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Mental time travel

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29664375/surveillance-for-mosquitoborne-transmission-of-zika-virus-new-york-city-ny-usa-2016
#1
Amanda Wahnich, Sandhya Clark, Danielle Bloch, Hannah Kubinson, Gili Hrusa, Dakai Liu, Jennifer L Rakeman, Bisram Deocharan, Lucretia Jones, Sally Slavinski, Alaina Stoute, Robert Mathes, Don Weiss, Erin E Conners
A large number of imported cases of Zika virus infection and the potential for transmission by Aedes albopictus mosquitoes prompted the New York City Department of Health and Mental Hygiene to conduct sentinel, enhanced passive, and syndromic surveillance for locally acquired mosquitoborne Zika virus infections in New York City, NY, USA, during June-October 2016. Suspected case-patients were those >5 years of age without a travel history or sexual exposure who had >3 compatible signs/symptoms (arthralgia, fever, conjunctivitis, or rash)...
May 2018: Emerging Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29541024/temporal-dissociation-of-neocortical-and-hippocampal-contributions-to-mental-time-travel-using-intracranial-recordings-in-humans
#2
Roey Schurr, Mor Nitzan, Ruth Eliahou, Laurent Spinelli, Margitta Seeck, Olaf Blanke, Shahar Arzy
In mental time travel (MTT) one is "traveling" back-and-forth in time, remembering, and imagining events. Despite intensive research regarding memory processes in the hippocampus, it was only recently shown that the hippocampus plays an essential role in encoding the temporal order of events remembered, and therefore plays an important role in MTT. Does it also encode the temporal relations of these events to the remembering self? We asked patients undergoing pre-surgical evaluation with depth electrodes penetrating the temporal lobes bilaterally toward the hippocampus to project themselves in time to a past, future, or present time-point, and then make judgments regarding various events...
2018: Frontiers in Computational Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29490957/do-female-sex-workers-have-lower-uptake-of-hiv-treatment-services-than-non-sex-workers-a-cross-sectional-study-from-east-zimbabwe
#3
Rebecca Rhead, Jocelyn Elmes, Eloghene Otobo, Kundai Nhongo, Albert Takaruza, Peter J White, Constance Anesu Nyamukapa, Simon Gregson
OBJECTIVE: Globally, HIV disproportionately affects female sex workers (FSWs) yet HIV treatment coverage is suboptimal. To improve uptake of HIV services by FSWs, it is important to identify potential inequalities in access and use of care and their determinants. Our aim is to investigate HIV treatment cascades for FSWs and non-sex workers (NSWs) in Manicaland province, Zimbabwe, and to examine the socio-demographic characteristics and intermediate determinants that might explain differences in service uptake...
February 28, 2018: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29482017/effects-of-spatial-attention-on-mental-time-travel-in-patients-with-neglect
#4
Filomena Anelli, Stefano Avanzi, Shahar Arzy, Mauro Mancuso, Francesca Frassinetti
Numerous studies agree that time is represented in spatial terms in the brain. Here we investigate how a deficit in orienting attention in space influences the ability to mentally travel in time, that is to recall the past and anticipate the future. Right brain-damaged patients, with (RBD-N+) and without neglect (RBD-N-), and healthy controls (HC) were subjected to a Mental Time Travel (MTT) task. Participants were asked to project themselves in time to past, present or future (i.e., self-projection) and, for each self-projection, to judge whether events were located relatively in the past or the future (i...
April 2018: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29402266/the-gravitational-force-of-mental-health-services-distance-decay-effects-in-a-rural-swiss-service-area
#5
Niklaus Stulz, Eva-Maria Pichler, Wolfram Kawohl, Urs Hepp
BACKGROUND: Previous research suggested a distance decay effect in health services systems, with people living closer to service facilities being more likely to use them. METHOD: In this ecological cross sectional study, we conducted spatial and statistical analyses in a Swiss mental health services system being legally bound to provide primary mental health care to approximately 620,000 inhabitants. We examined a cohort of all patients who were over 18 years old and who were treated in the mental health services system between January and December 2011...
February 5, 2018: BMC Health Services Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29355004/-exploration-on-the-history-of-acupuncture-in-chinese-buddhist-canon
#6
Liangsong Li, Zhaogeng Lin
It is believed that acupuncture science of Buddhist medicine has a long history and great characteristics after the investigation, research and analysis on the historic literature of acupuncture in Chinese Buddhist Canon. The writers tried to give the statements from 4 aspects. 1. Science of acupuncture in the time of Buddha. Firstly, the Buddhist acupuncture was mentioned in the time of Buddha, including substantial acupuncture, finger acupuncture and mental acupuncture. The substantial acupuncture refers to metal needle, plant needle, stone needle, bone needle, etc...
