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Environmental medicine

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29457138/leveraging-the-learning-health-care-model-to-improve-equity-in-the-age-of-genomic-medicine
#1
Katherine D Blizinsky, Vence L Bonham
To fully achieve the goals of a genomics-enabled learning health care system, purposeful efforts to understand and reduce health disparities and improve equity of care are essential. This paper highlights three major challenges facing genomics-enabled learning health care systems, as they pertain to ancestrally diverse populations: inequality in the utility of genomic medicine; lack of access to pharmacogenomics in clinical care; and inadequate incorporation of social and environmental data into the electronic health care record (EHR)...
January 2018: Learning Health Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29456866/guidelines-for-recognition-of-occupational-cancers-in-korea-the-results-of-scientific-review-by-korean-society-of-occupational-and-environmental-medicine-2013-2016
#2
EDITORIAL
Jaechul Song, Kuck-Hyun Woo, Yang Ho Kim
This thematic collection includes the articles to review eleven occupational cancer related risks or working conditions and to propose the guidelines of S. Korea.
2018: Annals of Occupational and Environmental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29456518/environmental-physiology-and-diving-medicine
#3
REVIEW
Gerardo Bosco, Alex Rizzato, Richard E Moon, Enrico M Camporesi
Man's experience and exploration of the underwater environment has been recorded from ancient times and today encompasses large sections of the population for sport enjoyment, recreational and commercial purpose, as well as military strategic goals. Knowledge, respect and maintenance of the underwater world is an essential development for our future and the knowledge acquired over the last few dozen years will change rapidly in the near future with plans to establish secure habitats with specific long-term goals of exploration, maintenance and survival...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452950/dynamic-fungal-cell-wall-architecture-in-stress-adaptation-and-immune-evasion
#4
REVIEW
Alex Hopke, Alistair J P Brown, Rebecca A Hall, Robert T Wheeler
Deadly infections from opportunistic fungi have risen in frequency, largely because of the at-risk immunocompromised population created by advances in modern medicine and the HIV/AIDS pandemic. This review focuses on dynamics of the fungal polysaccharide cell wall, which plays an outsized role in fungal pathogenesis and therapy because it acts as both an environmental barrier and as the major interface with the host immune system. Human fungal pathogens use architectural strategies to mask epitopes from the host and prevent immune surveillance, and recent work elucidates how biotic and abiotic stresses present during infection can either block or enhance masking...
February 13, 2018: Trends in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29449443/sex-differences-in-ischemic-heart-disease-advances-obstacles-and-next-steps
#5
Niti R Aggarwal, Hena N Patel, Laxmi S Mehta, Rupa M Sanghani, Gina P Lundberg, Sandra J Lewis, Marla A Mendelson, Malissa J Wood, Annabelle S Volgman, Jennifer H Mieres
Evolving knowledge of sex-specific presentations, improved recognition of conventional and novel risk factors, and expanded understanding of the sex-specific pathophysiology of ischemic heart disease have resulted in improved clinical outcomes in women. Yet, ischemic heart disease continues to be the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in women in the United States. The important publication by the Institute of Medicine titled "Women's Health Research-Progress, Pitfalls, and Promise," highlights the persistent disparities in cardiovascular disease burden among subgroups of women, particularly women who are socially disadvantaged because of race, ethnicity, income level, and educational attainment...
February 2018: Circulation. Cardiovascular Quality and Outcomes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29448655/a-facile-photoluminescent-probe-for-picric-acid-detection-using-carbon-nanodots-prepared-by-sichuan-bergamot
#6
Xiang Deng, Xiaomei Huang
A facile photoluminescent probe for picric acid (PA) detection was developed using photoluminescent carbon nanodots (C-dots), which was obtained from a traditional Chinese medicinal material Sichuan Bergamot via a one-step hydrothermal method for the first time. The as-prepared photoluminescent C-dots show favorable blue color photoluminescence with the maximum emission at 440 nm. It has been successfully applied as a photoluminescent probe for the detection of PA. This photoluminescent probe exhibits excellent sensitivity and selectivity toward PA from 0...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29447950/ethnobotanical-and-ethnomedicinal-studies-in-baluchi-tribes-a-case-study-in-mt-taftan-southeastern-iran
#7
Tahereh Maleki, Hossein Akhani
ETHNOBOTANICAL RELEVANCE: From ancient times, the applied use of herbs has been common among indigenous people throughout the world. The present survey is a regional ethnobotanical study of Baluchi tribes living in the Mt. Taftan area, Sistan and Baluchistan Province, southeastern Iran. The aim of this study was to document all traditional knowledge and analyze the medicinal plants used in area and also to identify significant plant species for future pharmacological study. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Local knowledge was obtained through semi structured and open interviews, in which 51 informants were interviewed...
