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Environmental medicine

Adam D Kennedy, Bryan M Wittmann, Anne M Evans, Luke A D Miller, Douglas R Toal, Shaun Lonergan, Sarah H Elsea, Kirk L Pappan
Metabolomics is the untargeted measurement of the metabolome, which is comprised of the complement of small molecules detected in a biological sample. As such, metabolomic analysis produces a global biochemical phenotype. It is a technology that has been utilized in the research setting for over a decade. The metabolome is directly linked to and is influenced by genetics, epigenetics, environmental factors and the microbiome - all of which affect health. Metabolomics can be applied to human clinical diagnostics and to other fields such as veterinary medicine, nutrition, exercise, physiology, agriculture/plant biochemistry, and toxicology...
September 22, 2018: Journal of Mass Spectrometry: JMS
Rebekah Davis Reed, Erik L Antonsen
Humans exploring beyond low-Earth orbit face environmental challenges coupled with isolation, remote operations, and extreme resource limitations in which personalized medicine, enabled by genetic research, might be necessary for mission success. With little opportunity to test personalized countermeasures broadly, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) will likely need to rely instead on collection of significant amounts of genomic and environmental exposure data from individuals. This need appears at first to be in conflict with the statutes and regulations governing the collection and use of genetic data...
September 1, 2018: AMA Journal of Ethics
Azhar U Khan, Masudulla Khan, Nazia Malik, Moo Hwan Cho, Mohammad Mansoob Khan
The hazardous effects of current nanoparticle synthesis methods have steered researchers to focus on the development of newer environmentally friendly and green methods for synthesizing nanoparticles using nontoxic chemicals. The development of environmentally friendly methods of nanoparticle synthesis with different sizes and shapes is one of the pressing challenges for the current nanotechnology. Several novel green approaches for the synthesis of AuNPs have been explored using different natural sources, such as plants, algae, bacteria, and fungi...
September 20, 2018: Bioprocess and Biosystems Engineering
Andrew A White, William M Sage, Paulina H Osinska, Monica J Salgaonkar, Thomas H Gallagher
BACKGROUND: Unprecedented numbers of physicians are practicing past age 65. Unlike other safety-conscious industries, such as aviation, medicine lacks robust systems to ensure late-career physician (LCP) competence while promoting career longevity. OBJECTIVE: To describe the attitudes of key stakeholders about the oversight of LCPs and principles that might shape policy development. DESIGN: Thematic content analysis of interviews and focus groups...
September 20, 2018: BMJ Quality & Safety
Thomas M Drake, Stephen R Knight, Ewen M Harrison, Kjetil Søreide
Precision medicine based upon molecular testing is heralded as a revolution in how cancer is prevented, diagnosed, and treated. Large efforts across the world aim to conduct comprehensive molecular profiling of disease to inform preclinical models, translational research studies and clinical trials. However, most studies have only been performed in patients from high-income countries. As the burden on non-communicable diseases increases, cancer will become a pressing burden across the world, disproportionately affecting low-middle income settings...
2018: Frontiers in Oncology
Yichi Zhang, Aaron MacCosham
Inherited cardiomyopathies are cardiovascular disorders that are one of the leading causes of death and are strongly associated with genetic mutations. These include hypertrophic, dilated, restrictive, as well as arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathies. Among the patients presenting with these specific forms of cardiomyopathies, there is significant phenotypic, genotypic, and environmental heterogeneity. Over the years, the identification of the underlying mutations common to specific forms of cardiomyopathies have facilitated clinic diagnosis...
September 19, 2018: Lifestyle genomics
Eva Bermejo-Sánchez, Lorenzo D Botto, Marcia L Feldkamp, Boris Groisman, Pierpaolo Mastroiacovo
Birth defects (BD), also known as congenital anomalies, are structural or functional abnormalities present at birth as a result of abnormal prenatal development. Their cause can be broadly categorized as genetic, environmental, or a combination of both. It is estimated that approximately 3-6% of newborn infants worldwide are affected by BD, many of which are associated with serious morbidity, mortality, and lifelong disabilities. The International Clearinghouse for Birth Defects Surveillance and Research (ICBDSR), founded in 1974, promotes worldwide birth defect surveillance, research, and prevention through the ongoing sharing of data, expertise, and training...