December 12, 2017: Zhongguo Zhen Jiu, Chinese Acupuncture & Moxibustion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29353593/what-is-it-to-remember
#7
Johannes B Mahr, Gergely Csibra
In response to the commentaries, we clarify and defend our characterization of both the nature and function of episodic memory. Regarding the nature of episodic memory, we extend the distinction between event and episodic memory and discuss the relational role of episodic memory. We also address arguments against our characterization of autonoesis and argue that, while self-referential, it needs to be distinguished from an agentive notion of self. Regarding the function of episodic memory, we review arguments about the relation between future mental time travel and memory veridicality; clarify the relation between autonoesis, veridicality, and confidence; and finally discuss the role of episodic memory in diachronic commitments...
January 2018: Behavioral and Brain Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29353564/an-adaptive-function-of-mental-time-travel-motivating-farsighted-decisions
#8
Roland G Benoit, Ruud M W J Berkers, Philipp C Paulus
The episodic memory system allows us to experience the emotions of past, counterfactual, and prospective events. We outline how this phenomenological experience can convey motivational incentives for farsighted decisions. In this way, we challenge important arguments for Mahr & Csibra's (M&C's) conclusion that future-oriented mental time travel is unlikely to be a central function of episodic memory.
January 2018: Behavioral and Brain Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339310/distant-from-input-evidence-of-regions-within-the-default-mode-network-supporting-perceptually-decoupled-and-conceptually-guided-cognition
#9
Charlotte Murphy, Elizabeth Jefferies, Shirley-Ann Rueschemeyer, Mladen Sormaz, Hao-Ting Wang, Daniel S Margulies, Jonathan Smallwood
The default mode network supports a variety of mental operations such as semantic processing, episodic memory retrieval, mental time travel and mind-wandering, yet the commonalities between these functions remains unclear. One possibility is that this system supports cognition that is independent of the immediate environment; alternatively or additionally, it might support higher-order conceptual representations that draw together multiple features. We tested these accounts using a novel paradigm that separately manipulated the availability of perceptual information to guide decision-making and the representational complexity of this information...
May 1, 2018: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29287830/deficits-in-episodic-memory-and-mental-time-travel-in-patients-with-post-traumatic-stress-disorder
#10
Armin Zlomuzica, Marcella L Woud, Alla Machulska, Katharina Kleimt, Lisa Dietrich, Oliver T Wolf, Hans-Joerg Assion, Joseph P Huston, Maria A De Souza Silva, Ekrem Dere, Jürgen Margraf
Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is characterized by impairments in mnestic functions, especially in the domain of episodic memory. These alterations might affect different aspects of episodic memory functioning. Here we tested PTSD patients and healthy controls (matched for age, sex and education) in a newly developed virtual reality episodic memory test (VR-EMT), a test for mental time travel, episodic future thinking, and prospective memory (M3xT). In a cross-validation experiment, their performance was further evaluated in the Rivermead Behavioral Memory Test (RBMT)...
April 20, 2018: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29278777/seven-myths-of-memory
#11
REVIEW
Nicola S Clayton, Clive Wilkins
In this paper we highlight seven myths about memory, which centre around the fact that memories, as we experience them, are not only about the past, they are also prospective. Although episodic memory provides the template for future scenarios, it can be reassessed each time it is recalled, and in part is dependent on the sequence in which events unfold. We explore seven myths about memory, and the relationship between memory and experience. We refer to 'The Moustachio Quartet', a series of novels, which highlight themes and ideas relevant to our argument, and 'The Creatures in the Night', a picture book of paintings that explore the passage of time...
December 24, 2017: Behavioural Processes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29219074/economic-cost-and-quality-of-life-of-family-caregivers-of-schizophrenic-patients-attending-psychiatric-hospitals-in-ghana
#12
Yaw Nyarko Opoku-Boateng, Irene A Kretchy, Genevieve Cecilia Aryeetey, Duah Dwomoh, Sybil Decker, Samuel Agyei Agyemang, Yesim Tozan, Moses Aikins, Justice Nonvignon
BACKGROUND: Low and middle income countries face many challenges in meeting their populations' mental health care needs. Though family caregiving is crucial to the management of severe mental health disabilities, such as schizophrenia, the economic costs borne by family caregivers often go unnoticed. In this study, we estimated the household economic costs of schizophrenia and quality of life of family caregivers in Ghana. METHODS: We used a cost of illness analysis approach...
December 4, 2017: BMC Health Services Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29216447/expectations-about-recipients-prosociality-and-mental-time-travel-relate-to-resource-allocation-in-preschoolers
#13
Yuto Kumaki, Yusuke Moriguchi, Masako Myowa-Yamakoshi
Previous studies have revealed that preschoolers selectively allocate their resources based on their social relationship with recipients such as friendship. In this investigation, we investigated how expectations about recipients' prosociality and the ability of future thinking relate to the selective allocation of resources. In Study 1, participants aged 3.5-6 years chose how to allocate resources from two ways (selfish allocation, where only the participants could receive stickers, and equal allocation, where the participants and recipients receive get the same number of stickers) in costly and non-costly situations with three recipients (friend, peer, and stranger)...