February 12, 2018: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29447399/the-relationship-between-soldier-performance-on-the-two-mile-run-and-the-20-m-shuttle-run-test
#8
Maria C Canino, Bruce S Cohen, Jan E Redmond, Marilyn A Sharp, Edward J Zambraski, Stephen A Foulis
Background: The 20-m shuttle run test (MSRT) is a common field test used to measure aerobic fitness in controlled environments. The U.S. Army currently assesses aerobic fitness with the two-mile run (TMR), but external factors may impact test performance. The aim of this study is to examine the relationship between the Army Physical Fitness Test TMR performance and the MSRT in military personnel. Methods: A group of 531 (403 males and 128 females) active duty soldiers (age: 24...
February 13, 2018: Military Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29446222/engineering-controls-in-veterinary-oncology-a-survey-of-148-acvim-board-certified-oncologists-and-environmental-surveillance-in-20-specialty-hospitals
#9
K Alexander, N Northrup, D Clarke, H Lindell, T Laver
Engineering controls (EC, facility and equipment barriers between hazards and people) are used to avoid exposure to chemotherapy drugs. In this study, American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine board-certified veterinary oncologists were surveyed about their use of containment primary EC (C-PEC) and supplemental EC (closed system transfer devices, CSTD). The survey was completed by 148 (38%) of practicing diplomates. All used EC. Both C-PEC and CSTD were used at 92% of hospitals; however, US Pharmacopoeial Convention Chapter <800> (USP <800>) standards were met at only 19% of hospitals and oncologists did not know the type of C-PEC at 18% of hospitals...
February 15, 2018: Veterinary and Comparative Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29439264/innate-immunity-of-the-lung-from-basic-mechanisms-to-translational-medicine
#10
Dominik Hartl, Rabindra Tirouvanziam, Julie Laval, Catherine M Greene, David Habiel, Lokesh Sharma, Ali Önder Yildirim, Charles S Dela Cruz, Cory M Hogaboam
The respiratory tract is faced daily with 10,000 L of inhaled air. While the majority of air contains harmless environmental components, the pulmonary immune system also has to cope with harmful microbial or sterile threats and react rapidly to protect the host at this intimate barrier zone. The airways are endowed with a broad armamentarium of cellular and humoral host defense mechanisms, most of which belong to the innate arm of the immune system. The complex interplay between resident and infiltrating immune cells and secreted innate immune proteins shapes the outcome of host-pathogen, host-allergen, and host-particle interactions within the mucosal airway compartment...
February 13, 2018: Journal of Innate Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29436758/perception-of-dental-students-on-risk-factors-of-musculoskeletal-disorders
#11
A C Botta, C D Presoto, D Wajngarten, J A D B Campos, P P N S Garcia
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the validity and reliability of the Job Factors Questionnaire, and the influence of gender, academic level and pain/discomfort on dental students' perception regarding risk factors of musculoskeletal disorders. METHODS: One hundred forty-five dental students from Stony Brook School of Dental Medicine participated voluntarily in this study. The survey was organised in two sections: (i) Job Factors Questionnaire with 15 items that evaluated students' perceptions about job/study environmental risk factors and their potential contribution to musculoskeletal disorders...
February 13, 2018: European Journal of Dental Education: Official Journal of the Association for Dental Education in Europe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29436253/promoting-activity-independence-and-stability-in-early-dementia-and-mild-cognitive-impairment-praised-development-of-an-intervention-for-people-with-mild-cognitive-impairment-and-dementia
#12
Vicky Booth, Rowan H Harwood, Victoria Hood-Moore, Trevor Bramley, Jennie E Hancox, Kate Robertson, Judith Hall, Veronika Van Der Wardt, Pip A Logan
This series of articles for rehabilitation in practice aims to cover a knowledge element of the rehabilitation medicine curriculum. Nevertheless, they are intended to be of interest to a multidisciplinary audience. The competency addressed in this article is an understanding of how to develop an intervention for people with mild cognitive impairment and dementia to promote their independence, stability, and physical activity. INTRODUCTION: Older adults with dementia are at a high risk of falls...
February 1, 2018: Clinical Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29433083/inhibition-of-phospholipases-influences-the-metabolism-of-wound-induced-benzylisoquinoline-alkaloids-in-papaver-somniferum-l
#13
Veronika Jablonická, Jörg Ziegler, Zuzana Vatehová, Desana Lišková, Ingo Heilmann, Marek Obložinský, Mareike Heilmann
Benzylisoquinoline alkaloids (BIAs) are important secondary plant metabolites and include medicinally relevant drugs, such as morphine or codeine. As the de novo synthesis of BIA backbones is (still) unfeasible, to date the opium poppy plant Papaver somniferum L. represents the main source of BIAs. The formation of BIAs is induced in poppy plants by stress conditions, such as wounding or salt treatment; however, the details about regulatory processes controlling BIA formation in opium poppy are not well studied...
