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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29049049/treatable-traits-of-chronic-airways-disease
#1
James Fingleton, Jo Hardy, Richard Beasley
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To describe the rationale on which the treatable traits approach to the management of airways disease is based and the issues that need to be considered for its implementation in clinical practice. RECENT FINDINGS: In clinical practice, treatable traits can be classified according to both endotypes and phenotypes, broadly grouped within pulmonary, extrapulmonary, environmental and behavioural factors. Specific investigations and treatments are undertaken for each of the traits rather than a 'one size fits all' stepwise approach to pharmacological treatment which currently represents the core of asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) guidelines...
October 18, 2017: Current Opinion in Pulmonary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046854/tannins-and-their-complex-interaction-with-different-organic-nitrogen-compounds-and-enzymes-old-paradigms-versus-recent-advances
#2
REVIEW
Bartosz Adamczyk, Judy Simon, Veikko Kitunen, Sylwia Adamczyk, Aino Smolander
Tannins, an abundant group of plant secondary compounds, raise interest in different fields of science, owing to their unique chemical characteristics. In chemical ecology, tannins play a crucial role in plant defense against pathogens, herbivores, and changing environmental conditions. In the food industry and in medicine, tannins are important because of their proven positive effect on human health and disease treatment. Such wide interests fueled studies on tannin chemistry, especially on their flagship ability to precipitate proteins...
October 2017: ChemistryOpen
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045922/the-impact-of-expired-commercial-drugs-on-non-target-marine-species-a-case-study-with-the-use-of-a-battery-of-biomarkers-in-hemocytes-of-mussels
#3
Nektarios Politakis, Alexia Belavgeni, Ioanna Efthimiou, Nikolina Charalampous, Chara Kourkouta, Stefanos Dailianis
The present study investigated the effects of two expired commercial medicines, like Buscopan Plus and Mesulid, commonly classified as household medical wastes, on hemocytes of mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis. Mussel hemocytes' lysosomal membrane stability (in terms of neutral red retention assay), superoxide anions (O2(·)(-)) and nitric oxides (NO, in terms of nitrites) production, lipid peroxidation (in terms of malondialdehyde/MDA content) and the formation of nuclear abnormalities (using the micronucleus/MN assay) were assessed in hemocytes of mussels treated for 7 days with appropriate amounts of each drug (the concentrations of active substances were considered in each case, due to the absence of data related with the excipients) as well as in hemocytes of post-treated/recovered mussels (7 days post-treatment/recovery period)...
October 14, 2017: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29044373/antimicrobial-resistance-a-one-health-perspective
#4
Laura H Kahn
Introduction: Worsening antimicrobial resistance (AMR) threatens the practice of modern human and veterinary medicine. For decades, medicine and agriculture have blamed each other for the rise of resistant microbes. Widespread use and misuse of antibiotics in both medicine and agriculture have increased the prevalence and expression of resistance genes. VRE: The rise of vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium (VRE) in the European Union (EU) led to the ban of avoparcin, an antibiotic that is chemically related to vancomycin...
June 1, 2017: Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29043857/magnetic-carbon-nanotubes-preparation-physical-properties-and-applications-in-biomedicine
#5
Mehrdad Samadishadlou, Masoud Farshbaf, Nasim Annabi, Taras Kavetskyy, Rovshan Khalilov, Siamak Saghfi, Abolfazl Akbarzadeh, Sepideh Mousavi
Magnetic carbon nanotubes (MCNTs) have been widely studied for their potential applications in medicine, diagnosis, cell biology, analytical chemistry, and environmental technology. Introduction of MCNTs paved the way for the emergence of new approaches in nanobiotechnology and biomedicine as a result of their multifarious properties embedded within either the carbon nanotubes (CNTs) or magnetic parts. Numerous preparation techniques exists for functionalizing CNTs with magnetic nanoparticles, and these versatile strategies lay the ground for the generation of novel and versatile systems which are applicable to many industries and biological areas...