March 2018: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29172618/visuospatial-asymmetries-and-emotional-valence-influence-mental-time-travel
#14
Nicole A Thomas, Melanie K T Takarangi
Spatial information is tightly intertwined with temporal and valence-based information. Namely, "past" is represented on the left, and "future" on the right, along a horizontal mental timeline. Similarly, right is associated with positive, whereas left is negative. We developed a novel task to examine the effects of emotional valence and temporal distance on mental representations of time. We compared positivity biases, where positive events are positioned closer to now, and right hemisphere emotion biases, where negative events are positioned to the left...
November 27, 2017: Emotion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29172196/-memory-of-past-events-and-mental-time-travel-in-apes
#15
Satoshi Hirata
Mental time travel refers to the ability to recall a past event and imagine the future. Some researchers claim that this ability is unique to humans, while others argue that nonhuman animals also possess this ability. A study on apes by using eye-tracking revealed that chimpanzees and bonobos can remember a single event for 24 hours, suggesting that they possess at least some elements of mental time travel.
November 2017: Brain and Nerve, Shinkei Kenkyū No Shinpo
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29172194/-mental-space-navigation-and-mental-time-travel
#16
Mitsuru Kawamura
We examined patients with mental space navigation or mental time travel disorder to identify regions in the brain that may play a critical role in mental time travel in terms of clinical neuropsychology. These regions included the precneus, posterior cingulate gyrus, retrosplenial cortex, and hippocampus, as well as the orbitofrontal cortex: the anterior and posterior medial areas were both shown to be important in this process. Further studies are required to define whether these form a network for mental time travel...
November 2017: Brain and Nerve, Shinkei Kenkyū No Shinpo
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157636/youth-sleep-durations-and-school-start-times-a-cross-sectional-analysis-of-the-compass-study
#17
Karen A Patte, Adam G Cole, Wei Qian, Scott T Leatherdale
OBJECTIVES: This study explored school start times (SST) in relation to sleep duration and adherence to guidelines among Canadian youth. METHODS: Using Year 4 (2015/2016) data from the Cannabis, Obesity, Mental health, Physical activity, Alcohol use, Smoking, and Sedentary behaviour (COMPASS) study, the sample included 35,821 grade 9-12 students at 78 secondary schools in Ontario and Alberta, Canada. Random intercepts models tested student-reported sleep duration and whether students met sleep recommendations, as a function of SST, controlling for student- (race/ethnicity, grade, sex, travel mode to school) and school-level (school-area urbanicity and median household income) correlates...
December 2017: Sleep Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29105144/the-experience-of-stigma-in-inflammatory-bowel-disease-an-interpretive-hermeneutic-phenomenological-study
#18
Lesley Dibley, Christine Norton, Elizabeth Whitehead
AIM: To explore experiences of stigma in people with inflammatory bowel disease. BACKGROUND: Diarrhoea, urgency and incontinence are common symptoms in inflammatory bowel disease. Social rules stipulate full control of bodily functions in adulthood: poor control may lead to stigmatization, affecting patients' adjustment to disease. Disease-related stigma is associated with poorer clinical outcomes, but qualitative evidence is minimal. DESIGN: An interpretive (hermeneutic) phenomenological study of the lived experience of stigma in inflammatory bowel disease...
April 2018: Journal of Advanced Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29074470/posttraumatic-stress-disorder-and-mobile-health-app-investigation-and-scoping-literature-review
#19
Carolina Rodriguez-Paras, Kathryn Tippey, Elaine Brown, Farzan Sasangohar, Suzannah Creech, Hye-Chung Kum, Mark Lawley, Justin K Benzer
BACKGROUND: Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a prevalent mental health issue among veterans. Access to PTSD treatment is influenced by geographic (ie, travel distance to facilities), temporal (ie, time delay between services), financial (ie, eligibility and cost of services), and cultural (ie, social stigma) barriers. OBJECTIVE: The emergence of mobile health (mHealth) apps has the potential to bridge many of these access gaps by providing remote resources and monitoring that can offer discrete assistance to trauma survivors with PTSD and enhance patient-clinician relationships...
October 26, 2017: JMIR MHealth and UHealth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29054290/addictive-behaviors-why-and-how-impaired-mental-time-matters
#20
Xavier Noël, Nematollah Jaafari, Antoine Bechara
Mental time travel (MTT) allows navigation into the past, the future, and the minds of others, and it subserves future-oriented decision-making. Impaired MTT has been associated with a tendency to over-rely on the present, which is a characteristic of addictive behaviors. We here discuss the possible relationship between impaired autographical memory, future-oriented MTT, shortened time horizons, suboptimal social cognition, and poor decision-making in individuals with drug and gambling use disorders. We elaborate on how impaired MTT could compromise the process of change in addiction recovery and the effectiveness of psychotherapy...
2017: Progress in Brain Research
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