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Mental time travel

Kirsten Lerum Indrebø, Gerd Karin Natvig, John Roger Andersen
Ostomy-specific adjustment may or may not predict health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and/or overall quality of life (QoL). A cross-sectional study was conducted among patients recruited from the customer registers of 8 surgical suppliers and pharmacies across Norway between November 2010 and March 2011 to determine which of the 34 items of the Ostomy Adjustment Scale (OAS) are the strongest predictors for HRQoL and overall QoL and to determine the HRQoL and overall QoL of individuals with an ostomy compared to a control group representing the general population...
October 2016: Ostomy/wound Management
Sinead M Kearns, Ann-Marie Creaven
Loneliness is the distressing feeling accompanying the perception that one's social needs are not being met by one's social relationships. Conceptual models point to a role for cognitive factors in this experience. Because research on determinants of loneliness is sparse, this study investigates associations between individual differences in emotion regulation (ER) and loneliness. Participants (N = 116) completed measures of loneliness, and a vignette-based measure of adaptive and maladaptive ER in response to positive and negative scenarios...
October 20, 2016: Personality and Mental Health
Joyce Cheng, Paul Benassi, Claire De Oliveira, Juveria Zaheer, Michael Collins, Paul Kurdyak
OBJECTIVE: Despite the high prevalence of mental illnesses and addictions, treatment rates remain low. In April 2010, a regional mass media campaign was implemented to increase awareness of mental health services in central Toronto, Canada. We studied the impact of this campaign on rates of psychiatric emergency department (PED) visits among all hospital emergency departments (EDs) located in Toronto. DESIGN: Monthly PED visit totals were obtained for all Toronto EDs from April 1, 2007 to March 31, 2012 (n = 148,704)...
October 20, 2016: Canadian Journal of Public Health. Revue Canadienne de Santé Publique
Gin S Malhi, Yulisha Byrow, Frederick Cassidy, Andrea Cipriani, Koen Demyttenaere, Mark A Frye, Michael Gitlin, Sidney H Kennedy, Terence A Ketter, Raymond W Lam, Rupert McShane, Alex J Mitchell, Michael J Ostacher, Sakina J Rizvi, Michael E Thase, Mauricio Tohen
SUMMARY: The appeal of ketamine - in promptly ameliorating depressive symptoms even in those with non-response - has led to a dramatic increase in its off-label use. Initial promising results await robust corroboration and key questions remain, particularly concerning its long-term administration. It is, therefore, timely to review the opinions of mood disorder experts worldwide pertaining to ketamine's potential as an option for treating depression and provide a synthesis of perspectives - derived from evidence and clinical experience - and to consider strategies for future investigations...
May 2016: BJPsych Open
Corinna S Martarelli, Boris Mayer, Fred W Mast
Music creates room for the mind to wander, mental time travel, and departures into more fantastical worlds. We examined the mediating role of daydreams and the moderating function of personality differences for the emotional response to music by using a moderated mediation approach. The results showed that the valence of daydreams played a mediating role in the reaction to the musical experience: happy music was related to more positive daydreams, which were associated with greater relaxation with the happy music and to greater liking of the happy music...
September 24, 2016: Consciousness and Cognition
Jana Speth, Astrid M Schloerscheidt, Clemens Speth
We present a quantitative study of mental time travel to the past and future in sleep onset hypnagogia. Three independent, blind judges analysed a total of 150 mentation reports from different intervals prior to and after sleep onset. The linguistic tool for the mentation report analysis grounds on established grammatical and cognitive-semantic theories, and proof of concept has been provided in previous studies. The current results indicate that memory for the future, but not for the past, decreases in sleep onset - thereby supporting preliminary physiological evidence at the level of brain function...
October 2016: Consciousness and Cognition
Maria Grazia Spurio
For a long time, terms like "mind" and "emotion" have rarely been taken into account, not even mentioned in the medical texts. The latest scientific researches, including the studies of Candace Pert, on the contrary, have emphasized that the entire body thinks, because every single cell hears, and feels emotions. The international researcher has discovered the endocrines and a vast number of neuropeptides, that work as an "information network" that interconnects the entire body, the "psychic" molecules are transmitted and travel, communicating information as in a circular and recursive body - mind mechanism...