October 18, 2017: Artificial Cells, Nanomedicine, and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29039668/targets-for-drug-therapy-for-autism-spectrum-disorder-challenges-and-future-directions
#6
Enza Lacivita, Roberto Perrone, Lucia Margari, Marcello Leopoldo
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by persistent deficits in social communication and interaction, and restricted, repetitive patterns of behaviour, interests and activities. Various factors are involved in the etiopathogenesis of ASD, including genetic factors, environmental toxins and stressors, impaired immune responses, mitochondrial dysfunction, neuroinflammation. The heterogeneity in the phenotype among ASD patients and the complex etiology of the condition have long impeded the advancement of the development of pharmacological therapies...
October 17, 2017: Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035404/-biological-significance-of-chromium-iii-for-the-human-organism
#7
REVIEW
Anna Piotrowska, Wanda Pilch, Łukasz Tota, Gabriel Nowak
Currently, chromium is probably the most controversial transition metal. In recent publications it is clearly stated that it is not an essential micronutrient and should be considered to have a pharmacological effect. Conflicting scientific reports along with a huge amount of dietary supplements, as well as dietary and sports nutrients available on the market have prompted the authors to investigate the available information on the range of possible application, efficacy and safety of products containing salts or chelates of chromium III...
October 12, 2017: Medycyna Pracy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034866/the-health-effects-of-aluminum-exposure
#8
Katrin Klotz, Wobbeke Weistenhöfer, Frauke Neff, Andrea Hartwig, Christoph van Thriel, Hans Drexler
BACKGROUND: Aluminum is regularly taken up with the daily diet. It is also used in antiperspirants, as an adjuvant for vaccination, and in desensitization procedures. In this review, we present the scientifically documented harmful effects of aluminum on health and the threshold values associated with them. METHODS: This review is based on publications retrieved by a selective search of the PubMed and SCOPUS databases on the topic of aluminum in connection with neurotoxicity, Alzheimer's disease, and breast cancer, as well as on the authors' personal experience in occupational and environmental medicine...
September 29, 2017: Deutsches Ärzteblatt International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29032748/mechanistic-understanding-of-herbal-therapy-in-inflammatory-bowel-disease
#9
Luqing Zhao, Shengsheng Zhang, Peijian He
The incidence and prevalence of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD), which comprise ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease, are increasing dramatically worldwide. Immunomodulators and biological agents can help but cause severe side effects in long-term use. As such, complementary and alternative medicine, in particular herbal remedy, is becoming more and more popular in the treatment of IBD patients. Many natural compounds have been used in clinical trials and some have been proven promising in IBD treatment...
October 10, 2017: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29030651/third-symposium-on-environmental-toxicology-in-north-rhine-westphalia-germany-interdisciplinary-research-activities-in-toxicology-statistics-hygiene-and-medicine-meeting-report-on-a-symposium-held-in-dortmund-may-7-8-2015
#10
Klaus Golka, Katja Ickstadt, Silvia Selinski, Jan G Hengstler, Michael Wilhelm
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 13, 2017: Archives of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029316/the-need-for-and-the-role-of-the-toxicological-chemist-in-the-design-of-safer-chemicals
#11
Stephen C DeVito
During the past several decades there has been an ever increasing emphasis for designers of new commercial (non-pharmaceutical) chemicals to include considerations of the potential impacts a planned chemical may have on human health and the environment as part of the design of the chemical, and to design chemicals such that they possess the desired use efficacy while minimizing threats to human health and the environment. Achievement of this goal would be facilitated by the availability of individuals specifically and formally trained to design such chemicals...
