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Environmental medicine

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632196/drug-hypersensitivity-and-desensitizations-mechanisms-and-new-approaches
#1
REVIEW
Leticia de Las Vecillas Sánchez, Leila A Alenazy, Marlene Garcia-Neuer, Mariana C Castells
Drug hypersensitivity reactions (HSRs) are increasing in the 21st Century with the ever expanding availability of new therapeutic agents. Patients with cancer, chronic inflammatory diseases, cystic fibrosis, or diabetes can become allergic to their first line therapy after repeated exposures or through cross reactivity with environmental allergens. Avoidance of the offending allergenic drug may impact disease management, quality of life, and life expectancy. Precision medicine provides new tools for the understanding and management of hypersensitivity reactions (HSRs), as well as a personalized treatment approach for IgE (Immunoglobuline E) and non-IgE mediated HSRs with drug desensitization (DS)...
June 20, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628814/a-critical-evaluation-of-different-parameters-for-estimating-pharmaceutical-exposure-seeking-an-improved-environmental-risk-assessment
#2
André M P T Pereira, Liliana J G Silva, Celeste M Lino, Leonor M Meisel, Angelina Pena
A critical evaluation of the European Medicines Agency (EMA) Guideline on Environmental Risk Assessment (ERA) was performed on 16 of Portugal's most consumed pharmaceuticals in wastewater effluents (WWEs), the main route for aquatic contamination. The predicted environmental concentrations (PECs) were formulated based on the Guideline, after incorporating several refinements. The best approach was selected by comparing the measured environmental concentrations (MECs) to the PECs in WWEs. Finally, risk was assessed by comparing PECs to predicted no-effect concentrations (PNECs)...
June 16, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623623/self-reported-race-and-ethnicity-of-us-biobank-participants-compared-to-the-us-census
#3
Elizabeth Gross Cohn, Nalo Hamilton, Elaine L Larson, Janet K Williams
Precision medicine envisions a future of effective diagnosis, treatment, and prevention grounded in precise understandings of the genetic and environmental determinants of disease. Given that the original genome-wide association studies represented a predominately European White population, and that diversity in genomic studies must account for genetic variation both within and across racial categories, new research studies are at a heightened risk for inadequate representation. Currently biological samples are being made available for sequencing in biobanks across the USA, but the diversity of those samples is unknown...
June 16, 2017: Journal of Community Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623160/basic-concepts-in-molecular-biology-related-to-genetics-and-epigenetics
#4
Dolores Corella, Jose M Ordovas
The observation that "one size does not fit all" for the prevention and treatment of cardiovascular disease, among other diseases, has driven the concept of precision medicine. The goal of precision medicine is to provide the best-targeted interventions tailored to an individual's genome. The human genome is composed of billions of sequence arrangements containing a code that controls how genes are expressed. This code depends on other nonstatic regulators that surround the DNA and constitute the epigenome...
June 13, 2017: Revista Española de Cardiología
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28621886/review-of-emerging-metabolomic-tools-and-resources-2015-2016
#5
REVIEW
Biswapriya Biswavas Misra, Johannes F Fahrmann, Dmitry Grapov
Data processing and analysis are major bottlenecks in high-throughput metabolomic experiments. Recent advancements in data acquisition platforms are driving trends toward increasing data size (e.g. petabyte scale) and complexity (multiple omic platforms). Improvements in data analysis software and in silico methods are similarly required to effectively utilize these advancements and link the acquired data with biological interpretations. Herein we provide an overview of recently developed and freely-available metabolomic tools, algorithms, databases and data analysis frameworks...
June 16, 2017: Electrophoresis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620608/a-path-to-implement-precision-child-health-cardiovascular-medicine
#6
REVIEW
Marlin Touma, Brian Reemtsen, Nancy Halnon, Juan Alejos, J Paul Finn, Stanley F Nelson, Yibin Wang
Congenital heart defects (CHDs) affect approximately 1% of live births and are a major source of childhood morbidity and mortality even in countries with advanced healthcare systems. Along with phenotypic heterogeneity, the underlying etiology of CHDs is multifactorial, involving genetic, epigenetic, and/or environmental contributors. Clear dissection of the underlying mechanism is a powerful step to establish individualized therapies. However, the majority of CHDs are yet to be clearly diagnosed for the underlying genetic and environmental factors, and even less with effective therapies...
2017: Frontiers in Cardiovascular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620467/recent-advances-in-understanding-lung-function-development
#7
REVIEW
Erik Melén, Stefano Guerra
Recent years have witnessed critical contributions to our understanding of the determinants and long-term implications of lung function development. In this article, we review studies that have contributed to advances in understanding lung function development and its critical importance for lung health into adult life. In particular, we have focused on early life determinants that include genetic factors, perinatal events, environmental exposures, lifestyle, infancy lower respiratory tract infections, and persistent asthma phenotypes...