September 18, 2018: Journal of Community Genetics
David B Vaughan, Alexandra S Grutter, Kate S Hutson
Chemical use is widespread in aquaculture to treat parasitic diseases in farmed fish. Cleaner fish biocontrols are increasingly used in fish farming as an alternative to medicines. However, cleaner fish are susceptible to some of their clients' parasites and their supply is largely dependent on wild harvest. In comparison, cleaner shrimp are not susceptible to fish ectoparasites and they can be reliably bred in captivity. The effectiveness of shrimp in reducing parasites on farmed fish remained unexplored until now...
September 18, 2018: Scientific Reports
S Rodrigues, S C Antunes, A T Correia, B Nunes
Oxytetracycline (OTC) is an antibiotic widely used in human and veterinary medicines. Since the primary toxicity occurs mainly at molecular/biochemical levels, the study of different biological responses corresponds to a sensitive and crucial approach. The aim of the present study was to assess the toxic effects of OTC in gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata) through the use of multibiomarkers and elucidate about the possible toxicological mechanisms involved. S. aurata were acutely (96 h: 0.04-400 μg/L) and chronically (28 days: 0...
September 11, 2018: Marine Environmental Research
M Conde-Cid, D Fernández-Calviño, J C Nóvoa-Muñoz, M Arias-Estévez, M Díaz-Raviña, A Núñez-Delgado, M J Fernández-Sanjurjo, E Álvarez-Rodríguez
Antibiotics discharged to the environment constitute a main concern for which different treatment alternatives are being studied, some of them based on antibiotics removal or inactivation using by-products with adsorbent capacity, or which can act as catalyst for photo-degradation. But a preliminary step is to determine the general characteristics and magnitude of the degradation process effectively acting on antibiotics. A specific case is that of sulfonamides (SAs), one of the antibiotic groups most widely used in veterinary medicine, and which are considered the most mobile antibiotics, causing that they are frequently detected in both surface- and ground-waters, facilitating their entry in the food chain and causing public health hazards...
September 15, 2018: Journal of Environmental Management
Andrea Maugeri, Martina Barchitta, Maria Grazia Mazzone, Francesco Giuliano, Antonella Agodi
Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is the most common cause of visual loss in developed countries, with a significant economic and social burden on public health. Although genome-wide and gene-candidate studies have been enabled to identify genetic variants in the complement system associated with AMD pathogenesis, the effect of gene-environment interaction is still under debate. In this review we provide an overview of the role of complement system and its genetic variants in AMD, summarizing the consequences of the interaction between genetic and environmental risk factors on AMD onset, progression, and therapeutic response...
2018: BioMed Research International
Florian Barthélémy, Nicolas Wein
Dystrophinopathies are diseases caused by mutations in the Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy gene (DMD) encoding the dystrophin protein. Depending on the type of mutation, patients develop either the severe DMD or the milder Becker Muscular Dystrophy. Although substantial effort was made, the pathophysiology and variation in disease severity are still poorly understood. During the last two decades, relentless efforts were made to develop therapeutic strategies. Among these, gene therapy and cell replacement therapy appear very promising...
July 26, 2018: Neuromuscular Disorders: NMD
Keiichiro Sato, Hidenori Watanabe, Takanori Ikeda, Hiroaki Miida, Kiyoshi Ohtaki, Kazuto Watanabe
The distribution of active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) in prescription medicines for human consumption in Japan was estimated using the public database of the National Database of Health Insurance Claims and Specific Health Checkups of Japan (NDB). From the latest NDB, 2058 APIs were identified, and the prescription weight exceeded 1 tonne/year for 711 APIs. Of these, 298 APIs were selected for further analysis after removing 413 APIs that were not covered by current environmental risk assessment (ERA) directives or were combination products...
September 14, 2018: Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology: RTP
Junqi Liu, Lingfeng Xie, Dun Zhao, Taotao Yang, Yunfei Hu, Zhiliang Sun, Xinglong Yu
Deinagkistrodon acutus is a venomous pit viper commonly used in traditional Chinese medicine; farming these snakes has become a major industry. In 2017, an outbreak of fatal diarrhea among farm-raised D. acutus in Hunan Province caused the deaths of 5,600 snakes within 3 weeks. We isolated a brand-new sequence type of Aeromonas hydrophila (ST516) from lesions and confirmed that this bacterium was the causal agent of the outbreak. Snakes infected with the bacterium in the laboratory showed similar clinical symptoms to those of snakes in the original outbreak...