September 18, 2017: Toxicological Sciences: An Official Journal of the Society of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29027423/-research-progress-of-relationship-between-continuous-cropping-obstacles-and-micrornas-in-rehmannia-glutinosa
#12
REVIEW
Xiao-Feng Cao, Yan-Hui Yang, Fa-Jie Feng, Ming-Jie Li, Li Gu, Feng-Qing Wang, Xin-Jian Chen, Zhong-Yi Zhang
The efficacy of Rehmannia glutinosa which as a large quantity of traditional Chinese medicine is significant. However, the land must be given up after one season of R. glutinosa cultivation or replanted after a period of 8-10 years because of the severe continuous cropping obstacles. MicroRNAs is a class of endogenous non-coding small RNAs, which participate in regulation of physiological activities by target mRNA cleavage or translational repression in plants. In recent years,studies on the role of miRNAs in plants have made significant progresses,especially in medicinal plants.MiRNAs from some different medicinal plant species have been identified with regulatory effects.When plants are exposed to environmental stress, miRNAs act on stress-related genes and initiate stress-resistance mechanisms in the body against adverse factors...
March 2017: Zhongguo Zhong Yao za Zhi, Zhongguo Zhongyao Zazhi, China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29024585/n-s-p-co-doped-carbon-nanodot-fabricated-from-waste-microorganism-and-its-application-for-label-free-recognition-of-manganese-vii-and-%C3%AA-ascorbic-acid-and-and-logic-gate-operation
#13
Xiaojuan Gong, Zengbo Li, Qin Hu, Ruixin Zhou, Shaomin Shuang, Chuan Dong
A novel fluorescent probe based on N,S,P co-doped carbon nanodots (N,S,P-CNDSac) has been facile and fast fabricated by a one-step hydrothermal pyrolysis of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and utilized for label-free and "on-off-on" sequential detection manganese(VII) and ʟ-ascorbic acid (ʟ-AA). The fluorescence of N,S,P-CNDSac can be effectively quenched by Mn(VII) based on inner filter effect (IFE) and recovered upon the addition of ʟ-AA due to the easy-conversion of Mn(VII) to reduced states (i.e. Mn(IV), Mn(II) and Mn(0)) by ʟ-AA...
October 12, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29020978/precision-medicine-at-the-crossroads
#14
Maynard V Olson
There are bioethical, institutional, economic, legal, and cultural obstacles to creating the robust-precompetitive-data resource that will be required to advance the vision of "precision medicine," the ability to use molecular data to target therapies to patients for whom they offer the most benefit at the least risk. Creation of such an "information commons" was the central recommendation of the 2011 report Toward Precision Medicine issued by a committee of the National Research Council of the USA (Committee on a Framework for Development of a New Taxonomy of Disease; National Research Council...
October 11, 2017: Human Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29020703/-public-health-education-in-health-related-study-programs-in-germany-perspectives-from-course-coordinators
#15
Jutta Lindert, Annette Wehrwein, David Klemperer, Ulla Walter
Introduction Public health education in Germany takes place in public health courses and in health-related study courses. We aim to provide data and knowledge on structure and content of health-related study courses and on cooperation between universities and/or Universities of Applied Sciences. Methods We conducted an online-based cross-sectional study (01.6. - 15.9.2015), involving 93 universities and Universities of Applied Sciences in Germany. Herewith we addressed 351 study course coordinators. We included course coordinators from universities and Universities of Applied Sciences who were members of the German Association of Social Medicine and Prevention (DGSMP) or in the Association Universities for Health (HOGE)...
October 11, 2017: Das Gesundheitswesen
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29020170/breast-cancer-incidence-and-metalworking-fluid-exposure-in-a-cohort-of-female-autoworkers
#16
Erika Garcia, Patrick T Bradshaw, Ellen A Eisen
Breast cancer is the leading cancer diagnosed among women and environmental studies have produced few leads on modifiable risk factors. Following an Institute of Medicine recommendation for occupational studies of highly exposed women, we took advantage of an existing cohort of 4,503 female hourly autoworkers in Michigan exposed to metalworking fluid (MWF), complex mixtures of oils and chemicals widely used in metal manufacturing worldwide. Cox proportional hazards models were fit to estimate hazard ratios (HR) for incident breast cancer (follow-up 1985-2013) and cumulative exposure (20-year lag) to straight mineral oils (a known human carcinogen), and water-based soluble and synthetic MWF...