January 31, 2018: Journal of Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29433051/exploring-optimal-supplement-strategy-of-medicinal-herbs-and-tea-extracts-for-bioelectricity-generation-in-microbial-fuel-cells
#14
Bor-Yann Chen, Jia-Hui Liao, An-Wei Hsu, Po-Wei Tsai, Chung-Chuan Hsueh
This first-attempt study used extracts of appropriate antioxidant abundant Camellia and non-Camellia tea and medicinal herbs as model ESs to stably intensify bioelectricity generation performance in microbial fuel cells (MFCs). As electron shuttles (ESs) could stimulate electron transport phenomena by significant reduction of electron transfer resistance, the efficiency of power generation for energy extraction in microbial fuel cells (MFCs) could be appreciably augmented. Using environmentally friendly natural bioresource as green bioresource of ESs is the most promising to sustainable practicability...
February 2, 2018: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29429640/neurotoxicity-of-manganese-indications-for-future-research-and-public-health-intervention-from-the-manganese-2016-conference
#15
EDITORIAL
Roberto G Lucchini, Michael Aschner, Philip J Landrigan, Joan M Cranmer
Manganese is an essential trace element, but also at high levels a neurotoxicant. Manganese neurotoxicity has been extensively studied since its discovery in highly exposed workers. The International conference MANGANESE2016 held at the Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai in New York provided relevant updates on manganese research in relation to both occupational and environmental exposures. Epidemiological, toxicological and cellular studies reported at the conference have yielded new insights on mechanisms of manganese toxicity and on opportunities for preventive intervention...
January 2018: Neurotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29428644/sers-study-of-riboflavin-on-green-synthesized-silver-nanoparticles-prepared-by-reduction-using-different-flavonoids-what-is-the-role-of-flavonoid-used
#16
Marie Švecová, Pavel Ulbrich, Marcela Dendisová, Pavel Matějka
Spectroscopy of surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) is nowadays widely used in the field of bio-science and medicine. These applications require new enhancing substrates with special properties. They should be non-toxic, environmentally friendly and (bio-) compatible with examined samples. Flavonoids are natural antioxidants with many positive effects on human health. Simultaneously, they can be used as reducing agent in preparation procedure of plasmonic enhancing substrate for SERS spectroscopy. The best amplifiers of Raman vibrational spectroscopic signal are generally silver nanoparticles (AgNPs)...
February 2, 2018: Spectrochimica Acta. Part A, Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29428440/melatonin-a-cutaneous-perspective-on-its-production-metabolism-and-functions
#17
REVIEW
Andrzej T Slominski, Ruediger Hardeland, Michal A Zmijewski, Radomir M Slominski, Russel J Reiter, Ralf Paus
Melatonin, an evolutionarily ancient derivative of serotonin with hormonal properties, is the main neuroendocrine secretory product of the pineal gland. Although melatonin is best known to regulate circadian rhythmicity and lower vertebrate skin pigmentation, the full spectrum of functional activities of this free radical-scavenging molecule, which also induces/promotes complex antioxidative and DNA repair systems, includes immunomodulatory, thermoregulatory, and antitumor properties. Because this plethora of functional melatonin properties still awaits to be fully appreciated by dermatologists, the current review synthesizes the main features that render melatonin a promising candidate for the management of several dermatoses associated with substantial oxidative damage...
February 7, 2018: Journal of Investigative Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29427471/modified-microassay-for-the-isolation-of-antimicrobial-producing-spore-forming-and-non-spore-forming-bacteria
#18
Michelle M Gerst, Ahmed E Yousef
AIMS: To develop a microassay method to detect antimicrobials produced by spore-forming bacteria, thus speeding up the discovery of new antimicrobials. METHODS AND RESULTS: Environmental isolates were grown in 96-well plates, to allow production of antimicrobials agents, then treated with lysozyme and heat sequentially. Lysozyme-heat treatment inhibited or prevented spore-to-cell transformation, thus eliminating interference from spore outgrowth while detecting antimicrobials by indicator bacteria...
February 10, 2018: Journal of Applied Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29425141/proposal-for-a-monitoring-concept-for-veterinary-medicinal-products-with-pbt-properties-using-parasiticides-as-a-case-study
#19
Jörg Römbke, Karen Duis
The aim of this work is to prepare a proposal for the post-authorization monitoring (PAM) of veterinary medicinal products (VMP), in particular parasiticides. Such a monitoring might especially be useful for parasiticides identified as Persistence Bioaccumulation Toxicity (PBT) substances, i.e., chemicals that are toxic (T), persist in the environment (P) and bioaccumulate (B) in food chains and, thus, pose a hazard to ecosystems. Based on a literature search, issues to be considered when performing such a PAM are discussed (e...
February 9, 2018: Toxics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29423792/development-of-targeted-therapies-based-on-gene-modification
#20
Taylor M Benson, Fatjon Leti, Johanna K DiStefano
With the advent of next-generation sequencing (NGS) and the demand for a personalized healthcare system, the fields of precision medicine and gene therapy are advancing in new directions. There is a push to identify genes that contribute to disease development, either alone or in conjunction with other genes or environmental factors, and then design targeted therapies based on this knowledge, rather than the traditional approach of treating generalized symptoms with pharmaceuticals in a one-size-fits-all manner...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
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