2017: F1000Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28619414/health-information-needs-and-reliability-of-sources-among-nondegree-health-sciences-students-a-prerequisite-for-designing-ehealth-literacy
#8
Hussein Haruna, Ndumiso Tshuma, Xiao Hu
BACKGROUND: Understanding health information needs and health-seeking behavior is a prerequisite for developing an electronic health information literacy (EHIL) or eHealth literacy program for nondegree health sciences students. At present, interest in researching health information needs and reliable sources paradigms has gained momentum in many countries. However, most studies focus on health professionals and students in higher education institutions. OBJECTIVE: The present study was aimed at providing new insight and filling the existing gap by examining health information needs and reliability of sources among nondegree health sciences students in Tanzania...
March 2017: Annals of Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28619286/neuroprotective-potential-of-aloe-arborescens-against-copper-induced-neurobehavioral-features-of-parkinson-s-disease-in-rat
#9
Abdellatif Abbaoui, Omar El Hiba, Halima Gamrani
Copper (Cu) is an important trace element for the organism survival, which ensures the normal functioning of different biosystems. However, excessive levels of this heavy metal are responsible for profound physiological alterations including the central nervous system. Numerous findings sustain the involvement of heavy metals, as an environmental risk factor such as copper (Cu), in the neuropathology of Parkinson's disease (PD) which is a chronic neurodegenerative disorder that principally affects the motor system...
June 12, 2017: Acta Histochemica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28617022/reducing-hospital-readmission-through-team-based-primary-care-a-7-week-pilot-study-integrating-behavioral-health-and-pharmacy
#10
Lauren N DeCaporale-Ryan, Nabila Ahmed-Sarwar, Robbyn Upham, Karen Mahler, Katie Lashway
INTRODUCTION: A team-based service delivery model was applied to provide patients with biopsychosocial care following hospital discharge to reduce hospital readmission. Most previous interventions focused on transitions of care occurred in the inpatient setting with attention to predischarge strategies. These interventions have not considered psychosocial stressors, and few have explored management in primary care settings. METHOD: A 7-week team-based service delivery model was implemented in a family medicine practice emphasizing a biopsychosocial approach...
June 2017: Families, Systems & Health: the Journal of Collaborative Family Healthcare
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28616666/the-role-of-psychosomatic-medicine-in-intensive-care-units
#11
REVIEW
Heidemarie Abrahamian, Diana Lebherz-Eichinger
Critically ill patients, their relatives, and intensive care staff are consistently exposed to stress. The principal elements of this exceptional burden are confrontation with a life-threatening disease, specific environmental conditions at the intensive care unit, and the social characteristics of intensive care medicine. The short- and long-term consequences of these stressors include a feeling of helplessness, distress, anxiety, depression, and even posttraumatic stress disorders. Not only the patients, but also their relatives and intensive care staff are at risk of developing such psychopathologies...
June 14, 2017: Wiener Medizinische Wochenschrift
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28614741/iopromide-exposure-in-typha-latifolia-l-evaluation-of-uptake-translocation-and-different-transformation-mechanisms-in-planta
#12
Hao Cui, Martin Hrabě de Angelis, Peter Schröder
Iopromide is frequently detected in water bodies due to its widespread use as an X-ray contrast agent in medicine. Due to its rapid clearance from the human body and its incomplete removal by wastewater treatment, an elevation of its concentration in the environment is observed that might lead to a serious impact on human and environmental health. Alternative or additional removal technologies may be more effective to remove iopromide from the effluents of wastewater treatment facilities, like phytoremediation with aquatic macrophytes...
June 4, 2017: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611656/dissecting-the-molecular-mechanisms-of-neurodegenerative-diseases-through-network-biology
#13
Jose A Santiago, Virginie Bottero, Judith A Potashkin
Neurodegenerative diseases are rarely caused by a mutation in a single gene but rather influenced by a combination of genetic, epigenetic and environmental factors. Emerging high-throughput technologies such as RNA sequencing have been instrumental in deciphering the molecular landscape of neurodegenerative diseases, however, the interpretation of such large amounts of data remains a challenge. Network biology has become a powerful platform to integrate multiple omics data to comprehensively explore the molecular networks in the context of health and disease...
2017: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28610932/automatic-environmental-disinfection-with-hydrogen-peroxide-and-ion-silver-versus-manual-environmental-disinfection-with-sodium-hypochlorite-a-multicenter-randomized-before-and-after-trial
#14
D Mosci, G W Marmo, L Sciolino, C Zaccaro, R Antonellini, L Accogli, T Lazzarotto, M Mongardi, M P Landini
AIMS: 1. Compare the effectiveness of an automated disinfection system with hydrogen peroxide <8% and silver ion versus a manual method with 0.5% sodium hypochlorite solution to evaluate the reduction of microbial mesophilic contamination and Clostridium difficile (CD) presence; 2. Evaluate the organizational impact of these two technologies in terms of time required for the process. METHODS: A randomized multicenter trial performed in four public and private health facilities in the Emilia-Romagna Region, in different wards including medicine, orthopaedics, long-term care, recovery and functional rehabilitation, which were previously occupied by patients with Clostridium difficile Infection (CDI)...
