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Environmental medicine

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27927793/tumour-biomarkers-homeostasis-as-a-novel-prognostic-indicator
#1
REVIEW
Michela Falco, Giuseppe Palma, Domenica Rea, Davide De Biase, Stefania Scala, Massimiliano D'Aiuto, Gaetano Facchini, Sisto Perdonà, Antonio Barbieri, Claudio Arra
The term 'personalized medicine' refers to a medical procedure that consists in the grouping of patients based on their predicted individual response to therapy or risk of disease. In oncologic patients, a 'tailored' therapeutic approach may potentially improve their survival and well-being by not only reducing the tumour, but also enhancing therapeutic response and minimizing the adverse effects. Diagnostic tests are often used to select appropriate and optimal therapies that rely both on patient genome and other molecular/cellular analysis...
December 2016: Open Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924121/overexpression-of-panax-ginseng-sesquiterpene-synthase-gene-confers-tolerance-against-pseudomonas-syringae-pv-tomato-in-arabidopsis-thaliana
#2
Sung-Joo Yoon, Johan Sukweenadhi, Altanzul Khorolragchaa, Ramya Mathiyalagan, Sathiyamoorthy Subramaniyam, Yeon-Ju Kim, Ho-Bin Kim, Mi-Jung Kim, Yu-Jin Kim, Deok-Chun Yang
Sesquiterpenes are an abundant group belonging to the terpenoid family, with a C15 structure comprise of three isoprene units. Many sesquiterpenes are volatile compounds and it act as chemical messenger in plant signalling, particularly in the defense mechanism against biotic and abiotic stresses. Panax ginseng Meyer is important medicinal herbs with various reported pharmacological efficacies in which its triterpenoid saponins, called ginsenosides, were mostly studied. However, there have been few studies on volatile sesquiterpenes compounds regulation on P...
October 2016: Physiology and Molecular Biology of Plants: An International Journal of Functional Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921037/acute-kidney-injury-in-western-countries
#3
REVIEW
Josée Bouchard, Ravindra L Mehta
BACKGROUND: Acute kidney injury (AKI) is frequent and is associated with poor outcomes, including increased mortality, higher risk of chronic kidney disease, and prolonged hospital lengths of stay. The epidemiology of AKI mainly derives from studies performed in Western high-income countries. More limited data are available from Western low-income and middle-income countries (LMICs) located in Central and South America. SUMMARY: In this review, we summarize the most recent data on the epidemiology of AKI in Western countries, aiming to contrast results from industrialized high-income countries with LMICs...
October 2016: Kidney Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921036/acute-kidney-injury-in-asia
#4
REVIEW
Li Yang
BACKGROUND: Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a common disorder and is associated with a high morbidity and mortality worldwide. The diversity of the climate and of the socioeconomic and developmental status in Asia has a great influence on the etiology and presentation of AKI in different regions. In view of the International Society of Nephrology's 0by25 initiative, more and more attention has been paid to AKI in Asian countries. SUMMARY: In this review, we summarize the recent achievements with regard to the prevalence and clinical patterns of AKI in Asian countries...
October 2016: Kidney Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919301/the-integration-of-epigenetics-and-genetics-in-nutrition-research-for-cvd-risk-factors
#5
Yiyi Ma, Jose M Ordovas
There is increasing evidence documenting gene-by-environment (G × E) interactions for CVD related traits. However, the underlying mechanisms are still unclear. DNA methylation may represent one of such potential mechanisms. The objective of this review paper is to summarise the current evidence supporting the interplay among DNA methylation, genetic variants, and environmental factors, specifically (1) the association between SNP and DNA methylation; (2) the role that DNA methylation plays in G × E interactions...
December 6, 2016: Proceedings of the Nutrition Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917384/genetic-alterations-in-intervertebral-disc-disease
#6
REVIEW
Nikolay L Martirosyan, Arpan A Patel, Alessandro Carotenuto, M Yashar S Kalani, Evgenii Belykh, Corey T Walker, Mark C Preul, Nicholas Theodore
BACKGROUND: Intervertebral disc degeneration (IVDD) is considered a multifactorial disease that is influenced by both environmental and genetic factors. The last two decades of research strongly demonstrate that genetic factors contribute about 75% of the IVDD etiology. Recent total genome sequencing studies have shed light on the various single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that are associated with IVDD. AIM: This review presents comprehensive and updated information about the diversity of genetic factors in the inflammatory, degradative, homeostatic, and structural systems involved in the IVDD...
2016: Frontiers in Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916383/disentangling-interactions-in-the-microbiome-a-network-perspective
#7
REVIEW
Mehdi Layeghifard, David M Hwang, David S Guttman
Microbiota are now widely recognized as being central players in the health of all organisms and ecosystems, and subsequently have been the subject of intense study. However, analyzing and converting microbiome data into meaningful biological insights remain very challenging. In this review, we highlight recent advances in network theory and their applicability to microbiome research. We discuss emerging graph theoretical concepts and approaches used in other research disciplines and demonstrate how they are well suited for enhancing our understanding of the higher-order interactions that occur within microbiomes...