August 23, 2017: American Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29016970/a-genome-by-environment-interaction-classifier-for-precision-medicine-personal-transcriptome-response-to-rhinovirus-identifies-children-prone-to-asthma-exacerbations
#17
Vincent Gardeux, Joanne Berghout, Ikbel Achour, A Grant Schissler, Qike Li, Colleen Kenost, Jianrong Li, Yuan Shang, Anthony Bosco, Donald Saner, Marilyn J Halonen, Daniel J Jackson, Haiquan Li, Fernando D Martinez, Yves A Lussier
Objective: To introduce a disease prognosis framework enabled by a robust classification scheme derived from patient-specific transcriptomic response to stimulation. Materials and Methods: Within an illustrative case study to predict asthma exacerbation, we designed a stimulation assay that reveals individualized transcriptomic response to human rhinovirus. Gene expression from peripheral blood mononuclear cells was quantified from 23 pediatric asthmatic patients and stimulated in vitro with human rhinovirus...
November 1, 2017: Journal of the American Medical Informatics Association: JAMIA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28992620/potential-ameliorative-effects-of-qing-ye-dan-against-cadmium-induced-prostatic-deficits-via-regulating-nrf-2-ho-1-and-tgf-%C3%AE-1-smad-pathways
#18
Lifen Du, Yongfang Lei, Jinglou Chen, Hongping Song, Xinying Wu
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Cadmium (Cd) is an environmental pollutant with reproductive toxicity. Swertia mileensis is used in Chinese medicine for the treatment of prostatic deficits and named as Qing Ye Dan (QYD). This study was undertaken to investigate the potential protective effects of QYD against Cd-induced prostatic deficits. METHOD: Rat model of prostatic deficits was induced by 0.2 mg/kg/d CdCl2 subcutaneous injection for 15 days. The prostatic oxidative stress was evaluated by detecting the levels of malondialdehyde, nitric oxide, reduced/ oxidized glutathione, total sulfhydryl groups and enzymatic antioxidant status...
October 9, 2017: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28987598/the-brazilian-market-of-herbal-medicinal-products-and-the-impacts-of-the-new-legislation-on-traditional-medicines
#19
Ana Cecília Bezerra Carvalho, Túlio Nader Lana, João Paulo Silvério Perfeito, Dâmaris Silveira
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: the herbal medicinal products (HMP) market is expanding in the world, an expansion that has not occurred in Brazil when considering the number of licensed products. Despite being a megadiverse country, the number of HMP licensed in Brazil is small, and the number of HMP obtained from native species is even smaller. A new legislation for herbal products licensing, which divides the products into two categories, Herbal Medicine (HM) and Traditional Herbal Product (THP) was launched in Brazil focusing on traditional use, as well as a law regulating the use of biodiversity and traditional knowledge...
October 4, 2017: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28987512/genes-linking-mitochondrial-function-cognitive-impairment-and-depression-are-associated-with-endophenotypes-serving-precision-medicine
#20
Peter Petschner, Xenia Gonda, Daniel Baksa, Nora Eszlari, Michael Trivaks, Gabriella Juhasz, Gyorgy Bagdy
Mitochondria densely populate cells in central nervous system providing essential energy for neurons and influencing synaptic plasticity. Harm to these organelles can impair cognitive performance through damaged neurotransmission and altered Ca(2+) homeostasis. Impaired cognition could be one underlying factor which can characterize major depressive disorder, a huge burden for society marked by depressed mood and anhedonia. A growing body of evidence binds mitochondrial dysfunctions with the disease. Cognitive disturbances with different severity are also observable in several patients, suggesting that damage or inherited alterations of mitochondria may have an important role in depression...
October 5, 2017: Neuroscience
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