September 17, 2018: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
Nonke E M Hopman, Marlies E J L Hulscher, Haitske Graveland, David C Speksnijder, Jaap A Wagenaar, Els M Broens
Use of antimicrobials selects for antimicrobial resistance, and this poses a threat for both human and animal health. Although previous studies show that total antimicrobial use in Dutch companion animal clinics is relatively low and decreasing, the majority of antimicrobials prescribed are categorised as critically important for human medicine by the World Health Organization (WHO). Large differences in use between clinics are also observed. Identification of factors that influence the prescribing behaviour of veterinarians is needed to tailor future interventions aimed at promoting prudent use of antimicrobials in companion animals...
October 1, 2018: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
Sean P Farris, Brien P Riley, Robert W Williams, Megan K Mulligan, Michael J Miles, Marcelo F Lopez, Robert Hitzemann, Ovidiu D Iancu, Alexander Colville, Nicole A R Walter, Priscila Darakjian, Denesa L Oberbeck, James B Daunais, Christina L Zheng, Robert P Searles, Shannon K McWeeney, Kathleen A Grant, R Dayne Mayfield
This review summarizes the proceedings of a symposium presented at the "Alcoholism and Stress: A Framework for Future Treatment Strategies" conference held in Volterra, Italy on May 9-12, 2017. Psychiatric diseases, including alcohol-use disorders (AUDs), are influenced through complex interactions of genes, neurobiological pathways, and environmental influences. A better understanding of the common neurobiological mechanisms underlying an AUD necessitates an integrative approach, involving a systematic assessment of diverse species and phenotype measures...
December 6, 2017: Alcohol
Qingquan Liu, Jun Tang, Weilin Wang, Yongxia Zhang, Haiyan Yuan, Suzhen Huang
The remediation and subsequent use of saline-alkaline land are of great significance to ecological environment construction and sustainable agricultural development. Iris halophila Pall. is a salt-tolerant medicinal and ornamental plant, which has good application prospects in the ecological construction of saline-alkaline land; therefore, study of the molecular mechanisms of salt tolerance in I. halophila has important theoretical and practical value. To evaluate the molecular mechanism of the response of I...
September 7, 2018: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
Felicity K Boardman, Rachel Hale
BACKGROUND: Genomic medicine is rapidly evolving, particularly in the domain of reproduction. Population carrier screening for a range of disorders is becoming possible using whole genome/exome sequencing. However, very little is known about the views of genetically disabled adults toward selective reproduction. METHODS: Forty-three in-depth qualitative interviews were carried out with adults living with different types of genetic condition, recruited through support groups and clinics...
September 9, 2018: Molecular Genetics & Genomic Medicine
Kaleea Lewis, Shibani Kulkarni, Swann Arp Adams, Heather M Brandt, Jamie R Lead, John R Ureda, Delores Fedrick, Chris Mathews, Daniela B Friedman
Among women living in the United States, breast cancer is the second leading cause of cancer death. Disproportionate racial disparities in breast cancer exist, with African American (AA) women consistently having the highest rates of breast cancer related mortality despite lower incidence. This study attends to the Institute of Medicine's (IOM) call to action recommending the identification of effective strategies for communicating accurate and reliable breast cancer risk information to diverse audiences. Using focus group methodology, this study explores how AAs perceive and decipher information related to breast cancer and its relationship to their environment...
September 6, 2018: Environment International
Sergey L Znoyko, Alexey V Orlov, Averyan V Pushkarev, Elizaveta N Mochalova, Natalia V Guteneva, Afanasy V Lunin, Maxim P Nikitin, Petr I Nikitin
An ultrasensitive lateral-flow assay is developed for rapid quantitative detection of small molecules on-site. The conceptual novelty, which transfers lateral-flow assays to the category of highly sensitive quantitative systems, is due to employment of a bifunctional ligand combined with volumetric registration of magnetic nanolabels. The ligand provides extremely high affinity for trapping the nanolabels and, simultaneously, efficiently competes with the analyzed molecules for the limited quantity of antigen-binding sites on the nanolabels...
November 30, 2018: Analytica Chimica Acta
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