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Mental time travel

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28518005/safety-considerations-for-medical-staff-and-patients-who-fly-over-water-in-a-helicopter-for-work-or-recreation
#1
Christopher J Brooks, Conor V MacDonald
BACKGROUND: Around 25% of people involved in a helicopter accident in water do not survive. From time to time, physicians and their medical staff are required to fly over water in a helicopter to attend one or more seriously ill patients. Many will have had little or no experience of the issues involved if the helicopter has an accident in the water. Also as Family Practitioners, Aeromedical Examiners, and Flight Surgeons, they are asked to provide advice to patients, travel agents, and airline booking agents about whether an overwater helicopter flight is advisable or not...
April 1, 2017: Aerospace Medicine and Human Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515010/aberrant-network-activity-in-schizophrenia
#2
REVIEW
Mark J Hunt, Nancy J Kopell, Roger D Traub, Miles A Whittington
Brain dynamic changes associated with schizophrenia are largely equivocal, with interpretation complicated by many factors, such as the presence of therapeutic agents and the complex nature of the syndrome itself. Evidence for a brain-wide change in individual network oscillations, shared by all patients, is largely equivocal, but stronger for lower (delta) than for higher (gamma) bands. However, region-specific changes in rhythms across multiple, interdependent, nested frequencies may correlate better with pathology...
May 14, 2017: Trends in Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28479980/memory-mental-time-travel-and-the-moustachio-quartet
#3
Nicola Clayton, Clive Wilkins
Mental time travel allows us to revisit our memories and imagine future scenarios, and this is why memories are not only about the past, but they are also prospective. These episodic memories are not a fixed store of what happened, however, they are reassessed each time they are revisited and depend on the sequence in which events unfold. In this paper, we shall explore the complex relationships between memory and human experience, including through a series of novels 'The Moustachio Quartet' that can be read in any order...
June 6, 2017: Interface Focus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28453601/time-spent-commuting-to-work-and-mental-health-evidence-from-13-waves-of-an-australian-cohort-study
#4
Allison Milner, Hannah Badland, Anne Kavanagh, Anthony D LaMontagne
Time-related stressors, such as long working hours, are recognized as being detrimental to health. We considered whether time spent commuting to work was a risk factor for poor mental health. Data from the Household, Income Labour Dynamics in Australia Survey were used to conduct fixed-effects longitudinal regression analyses. The outcome variable was the Mental Health Inventory, and the main exposure represented hours per week traveling to and from a place of paid employment. Effect modifiers included sex, low job control, high demands, and low job security...
April 27, 2017: American Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426367/child-and-adolescent-emergency-and-urgent-mental-health-delivery-through-telepsychiatry-12-month-prospective-study
#5
Nasreen Roberts, Tina Hu, Nicholas Axas, Leanne Repetti
BACKGROUND: The significant gap between children and adolescents presenting for emergency mental healthcare and the shortage of child and adolescent psychiatrists constitutes a major barrier to timely access for psychiatric assessment for rural and remote areas. Unlike remote areas, urban emergency departments have in-house psychiatric consultation. Telepsychiatry may be a solution to ensure the same service for remote areas. However, there is a paucity of studies on the use of telepsychiatry for child and adolescent emergency consults...
April 20, 2017: Telemedicine Journal and E-health: the Official Journal of the American Telemedicine Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424392/-the-role-of-brodmann-area-12-taste-social-cognition-and-mental-time
#6
Mitsuru Kawamura
Broadman area 12, together with area 11, is located in the orbitofrontal area. A voxel-based morphometric (VBM) study revealed the association between bilateral brodmann areas 12/47 and taste disturbance in individuals with frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD). In our VBM study in patients with Parkinson's disease, decision-making impairments were associated with atrophy of the bilateral Brodmann area 12, indicating that this area may play an important role in social cognitive function. Our recent study also demonstrated that this area may serve as time order judgement or mental time travel...
April 2017: Brain and Nerve, Shinkei Kenkyū No Shinpo
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420374/prevalence-and-associated-factors-of-common-mental-disorders-among-ethiopian-migrant-returnees-from-the-middle-east-and-south-africa
#7
Kassahun Habtamu, Abebaw Minaye, Waganesh A Zeleke
BACKGROUND: Ethiopian migrants to the Middle East and South Africa experience a range of problems at various stages of their migration including overwork, sleep deprivation, denial of food, emotional abuse, difficulty adapting to the host culture, salary denial, sexual abuse, labor exploitation, confiscation of their travel documents, confinement, denial of medication, lack of access to legal service and degrading attitude by employers, traffickers and smugglers. These experiences can be associated with different types of mental disorders...
