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Environmental medicine

Nina Holland
Environmental research and public health in the 21st century face serious challenges such as increased air pollution and global warming, widespread use of potentially harmful chemicals including pesticides, plasticizers, and other endocrine disruptors, and radical changes in nutrition and lifestyle typical of modern societies. In particular, exposure to environmental and occupational toxicants may contribute to the occurrence of adverse birth outcomes, neurodevelopmental deficits, and increased risk of cancer and other multifactorial diseases such as diabetes and asthma...
October 21, 2016: Reviews on Environmental Health
J L Carneiro, I M Caldas, A Afonso, H F V Cardoso
INTRODUCTION: The impact of socioeconomic status (SES) on tooth mineralization has seldom been evaluated. This is important because SES can be used as a proxy for quantifying factors in the environmental that can impact mineralization but that can be difficult to measure directly, such as nutrition. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to examine the effects of SES on third molar mineralization, using a sample of children, adolescents and young adults from Porto, Portugal...
October 19, 2016: International Journal of Legal Medicine
Manuel Wohde, Silvia Berkner, Thomas Junker, Sabine Konradi, Lisa Schwarz, Rolf-Alexander Düring
The spread of veterinary medicinal products (VMPs) and biocides via manure onto agriculturally used areas represents a very important emission into the environment for these product groups. Within this literature study, publicly available transformation studies with liquid manure are summarized. Transformation studies were evaluated regarding the transformation fate of tested substances, the origin and characteristics of used manure, the experimental setup, and the measured parameters. As main topics within the 42 evaluated transformation studies, the high dependency of transformation on temperature, redox potential, dry matter content, and other parameters is reported...
2016: Environmental Sciences Europe
Feng-Li Wu, Guang Zhang, Ang Ren, Zhi-Hao Dang, Liang Shi, Ai-Liang Jiang, Ming-Wen Zhao
Ganoderma lucidum is a medicinal macrofungus that is widely used in traditional Chinese medicine. Nonetheless, the scarcity of basic biological studies of this organism has hindered the further development of its commercial value. The pH-responsive transcription factor PacC/Rim101 governs the adaptation to environmental pH, the development and the secondary metabolism of many fungi. In this study, a homologue of PacC/Rim101 that encodes GlPacC was identified in the higher basidiomycete G. lucidum GlPacC is composed of 807 amino acids and contains three typical C2H2 zinc-finger domains, two potential PEST domains, a putative PKA phosphorylation site, and a putative nuclear localization signal (NLS)...
October 19, 2016: Mycologia
Florence Thibaut
In the future, precision medicine will enable every clinician to tailor treatment and even prevention strategies to an individual's unique characteristics. In order to reach this goal, we need to collect and analyze many different types of data, from many different sources, including symptoms, genomics, and brain circuitry, as well as family dynamics, environmental exposures, and cultural background.
September 2016: Dialogues in Clinical Neuroscience
K S Rock, R J Quinnell, G F Medley, O Courtenay
The leishmaniases comprise a complex of diseases characterized by clinical outcomes that range from self-limiting to chronic, and disfiguring and stigmatizing to life threatening. Diagnostic methods, treatments, and vector and reservoir control options exist, but deciding the most effective interventions requires a quantitative understanding of the population level infection and disease dynamics. The effectiveness of any set of interventions has to be determined within the context of operational conditions, including economic and political commitment...
2016: Advances in Parasitology
Shinbum Kim, Sanghyuk Im, Youngeun Choi, Soomi Park, Jaesoon Hyun, Kyung Seok Lee, Sunimm Lee, Sung-Nan Lee, Jeongri Seo, Ju Hee Kim, Hyunsun Na, Minsun Kim
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2016: Environmental Health and Toxicology
Paulo Henrique Santos Gonçalves, Ulysses Paulino Albuquerque, Patrícia Muniz de Medeiros
An increasing number of studies have aimed to clarify the factors leading human groups to prioritize the use of some woody plant species compared to others. Some of these studies have tested the apparency hypothesis in aiming to understand this phenomenon. According to the apparency hypothesis, the most commonly available local plant species on a forest path are the most useful to that local human population. However, the sparse and diverse nature of the results from studies investigating the factors that influence human exploitation of plant resources motivated us to perform a meta-analysis on the apparency hypothesis...
October 2016: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
Volker M Lauschke, Magnus Ingelman-Sundberg
Responses to drugs and pharmacological treatments differ considerably between individuals. Importantly, only 50%-75% of patients have been shown to react adequately to pharmacological interventions, whereas the others experience either a lack of efficacy or suffer from adverse events. The liver is of central importance in the metabolism of most drugs. Because of this exposed status, hepatotoxicity is amongst the most common adverse drug reactions and hepatic liabilities are the most prevalent reason for the termination of development programs of novel drug candidates...
October 12, 2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Elisabeth Richter, Silvia Berkner, Ina Ebert, Bernhard Förster, Nadin Graf, Monika Herrchen, Ute Kühnen, Jörg Römbke, Markus Simon
BACKGROUND: Residues of veterinary medicinal products (VMPs) enter the environment via application of manure onto agricultural areas where in particular antibiotics can cause phytotoxicity. Terrestrial plant tests according to OECD guideline 208 are part of the environmental risk assessment of VMPs. However, this standard approach might not be appropriate for VMPs which form non-extractable residues or transformation products in manure and manure-amended soil. Therefore, a new test design with a more realistic exposure scenario via manure application is needed...