September 2016: Psychiatria Danubina
Elena Mavromoustakos, Gavin I Clark, Adam J Rock
Probability bias regarding threat-relevant outcomes has been demonstrated across anxiety disorders but has not been investigated in flying phobia. Individual temporal orientation (time perspective) may be hypothesised to influence estimates of negative outcomes occurring. The present study investigated whether probability bias could be demonstrated in flying phobia and whether probability estimates of negative flying events was predicted by time perspective. Sixty flying phobic and fifty-five non-flying-phobic adults were recruited to complete an online questionnaire...
2016: PloS One
Ming-Wei Chao, Chin-Hua Yang, Po-Ting Lin, Yu-Hsiu Yang, Yu-Chen Chuang, Meng-Chi Chung, Chia-Yi Tseng
PM2.5 travels along the respiratory tract and enters systemic blood circulation. Studies have shown that PM2.5 increases the incidence of various diseases not only in adults but also in newborn infants. It causes chronic inflammation in pregnant women and retards fetal development. In this study, pregnant rats were exposed to PM2.5 for extended periods of time and it was found that PM2.5 exposure increased immune cells in mother rats. In addition, cytokines and free radicals rapidly accumulated in the amniotic fluid and indirectly affected the fetuses...
August 19, 2016: Environmental Toxicology
Francesco Ferretti
In this paper, I assume that the study of the origin of language is strictly connected to the analysis of the traits that distinguish human language from animal communication. Usually, human language is said to be unique in the animal kingdom because it enables and/or requires intentionality or mindreading. By emphasizing the importance of mindreading, the social brain hypothesis has provided major insights within the origin of language debate. However, as studies on non-human primates have demonstrated that intentional forms of communication are already present in these species to a greater or lesser extent, I maintain that the social brain is a necessary but not a sufficient condition to explain the uniqueness of language...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
W Xu, K Liu, Q T Lin, X J Ye, Y Lu, X X Zhang, L C Zhao, H C Gao, Z H Yan
OBJECTIVE: To establish and evaluate a rat model of diabetes comorbid depression, and observe alterations in expression of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) in several cerebral regions. METHODS: Eighteen Wistar rats were randomly divided into three groups, the control group (group CON, n=6), the diabetes mellitus group (group DM, n=6), and the diabetes comorbid depression group (group DD, n=6). Rats of group DM and group DD were injected intraperitoneally with STZ (64 mg/kg), the control rats received sham injections of citrate buffer alone...
August 2, 2016: Zhonghua Yi Xue za Zhi [Chinese medical journal]
Xing-Jie Chen, Lu-Lu Liu, Ji-Fang Cui, Ya Wang, An-Tao Chen, Feng-Hua Li, Wei-Hong Wang, Han-Feng Zheng, Ming-Yuan Gan, Chun-Qiu Li, David H K Shum, Raymond C K Chan
Mental time travel refers to the ability to recall past events and to imagine possible future events. Schizophrenia (SCZ) patients have problems in remembering specific personal experiences in the past and imagining what will happen in the future. This study aimed to examine episodic past and future thinking in SCZ spectrum disorders including SCZ patients and individuals with schizotypal personality disorder (SPD) proneness who are at risk for developing SCZ. Thirty-two SCZ patients, 30 SPD proneness individuals, and 33 healthy controls participated in the study...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
V Heaslip, S Hean, J Parker
AIM: To present a new etemic model of vulnerability. BACKGROUND: Despite vulnerability being identified as a core consequence of health and health experiences there has been little research exploring the meaning of vulnerability as a concept. Yet being vulnerable is known to have dire physical/mental health consequences. It is therefore a fundamental issue for nurses to address. To date, the meaning of the term vulnerability has been influenced by the work of Spiers (2000, 2005)...