December 1, 2016: Trends in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914655/crohn-s-disease
#8
REVIEW
Joana Torres, Saurabh Mehandru, Jean-Frédéric Colombel, Laurent Peyrin-Biroulet
Crohn's disease is a chronic inflammatory disease of the gastrointestinal tract, with increasing incidence worldwide. Crohn's disease might result from a complex interplay between genetic susceptibility, environmental factors, and altered gut microbiota, leading to dysregulated innate and adaptive immune responses. The typical clinical scenario is a young patient presenting with abdominal pain, chronic diarrhoea, weight loss, and fatigue. Assessment of disease extent and of prognostic factors for complications is paramount to guide therapeutic decisions...
November 30, 2016: Lancet
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914549/age-of-fusion-of-the-distal-radial-and-ulnar-epiphyses-from-hand-radiographs-a-study-in-kashmiri-population
#9
Nida Hassan, Farida Noor, Shabir Ahmad, Khalid Majid Fazili
Age estimation is a crucial parameter involved in investigations pertaining to civil and criminal procedures. It also aids in various examinations in forensic medicine, pediatrics, endocrinology and radiology. One of the important methods for skeletal age estimation is the age of fusion of the epiphyses. But there occur variations in the skeletal ages due to environmental, hormonal, ethnic and other factors. Hence, there arises the need for separate standards of ossification for different regions. The present study was conducted to ascertain the age of fusion of the distal radial and ulnar epiphyses in Kashmiri population...
December 2016: Science & Justice: Journal of the Forensic Science Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907072/carers-medication-administration-errors-in-the-domiciliary-setting-a-systematic-review
#10
Anam Parand, Sara Garfield, Charles Vincent, Bryony Dean Franklin
PURPOSE: Medications are mostly taken in patients' own homes, increasingly administered by carers, yet studies of medication safety have been largely conducted in the hospital setting. We aimed to review studies of how carers cause and/or prevent medication administration errors (MAEs) within the patient's home; to identify types, prevalence and causes of these MAEs and any interventions to prevent them. METHODS: A narrative systematic review of literature published between 1 Jan 1946 and 23 Sep 2013 was carried out across the databases EMBASE, MEDLINE, PSYCHINFO, COCHRANE and CINAHL...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27901647/a-decade-of-age-related-macular-degeneration-risk-models-what-have-we-learned-from-them-and-where-are-we-going
#11
Michael Zhang, Paul N Baird
The genomic revolution has revealed the complexity of multifactorial diseases, making the development of effective diagnostics extremely challenging. In turn, the prospect of precision medicine as applied through targeted therapeutic treatments continues to remain largely elusive. Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) as a complex disease falls under this category, despite it being one of the most well characterized multifactorial diseases. This reflects both the extent of identified genetic components and known environmental risk factors...
November 30, 2016: Ophthalmic Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27901392/assessment-of-frailty-in-aged-dogs
#12
Julie Hua, Sara Hoummady, Claude Muller, Jean-Louis Pouchelon, Marc Blondot, Caroline Gilbert, Loic Desquilbet
OBJECTIVE To define a frailty-related phenotype-a clinical syndrome associated with the aging process in humans-in aged dogs and to investigate its association with time to death. ANIMALS 116 aged guide dogs. PROCEDURES Dogs underwent a clinical geriatric assessment (CGA) and were followed to either time of death or the study cutoff date. A 5-component clinical definition of a frailty phenotype was derived from clinical items included in a geriatric health evaluation scoresheet completed by veterinarians during the CGA...
December 2016: American Journal of Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899636/the-monarch-initiative-an-integrative-data-and-analytic-platform-connecting-phenotypes-to-genotypes-across-species
#13
Christopher J Mungall, Julie A McMurry, Sebastian Köhler, James P Balhoff, Charles Borromeo, Matthew Brush, Seth Carbon, Tom Conlin, Nathan Dunn, Mark Engelstad, Erin Foster, J P Gourdine, Julius O B Jacobsen, Dan Keith, Bryan Laraway, Suzanna E Lewis, Jeremy NguyenXuan, Kent Shefchek, Nicole Vasilevsky, Zhou Yuan, Nicole Washington, Harry Hochheiser, Tudor Groza, Damian Smedley, Peter N Robinson, Melissa A Haendel
The correlation of phenotypic outcomes with genetic variation and environmental factors is a core pursuit in biology and biomedicine. Numerous challenges impede our progress: patient phenotypes may not match known diseases, candidate variants may be in genes that have not been characterized, model organisms may not recapitulate human or veterinary diseases, filling evolutionary gaps is difficult, and many resources must be queried to find potentially significant genotype-phenotype associations. Non-human organisms have proven instrumental in revealing biological mechanisms...