2016: Environmental Sciences Europe
Johannes Bircher, Eckhart G Hahn
This paper explores the diagnostic and therapeutic potential of a new concept of health. Investigations into the nature of health have led to a new definition that explains health as a complex adaptive system (CAS) and is based on five components (a-e). Humans like all biological creatures must satisfactorily respond to (a) the demands of life. For this purpose they need (b) a biologically given potential (BGP) and (c) a personally acquired potential (PAP). These properties of individuals are embedded within (d) social and (e) environmental determinants of health...
2016: F1000Research
Stefania Prendes-Alvarez, Charles B Nemeroff
Personalized or precision medicine is a medical discipline that proposes tailoring health care to each individual by integrating data from their genetic makeup, epigenetic modifications, other biomarkers, clinical symptoms and environmental exposures. Currently, patients typically present for treatment of mood disorders relatively late in the disease course and this is of great concern both because delay in attaining remission reduces the success of subsequent treatment and depressive episodes have negative cumulative effects on the brain and body...
October 13, 2016: Neuroscience Letters
M X Rodrigues, S F Lima, C H Higgins, S G Canniatti-Brazaca, R C Bicalho
The bacterium Lactococcus lactis is widely used in food production and in medical applications, and is considered safe for human and animal use. However, studies have also linked Lactococcus bacteria to infection. For example, certain variants of Lactococcus species have been associated with bovine mastitis (e.g., Lactococcus lactis and Lactococcus garvieae). In this study, we investigated an outbreak of bovine mastitis thought to be associated with Lactococcus bacteria by using microbiological and molecular techniques...
October 13, 2016: Journal of Dairy Science
Ambrose Hon-Wai Wong, Joan Combellick, Beth Ann Wispelwey, Allison Squires, Maureen Gang
OBJECTIVES: The emergency department (ED) has been recognized as a high-risk environment for workplace violence. Acutely agitated patients who perpetrate violence against healthcare workers represent a complex care challenge in the ED. Recommendations to improve safety are often based on expert opinion rather than empirical data. In this study we aim to describe the lived experience of staff members caring for this population in order to provide a broad perspective of ED patient violence...
October 15, 2016: Academic Emergency Medicine: Official Journal of the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine
Tsuyoshi Hamada, NaNa Keum, Reiko Nishihara, Shuji Ogino
Molecular pathological epidemiology (MPE) is an integrative field that utilizes molecular pathology to incorporate interpersonal heterogeneity of a disease process into epidemiology. In each individual, the development and progression of a disease are determined by a unique combination of exogenous and endogenous factors, resulting in different molecular and pathological subtypes of the disease. Based on "the unique disease principle," the primary aim of MPE is to uncover an interactive relationship between a specific environmental exposure and disease subtypes in determining disease incidence and mortality...
October 13, 2016: Journal of Gastroenterology
Melissa C Brouwers, Marija Vukmirovic, Jennifer R Tomasone, Eva Grunfeld, Robin Urquhart, Mary Ann O'Brien, Melanie Walker, Fiona Webster, Margaret Fitch
OBJECTIVE: To report on the findings of the CanIMPACT (Canadian Team to Improve Community-Based Cancer Care along the Continuum) Casebook project, which systematically documented Canadian initiatives (ie, programs and projects) designed to improve or support coordination and continuity of cancer care between primary care providers (PCPs) and oncology specialists. DESIGN: Pan-Canadian environmental scan. SETTING: Canada. PARTICIPANTS: Individuals representing the various initiatives provided data for the analysis...
October 2016: Canadian Family Physician Médecin de Famille Canadien
Youxin Wang, Siqi Ge, Yuxiang Yan, Anxin Wang, Zhongyao Zhao, Xinwei Yu, Jing Qiu, Mohamed Ali Alzain, Hao Wang, Honghong Fang, Qing Gao, Manshu Song, Jie Zhang, Yong Zhou, Wei Wang
BACKGROUND: Suboptimal health status (SHS) is a physical state between health and disease, characterized by the perception of health complaints, general weakness, chronic fatigue and low energy levels. SHS is proposed by the ancient concept of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) from the perspective of preservative, predictive and personalized (precision) medicine. We previously created the suboptimal health status questionnaire 25 (SHSQ-25), a novel instrument to measure SHS, validated in various populations...
October 13, 2016: Journal of Translational Medicine
Krupa M Parmar, Zubeen J Hathi, Nishant A Dafale
The spread of multidrug-resistant (MDR) bacteria is an emerging threat to the environment and public wellness. Inappropriate use and indiscriminate release of antibiotics in the environment through un-metabolized form create a scenario for the emergence of virulent pathogens and MDR bugs in the surroundings. Mechanisms underlying the spread of resistance include horizontal and vertical gene transfers causing the transmittance of MDR genes packed in different host, which pass across different food webs. Several controlling agents have been used for combating pathogens; however, the use of lytic bacteriophages proves to be one of the most eco-friendly due to their specificity, killing only target bacteria without damaging the indigenous beneficial flora of the habitat...
October 8, 2016: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology
Anthony W DeMartino, David F Zigler, Jon M Fukuto, Peter C Ford
The overview presented here has the goal of examining whether carbon disulfide (CS2) may play a role as an endogenously generated bioregulator and/or has therapeutic value. The neuro- and reproductive system toxicity of CS2 has been documented from its long-term use in the viscose rayon industry. CS2 is also used in the production of dithiocarbamates (DTCs), which are potent fungicides and pesticides, thus raising concern that CS2 may be an environmental toxin. However, DTCs also have recognized medicinal use in the treatment of heavy metal poisonings as well as having potency for reducing inflammation...
September 27, 2016: Chemical Society Reviews
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