April 19, 2017: BMC Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28398117/reconstructing-the-times-of-past-and-future-personal-events
#8
Hédi Ben Malek, Fabrice Berna, Arnaud D'Argembeau
Humans have the remarkable ability to mentally travel through past and future times. However, while memory for the times of past events has been much investigated, little is known about how imagined future events are temporally located. Using a think-aloud protocol, we found that the temporal location of past and future events is rarely directly accessed, but instead mostly relies on reconstructive and inferential strategies. References to lifetime periods and factual knowledge (about the self, others, and the world) were most frequently used to determine the temporal location of both past and future events...
April 11, 2017: Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28398006/a-cost-analysis-of-implementing-a-behavioral-weight-loss-intervention-in-community-mental-health-settings-results-from-the-achieve-trial
#9
Ellen M Janssen, Gerald J Jerome, Arlene T Dalcin, Joseph V Gennusa, Stacy Goldsholl, Kevin D Frick, Nae-Yuh Wang, Lawrence J Appel, Gail L Daumit
OBJECTIVE: In the ACHIEVE randomized controlled trial, an 18-month behavioral intervention accomplished weight loss in persons with serious mental illness who attended community psychiatric rehabilitation programs. This analysis estimates costs for delivering the intervention during the study. It also estimates expected costs to implement the intervention more widely in a range of community mental health programs. METHODS: Using empirical data, costs were calculated from the perspective of a community psychiatric rehabilitation program delivering the intervention...
April 11, 2017: Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28385561/a-multifactorial-evaluation-of-illness-risk-factors-in-athletes-preparing-for-the-summer-olympic-games
#10
Michael K Drew, Nicole Vlahovich, David Hughes, Renee Appaneal, Kirsten Peterson, Louise Burke, Bronwen Lundy, Mary Toomey, David Watts, Gregory Lovell, Stephan Praet, Shona Halson, Candice Colbey, Silvia Manzanero, Marijke Welvaert, Nic West, David B Pyne, Gordon Waddington
OBJECTIVES: Illness can disrupt training and competition performance of athletes. Few studies have quantified the relative contribution of the known medical, behavioural and lifestyle risk factors. DESIGN: Cross-sectional. METHODS: Olympic athletes from 11 sports (n=221) were invited to complete questionnaires administered nine months before the Rio 2016 Olympic Games. These included the Depression, Anxiety and Stress Questionnaire (DASS-21), Perceived Stress Scale (PSS), Dispositional Resilience Scale (DRS), Recovery-Stress Questionnaire (REST-Q-52 item), Low Energy in Females Questionnaire (LEAF-Q), a modified Personal and Household Hygiene questionnaire, Epworth Sleepiness Scale, Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, and custom-made questionnaires on probiotic usage and travel...
March 21, 2017: Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28365536/personality-traits-are-associated-with-the-valence-of-future-imagined-events-in-individuals-with-schizophrenia
#11
Stéphane Raffard, Catherine Bortolon, Yannick Stephan, Delphine Capdevielle, Martial Van der Linden
The relationships between the valence (positive or negative) of future imagined events and personality dimensions were examined in patients with schizophrenia. Correlational analyses showed that Extraversion was positively associated with the simulation of more positive future events whereas a statistical trend between Neuroticism and negative emotional valence was found. As in nonclinical individuals, personality is related to characteristics of mental time travel in schizophrenia patients.
March 18, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338716/neurological-evidence-for-the-role-of-construal-level-in-future-directed-thought
#12
Paul E Stillman, Hyojin Lee, Xiaoyan Deng, Rao Unnava, William A Cunningham, Kentaro Fujita
The ability to mentally represent future events is a significant human psychological achievement. A challenge that people encounter is that they often lack detailed specifics about distant relative to near future events. Construal level theory (Liberman & Trope, 2014) proposes that people represent distant future events by their abstract and essential features - a process referred to as high-level construal. As events become temporally proximal, people represent events by their increasingly available and reliable concrete and idiosyncratic features - a process referred to as low-level construal...
February 21, 2017: Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330742/fellow-travellers-working-memory-and-mental-time-travel-in-rodents
#13
REVIEW
Ekrem Dere, Dorothea Dere, Maria Angelica de Souza Silva, Joseph P Huston, Armin Zlomuzica
The impairment of mental time travel is a severe cognitive symptom in patients with brain lesions and a number of neuropsychiatric disorders. Whether animals are also able to mentally travel in time both forward and backward is still a matter of debate. In this regard, we have proposed a continuum of mental time travel abilities across different animal species, with humans being the species with the ability to perform most sophisticated forms of mental time travel. In this review and perspective article, we delineate a novel approach to understand the evolution, characteristics and function of human and animal mental time travel...
