanoma. 22 patients were included in this study and assessed for psychosocial distress and spiritual needs while being screened for cancer metastases (t1) and 8 weeks later (t2)...
April 28, 2017: Psychotherapie, Psychosomatik, Medizinische Psychologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28452613/fully-endoscopic-combined-transsphenoidal-and-supraorbital-keyhole-approach-for-parasellar-lesions
#17
Yuichi Nagata, Tadashi Watanabe, Tetsuya Nagatani, Kazuhito Takeuchi, Jonsu Chu, Toshihiko Wakabayashi
OBJECTIVE Parasellar tumors that extend far laterally beyond the internal carotid artery or that are fibrous and adhere firmly to critical structures are difficult to remove totally via the endoscopic transsphenoidal approach alone. In such cases, a combined transsphenoidal-transcranial approach is effective to achieve maximal resection in a single stage. In this paper, a new minimally invasive surgical technique for complicated parasellar lesions, a fully endoscopic combined transsphenoidal-supraorbital keyhole approach, is presented...
April 28, 2017: Journal of Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431568/a-case-report-of-severe-calciphylaxis-suggested-approach-for-diagnosis-and-treatment
#18
Margret Patecki, Gabriele Lehmann, Jan Hinrich Bräsen, Jessica Schmitz, Anna Bertram, Lars Daniel Berthold, Hermann Haller, Wilfried Gwinner
BACKGROUND: Calciphylaxis is a serious complication in patients with chronic kidney disease associated mineral and bone disorder. It can occur in conditions with low and high bone turnover. So far, there are no definite diagnostic and therapeutic guidelines which may prevent the devastating outcome in many calciphylaxis patients. We report a case which clearly illustrates that knowledge of the underlying bone disorder is essential for a directed treatment. Based on this experience we discuss a systematic diagnostic and therapeutic approach in patients with calciphylaxis...
April 21, 2017: BMC Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28415331/transition-radiation-at-the-boundary-of-a-chiral-isotropic-medium
#19
Sergey N Galyamin, Andrey V Tyukhtin, Anton A Peshkov
This study analyzes the radiation produced by a point charge intersecting the interface between a vacuum and a chiral isotropic medium. We deduce analytical expressions for the Fourier components of an electromagnetic field in both vacuum and medium for arbitrary charge velocity. The main focus is on investigating the far field in a vacuum. The distinguishing feature of the interface with a chiral isotropic medium is that the field in the vacuum area contains both copolarization (coinciding with the polarization of the self-field of a charge) and cross-polarization (orthogonal to the polarization of the self-field)...
March 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28402528/macrovascular-decompression-of-the-brainstem-and-cranial-nerves-evolution-of-an-anteromedial-vertebrobasilar-artery-transposition-technique
#20
Omar Choudhri, Ian D Connolly, Michael T Lawton
BACKGROUND: Tortuous and dolichoectatic vertebrobasilar arteries can impinge on the brainstem and cranial nerves to cause compression syndromes. Transposition techniques are often required to decompress the brainstem with dolichoectatic pathology. We describe our evolution of an anteromedial transposition technique and its efficacy in decompressing the brainstem and relieving symptoms. OBJECTIVE: To present the anteromedial vertebrobasilar artery transposition technique for macrovascular decompression of the brainstem and cranial nerves...
April 11, 2017: Neurosurgery
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