June 10, 2017: Journal of Hospital Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28604601/personalized-medicine-new-perspectives-for-the-diagnosis-and-the-treatment-of-renal-diseases
#15
REVIEW
Anna Gluba-Brzózka, Beata Franczyk, Robert Olszewski, Maciej Banach, Jacek Rysz
The prevalence of renal diseases is rising and reaching 5-15% of the adult population. Renal damage is associated with disturbances of body homeostasis and the loss of equilibrium between exogenous and endogenous elements including drugs and metabolites. Studies indicate that renal diseases are influenced not only by environmental but also by genetic factors. In some cases the disease is caused by mutation in a single gene and at that time severity depends on the presence of one or two mutated alleles. In other cases, renal disease is associated with the presence of alteration within a gene or genes, but environmental factors are also necessary for the development of disease...
June 10, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28601764/maternal-perchlorate-exposure-in-pregnancy-and-altered-birth-outcomes
#16
Rainbow Rubin, Michelle Pearl, Martin Kharrazi, Benjamin C Blount, Mark D Miller, Elizabeth N Pearce, Liza Valentin-Blasini, Gerald DeLorenze, Jane Liaw, Andrew N Hoofnagle, Craig Steinmaus
BACKGROUND: At high medicinal doses perchlorate is known to decrease the production of thyroid hormone, a critical factor for fetal development. In a large and uniquely exposed cohort of pregnant women, we recently identified associations between environmental perchlorate exposures and decreased maternal thyroid hormone during pregnancy. Here, we investigate whether perchlorate might be associated with birthweight or preterm birth in the offspring of these women. METHODS: Maternal urinary perchlorate, serum thyroid hormone concentrations, birthweight, gestational age, and urinary nitrate, thiocyanate, and iodide were collected in 1957 mother-infant pairs from San Diego County during 2000-2003, a period when the county's water supply was contaminated with perchlorate...
June 8, 2017: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28598964/changes-in-expression-of-dopamine-its-receptor-and-transporter-in-nucleus-accumbens-of-heroin-addicted-rats-with-brain-derived-neurotrophic-factor-bdnf-overexpression
#17
Yixin Li, Baijuan Xia, Rongrong Li, Dan Yin, Wenmei Liang
BACKGROUND The aim of this study was to explore how changes in the expression of BDNF in MLDS change the effect of BDNF on dopamine (DA) neurons, which may have therapeutic implications for heroin addiction. MATERIAL AND METHODS We established a rat model of heroin addiction and observed changes in the expression of BDNF, DA, dopamine receptor (DRD), dopamine transporter (DAT), and other relevant pathways in NAc. We also assessed the effect of BDNF overexpression in the NAc, behavioral changes of heroin-conditioned place preference (CPP), and naloxone withdrawal in rats with high levels of BDNF...
June 9, 2017: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28596996/global-variation-in-gene-expression-and-the-value-of-diverse-sampling
#18
Derek E Kelly, Matthew E B Hansen, Sarah A Tishkoff
The genomics era has accelerated our understanding of how genetic and epigenetic factors influence both normal variable traits and disease risk in humans. However, the majority of "omics" studies have focused on individuals living in urban centers, primarily from Europe and Asia, neglecting much of the genetic and environmental variation that exists across worldwide populations. Comparative studies of gene regulation in ethnically diverse populations are informing our understanding of how evolutionary forces have shaped the genetic and molecular mechanisms underlying complex traits, and studying gene expression in different environmental contexts is enabling the dissection of disease-related pathways such as immune response...
February 2017: Current opinion in systems biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28588621/environmental-factors-that-influence-stem-cell-migration-an-electric-field
#19
REVIEW
Stephanie N Iwasa, Robart Babona-Pilipos, Cindi M Morshead
Environmental Stimulus of Electric Fields on Stem Cell Migration. The movement of cells in response to electric potential gradients is called galvanotaxis. In vivo galvanotaxis, powered by endogenous electric fields (EFs), plays a critical role during development and wound healing. This review aims to provide a perspective on how stem cells transduce EFs into directed migration and an understanding of the current literature relating to the mechanisms by which cells sense and transduce EFs. We will comment on potential EF-based regenerative medicine therapeutics...
2017: Stem Cells International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28586654/occurrence-distribution-and-risk-assessment-of-antibiotics-in-the-surface-water-of-poyang-lake-the-largest-freshwater-lake-in-china
#20
Huijun Ding, Yixiao Wu, Weihao Zhang, Jiayou Zhong, Qian Lou, Ping Yang, Yuanyuan Fang
SPE-UPLC-MS/MS was used to investigate the occurrence of 18 target antibiotics in the surface water of Poyang Lake over different seasons of 2014-2015. The maximum concentrations of sulfadiazine, oxytetracycline, and doxycycline were 56.2, 48.7, and 39.7 ng/L, respectively. Compared with those in the other lakes or surface waters, the surface water of Poyang Lake contained moderate or below-average levels of antibiotics. The significantly lower concentrations (P < 0.01) of roxithromycin in June 2015 likely resulted from the dilution effect of water flow during the flood season...
May 29, 2017: Chemosphere
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