November 29, 2016: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898803/identification-and-expression-profiling-of-the-lectin-gene-superfamily-in-mulberry
#14
Bushra Saeed, Vinay K Baranwal, Paramjit Khurana
Lectins are a diverse group of ubiquitously present, highly specific sugar-binding proteins. Members of this large gene family have been assigned broad biological functions from defense to acting as storage proteins. Despite possessing several interesting characteristics, their functions remain essentially undefined. Mulberry ( spp.) known for its medicinal benefits is also a rich source of lectins. Using an exhaustive hidden Markov model (HMM)-based search, we identified the lectin gene complement in C.K. Schneid with around 197 members...
July 2016: Plant Genome
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27897013/harnessing-big-data-for-precision-medicine-infrastructures-and-applications
#15
Kun-Hsing Yu, Steven N Hart, Rachel Goldfeder, Qiangfeng Cliff Zhang, Stephen C J Parker, Michael Snyder
Precision medicine is a health management approach that accounts for individual differences in genetic backgrounds and environmental exposures. With the recent advancements in high-throughput omics profiling technologies, collections of large study cohorts, and the developments of data mining algorithms, big data in biomedicine is expected to provide novel insights into health and disease states, which can be translated into personalized disease prevention and treatment plans. However, petabytes of biomedical data generated by multiple measurement modalities poses a significant challenge for data analysis, integration, storage, and result interpretation...
2016: Pacific Symposium on Biocomputing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27892721/social-aspects-in-additive-manufacturing-of-pharmaceutical-products
#16
Johanna Lind, Sofia Kälvemark Sporrong, Susanne Kaae, Jukka Rantanen, Natalja Genina
Additive manufacturing (AM) techniques, such as drug printing, represent a new engineering approach that can implement the concept of personalized medicine via on-demand manufacturing of dosage forms with individually adjusted doses. Implementation of AM principles, such as pharmacoprinting, will challenge the entire drug distribution chain and affect the society at different levels. Areas covered: This work summarizes the concept of personalized medicine and gives an overview of possibilities for monitoring patients' health...
November 28, 2016: Expert Opinion on Drug Delivery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891192/the-quest-for-an-effective-and-safe-personalized-cell-therapy-using-epigenetic-tools
#17
REVIEW
T A L Brevini, G Pennarossa, E F M Manzoni, C E Gandolfi, A Zenobi, F Gandolfi
In the presence of different environmental cues that are able to trigger specific responses, a given genotype has the ability to originate a variety of different phenotypes. This property is defined as plasticity and allows cell fate definition and tissue specialization. Fundamental epigenetic mechanisms drive these modifications in gene expression and include DNA methylation, histone modifications, chromatin remodeling, and microRNAs. Understanding these mechanisms can provide powerful tools to switch cell phenotype and implement cell therapy...
2016: Clinical Epigenetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891118/colistin-in-pig-production-chemistry-mechanism-of-antibacterial-action-microbial-resistance-emergence-and-one-health-perspectives
#18
REVIEW
Mohamed Rhouma, Francis Beaudry, William Thériault, Ann Letellier
Colistin (Polymyxin E) is one of the few cationic antimicrobial peptides commercialized in both human and veterinary medicine. For several years now, colistin has been considered the last line of defense against infections caused by multidrug-resistant Gram-negative such as Acinetobacter baumannii, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Klebsiella pneumoniae. Colistin has been extensively used orally since the 1960s in food animals and particularly in swine for the control of Enterobacteriaceae infections. However, with the recent discovery of plasmid-mediated colistin resistance encoded by the mcr-1 gene and the higher prevalence of samples harboring this gene in animal isolates compared to other origins, livestock has been singled out as the principal reservoir for colistin resistance amplification and spread...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27882490/defining-the-field-of-behavioral-medicine-a-collaborative-endeavor
#19
Joost Dekker, Adrienne Stauder, Frank J Penedo
PURPOSE: To respond to comments on our proposal for an update of the definition and scope of behavioral medicine. METHODS: We identify common themes in the comments and provide a response. RESULTS: We discuss the relationship of behavioral medicine to other disciplines and fields, the scope of behavioral medicine, and issues related to the application of behavioral medicine. CONCLUSION: Based on the comments of our esteemed colleagues and our reflection on those comments, we now offer the following refined definition and scope of behavioral medicine...
November 23, 2016: International Journal of Behavioral Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27882306/personalized-proteomics-the-future-of-precision-medicine
#20
Trevor T Duarte, Charles T Spencer
Medical diagnostics and treatment has advanced from a one size fits all science to treatment of the patient as a unique individual. Currently, this is limited solely to genetic analysis. However, epigenetic, transcriptional, proteomic, posttranslational modifications, metabolic, and environmental factors influence a patient's response to disease and treatment. As more analytical and diagnostic techniques are incorporated into medical practice, the personalized medicine initiative transitions to precision medicine giving a holistic view of the patient's condition...
2016: Proteomes
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