March 19, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302595/behavioral-indicators-on-a-mobile-sensing-platform-predict-clinically-validated-psychiatric-symptoms-of-mood-and-anxiety-disorders
#14
Skyler Place, Danielle Blanch-Hartigan, Channah Rubin, Cristina Gorrostieta, Caroline Mead, John Kane, Brian P Marx, Joshua Feast, Thilo Deckersbach, Alex Sandy Pentland, Andrew Nierenberg, Ali Azarbayejani
BACKGROUND: There is a critical need for real-time tracking of behavioral indicators of mental disorders. Mobile sensing platforms that objectively and noninvasively collect, store, and analyze behavioral indicators have not yet been clinically validated or scalable. OBJECTIVE: The aim of our study was to report on models of clinical symptoms for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depression derived from a scalable mobile sensing platform. METHODS: A total of 73 participants (67% [49/73] male, 48% [35/73] non-Hispanic white, 33% [24/73] veteran status) who reported at least one symptom of PTSD or depression completed a 12-week field trial...
March 16, 2017: Journal of Medical Internet Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214771/future-oriented-mental-time-travel-in-individuals-with-disordered-gambling
#15
Xavier Noël, Mélanie Saeremans, Charles Kornreich, Nematollah Jaafari, Arnaud D'Argembeau
This study investigated the ability of individuals with disordered gambling to imagine future events. Problem gamblers (n=35) and control participants (n=35) were asked to imagine positive and negative future events for three temporal distances (one week, one year, 5-10years). Then, a variety of phenomenological aspects of their future thoughts (e.g., sensory and contextual details, autonoetic consciousness) were rated. Compared to control subjects, problem gamblers generated fewer positive and negative events across all temporal distances, an impairment that was correlated to verbal fluency scores...
March 2017: Consciousness and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214132/language-evolution-a-changing-perspective
#16
REVIEW
Michael C Corballis
From ancient times, religion and philosophy have regarded language as a faculty bestowed uniquely and suddenly on our own species, primarily as a mode of thought with communication as a byproduct. This view persists among some scientists and linguists and is counter to the theory of evolution, which implies that the evolution of complex structures is incremental. I argue here that language derives from mental processes with gradual evolutionary trajectories, including the generative capacities to travel mentally in time and space and into the minds of others...
February 14, 2017: Trends in Cognitive Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208966/study-of-parental-perceptions-on-health-social-needs-of-children-with-neuro-developmental-disability-and-it-s-impact-on-the-family
#17
Nusrat Jahan Rafique Ansari, Ramchandra Keshav Dhongade, Preeti Sagar Lad, Ashwin Borade, Suvarna Yg, Vishal Yadav, Ashwini Mehetre, Rahul Kulkarni
INTRODUCTION: The term Neuro Developmental Disorder (NDD) is used for conditions caused by a dysfunction in any part of the brain or nervous system, resulting in physical and/or psychological symptoms as a child develops. Family of children with NDD face many problems. It is very important to find them and create awareness so that gaps in essential services and supports can be decreased. AIM: To explore parental perceptions on health & social needs of children with NDD, to understand the impact of disability on the families having children with disability, and to find out the parental perceptions on availability of services for children with NDD and its utilization by families...
December 2016: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28157585/thinking-about-threats-memory-and-prospection-in-human-threat-management
#18
REVIEW
Adam Bulley, Julie D Henry, Thomas Suddendorf
Humans have evolved mechanisms for the detection and management of possible threats in order to abate their negative consequences for fitness. Internally generated ('detached') cognition may have evolved in part because of its contributions to this broad function, but important questions remain about its role in threat management. In this article, we therefore present a taxonomy of threat-related internally generated cognition comprising episodic and semantic formats of memory and prospection. We address the proximate mechanisms of each of the capacities in this taxonomy, and discuss their respective contributions to adaptive threat management in humans...
March 2017: Consciousness and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28157277/predictors-and-barriers-to-mental-health-treatment-utilization-among-older-veterans-living-with-hiv
#19
Raeanne C Moore, María J Marquine, Elizabeth Straus, Colin A Depp, David J Moore, Dawn M Schiehser, Neil M Richtand, Dilip V Jeste, Lisa T Eyler
Objective: To identify key mood, social, and functional correlates of current participation in mental health treatment and barriers to participation in mental health treatment among older HIV infected (HIV+) veterans. Methods: HIV+ veterans (N = 150) aged ≥ 50 years receiving HIV-related medical care at the VA San Diego Healthcare System, San Diego, California, anonymously completed a survey assessing current self-reported mood, social support, daily functioning problems, mental health service utilization, and barriers to participating in mental health services...
February 2, 2017: Primary Care Companion to CNS Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100294/why-do-we-remember-the-communicative-function-of-episodic-memory
#20
Johannes Mahr, Gergely Csibra
Episodic memory has been analyzed in a number of different ways in both philosophy and psychology, and most controversy has centered on its self-referential, 'autonoetic' character. Here, we offer a comprehensive characterization of episodic memory in representational terms, and propose a novel functional account on this basis. We argue that episodic memory should be understood as a distinctive epistemic attitude taken towards an event simulation. On this view, episodic memory has a metarepresentational format and should not be equated with beliefs about the past...
January 19, 2017: Behavioral and Brain Sciences
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