August 9, 2016: Journal of Clinical Nursing
Filomena Anelli, Elisa Ciaramelli, Shahar Arzy, Francesca Frassinetti
Accumulating evidence suggests that humans process time and space in similar veins. Humans represent time along a spatial continuum, and perception of temporal durations can be altered through manipulations of spatial attention by prismatic adaptation (PA). Here, we investigated whether PA-induced manipulations of spatial attention can also influence more conceptual aspects of time, such as humans' ability to travel mentally back and forward in time (mental time travel, MTT). Before and after leftward- and rightward-PA, participants projected themselves in the past, present or future time (i...
November 2016: Cognition
Alexander Davidson, Sally Slavinski, Kendra Komoto, Jennifer Rakeman, Don Weiss
A routine investigation by the New York City (NYC) Department of Health and Mental Hygiene (DOHMH) identified a nonpregnant woman in her twenties who reported she had engaged in a single event of condomless vaginal intercourse with a male partner the day she returned to NYC (day 0) from travel to an area with ongoing Zika virus transmission. She had headache and abdominal cramping while in the airport awaiting return to NYC. The following day (day 1) she developed fever, fatigue, a maculopapular rash, myalgia, arthralgia, back pain, swelling of the extremities, and numbness and tingling in her hands and feet...
2016: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
Abigail Clifton, Caroline Burgess, Sarah Clement, Ruth Ohlsen, Pras Ramluggun, Jackie Sturt, Paul Walters, Elizabeth A Barley
BACKGROUND: Cancers are a leading cause of death worldwide. People with mental illness are 30 % more likely to die from cancer than the general population. One reason for this may be low uptake of nationally offered cancer screening tests by people with mental illness. We aimed to identify barriers and facilitators for breast, cervical and bowel cancer screening uptake by people with mental illness in order to inform interventions to promote equal access. METHODS: The interview study was conducted in both urban and rural settings...
2016: BMC Health Services Research
Olivier Jeunehomme, Arnaud D'Argembeau
Recent research suggests that some imagined future events are encoded in memory, leading to the formation of "memories of the future". However, questions remain regarding the exact components of future event simulations that are encoded and the factors that determine their accessibility. To address these questions, the present study investigated memory for previously imagined future events using both free and cued recall tasks. The results showed that most future event simulations were successfully encoded and remained available in memory after a one week delay, but only some of them were readily accessible, whereas others could only be accessed when relevant cues were provided...
July 10, 2016: Memory
Jonathan R Olsen, Richard Mitchell, David Ogilvie
BACKGROUND: Promoting active travel is an important part of increasing population physical activity, which has both physical and mental health benefits. A key benefit described by the then Scottish Government of the five-mile M74 motorway extension, which opened during June 2011 in the south of Glasgow, was that the forecast reduction in motor traffic on local streets would make these streets safer for walking and cycling, thus increasing active travel by the local population. The aim of the study was to evaluate the impact of new motorway infrastructure on the proportion of journey stages made actively (cycling or on foot) by individuals travelling in and out of the local area...
2016: International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity
Laurie Compère, Marco Sperduti, Thierry Gallarda, Adèle Anssens, Stéphanie Lion, Marion Delhommeau, Pénélope Martinelli, Anne-Dominique Devauchelle, Catherine Oppenheim, Pascale Piolino
Autobiographical memory (AM) underlies the formation and temporal continuity over time of personal identity. The few studies on sex-related differences in AM suggest that men and women adopt different cognitive or emotional strategies when retrieving AMs. However, none of the previous works has taken into account the distinction between episodic autobiographical memory (EAM), consisting in the retrieval of specific events by means of mental time travel, and semantic autobiographical memory (SAM), which stores general personal events...
2016: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
Xiaoqi Feng, Thomas Astell-Burt
BACKGROUND: Research on the impact of social interactions on psychological distress tends to be limited to particular forms of support, cross-sectional designs and by the spectre of omitted variables bias. METHOD: A baseline sample with 3.4±0.95 years follow-up time was extracted from the 45 and Up Study. Change in the risk of psychological distress (Kessler Psychological Distress Scale) was assessed using fixed effects logistic regressions in relation to the number of times in the past week a participant: i) spent time with friends or family they did not live with; ii) talked to friends, relatives or others on the telephone; iii) attended meetings at social clubs or religious groups; and the count of people outside their home, but within one hour travel-time, participants felt close to...
November 1, 2016: Journal of Affective Disorders
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