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Amanda L A Mohr, Melissa Friscia, Donna Papsun, Sherri L Kacinko, David Buzby, Barry K Logan
Following series of synthetic cannabinoid and synthetic cathinone derivatives, the illicit drug market has begun to see increased incidence of synthetic opioids including fentanyl and its derivatives, and other chemically unrelated opioid agonists including AH-7921 and MT-45. Among the most frequently encountered compounds in postmortem casework have been furanyl fentanyl (N-(1-(2-phenylethyl)-4-piperidinyl)-N-phenylfuran-2-carboxamide, Fu-F) and U-47700 (trans-3,4-dichloro-N-(2-(dimethylamino)cyclohexyl)-N-methylbenzamide)...
September 1, 2016: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
Aaron Schneir, Imir G Metushi, Christian Sloane, David J Benaron, Robert L Fitzgerald
BACKGROUND: In the last decade there has been a worldwide surge in the recreational abuse of novel psychoactive substances, particularly amphetamine derivatives and synthetic cannabinoids. Synthetic opioids such as AH-7921, MT-45, and U-47700, with structures distinct from those ever used therapeutically or described recreationally, have also recently emerged. CASE DETAILS: We report a patient who suffered respiratory failure and depressed level of consciousness after recreationally using a novel synthetic opioid labeled U-47700...
July 22, 2016: Clinical Toxicology
(no author information available yet)
With the issuance of this final order, the Administrator of the Drug Enforcement Administration places the substance AH-7921 (Systematic IUPAC Name: 3,4-dichloro-N-[(1dimethylamino)cyclohexylmethyl]benzamide), including its isomers, esters, ethers, salts, and salts of isomers, esters and ethers, into schedule I of the Controlled Substances Act. This scheduling action is pursuant to the Controlled Substances Act and is required in order for the United States to discharge its obligations under the Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs, 1961...
April 14, 2016: Federal Register
Ariane Wohlfarth, Karl B Scheidweiler, Shaokun Pang, Mingshe Zhu, Marisol Castaneto, Robert Kronstrand, Marilyn A Huestis
AH-7921 (3,4-dichloro-N-[(1-dimethylamino)cyclohexylmethyl]benzamide) is a new synthetic opioid and has led to multiple non-fatal and fatal intoxications. To comprehensively study AH-7921 metabolism, we assessed human liver microsome (HLM) metabolic stability, determined AH-7921's metabolic profile after human hepatocytes incubation, confirmed our findings in a urine case specimen, and compared results to in silico predictions. For metabolic stability, 1 µmol/L AH-7921 was incubated with HLM for up to 1 h; for metabolite profiling, 10 µmol/L was incubated with pooled human hepatocytes for up to 3 h...
August 2016: Drug Testing and Analysis
Maria Katselou, Ioannis Papoutsis, Panagiota Nikolaou, Chara Spiliopoulou, Sotiris Athanaselis
AH-7921 is a structurally unique synthetic opioid analgesic that has recently entered the drug arena in Europe, the USA, and Japan. Although it was synthesized and patented in the mid-1970s, it was first identified in a seized sample purchased via the Internet in July 2012 and formally brought to the attention of the European Union early warning system in August 2012 by the United Kingdom. Several in vitro experiments and animal model studies established the morphine-like analgesic action of AH-7921 as a μ-opioid receptor agonist that has been found to be several times more potent than codeine and at least as potent as morphine...
2015: Forensic Toxicology
Anders Ledberg
BACKGROUND: In recent years the recreational use of new psychoactive substances (NPS) has increased. NPS are considered a threat to public health and the main response to this threat is to make the selling and buying of these substances illegal. In Sweden, during the last 5 years, 62 new substances have been classified as narcotics but little is known of the effects of making a particular substance illegal. The aim of this work is to study how legal status influences the interest in NPS in Sweden...
July 1, 2015: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
R Kronstrand, G Thelander, D Lindstedt, M Roman, F C Kugelberg
AH-7921 (3,4-dichloro-N-[(1-dimethylamino)cyclohexylmethyl]benzamide) is a designer opioid with ∼80% of morphine's µ-agonist activity. Over a 6-month period, we encountered nine deaths where AH-7921 was involved and detected in blood from the deceased. Shortly after the last death, on August 1 2013, AH-7921 was scheduled as a narcotic and largely disappeared from the illicit market in Sweden. AH-7921 was measured by a selective liquid chromatography-MS-MS method and the concentrations of AH-7921 ranged from 0...
October 2014: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
Ritva Karinen, Silja Skogstad Tuv, Sidsel Rogde, Mariana Dadalto Peres, Unni Johansen, Joachim Frost, Vigdis Vindenes, Åse Marit Leere Øiestad
AH-7921 is a synthetic μ-opioid agonist, approximately equipotent with morphine. We report the death of two young individuals after ingestion of AH-7921 in combination with other psychoactive drugs. In the first case a young man died shortly after ingesting Internet drugs. Toxicological analysis of post mortem peripheral blood revealed AH-7921 (0.43 mg/L), 2-FMA (0.0069 mg/L) and 3-MMC (0.0021 mg/L) as well as codeine (0.42 mg/L), codeine-6-glucuronide (0.77 mg/L) and acetaminophen (18.7 mg/L). The second case involved a young female found dead at home...
November 2014: Forensic Science International
Ruri Kikura-Hanajiri, Nahoko Uchiyama Maiko Kawamura, Yukihiro Goda
To counter the spread of the many analogues of psychoactive substances, the Pharmaceutical Affairs Law in Japan was amended in 2006 to establish a new category - Designated Substances - in order to more promptly control these drugs. As of March 2013, 106 substances (including one plant, Salvia divinorum) were listed in the category of Designated Substances, and 13 of them had had their category changed from Designated Substances into the much stricter category, Narcotics. However, new analogues of controlled substances, especially synthetic cannabinoids, appeared one-by-one since the new category was introduced...
July 2014: Drug Testing and Analysis
Yan Ni Annie Soh, Simon Elliott
The evolving nature of new psychoactive substances (NPS) - often referred to as 'legal highs', 'designer drugs' or 'bath salts' - presents an evolving challenge for toxicologists. Apart from the detection and identification of these compounds, further analytical challenges may arise from the presence of possible metabolites or degradation products which may have to be considered when devising an analytical strategy. Whilst there has been some stability research for some more established drugs of abuse and medicinal products, data on emerging NPS are less abundant...
July 2014: Drug Testing and Analysis
Shawn P Vorce, Jessica L Knittel, Justin M Holler, Joseph Magluilo, Barry Levine, Philip Berran, Thomas Z Bosy
A case is presented of a 19-year-old white male who was found dead in bed by a friend. While no anatomic cause of death was observed at autopsy, toxicological analysis of his blood identified AH-7921, a synthetic opioid. AH-7921 was isolated by liquid-liquid extraction into n-butyl chloride from alkalinized samples. Extracts were analyzed and quantified by gas chromatography mass spectrometry in selected ion monitoring mode. The heart blood had an AH-7921 concentration of 3.9 mg/L and the peripheral blood concentration was 9...
May 2014: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
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