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Mental time travel

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100294/why-do-we-remember-the-communicative-function-of-episodic-memory
#1
Johannes Mahr, Gergely Csibra
Episodic memory has been analyzed in a number of different ways in both philosophy and psychology, and most controversy has centered on its self-referential, 'autonoetic' character. Here, we offer a comprehensive characterization of episodic memory in representational terms, and propose a novel functional account on this basis. We argue that episodic memory should be understood as a distinctive epistemic attitude taken towards an event simulation. On this view, episodic memory has a metarepresentational format and should not be equated with beliefs about the past...
January 19, 2017: Behavioral and Brain Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27989779/tracking-thoughts-exploring-the-neural-architecture-of-mental-time-travel-during-mind-wandering
#2
Theodoros Karapanagiotidis, Boris C Bernhardt, Elizabeth Jefferies, Jonathan Smallwood
The capacity to imagine situations that have already happened or fictitious events that may take place in the future is known as mental time travel (MTT). Studies have shown that MTT is an important aspect of spontaneous thought, yet we lack a clear understanding of how the neurocognitive architecture of the brain constrains this element of human cognition. Previous functional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies have shown that MTT involves the coordination between multiple regions that include mesiotemporal structures such as the hippocampus, as well as prefrontal and parietal regions commonly associated with the default mode network (DMN)...
December 15, 2016: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27974940/orientation-to-the-patient-as-a-marketing-strategy-in-the-romanian-healthcare-system
#3
Coculescu Bi, Coculescu Ec, Purcărea Vl
In the context of the European political and socio-economic changes of the early 90s, health care reform in Romania has become inevitable, both for patients and for health professionals in the system. The first stage of the health care reform in Romania is focused on decentralization and improving primary health care. The Romanian medical system is currently in the process of changing the mentality, which requires time, patience, and perseverance, despite the unforeseeable or resistance inevitably faced. It is a commonly known and recognized fact that in this painful period of transition, Romanian medicine, like other fields too, has traveled a winding road, with obstacles (medical malpractices, scandals in the press related to the misappropriation of funds or underfunding of the public health system, etc...
July 2016: Journal of Medicine and Life
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27951414/mental-time-travel-to-the-future-might-be-reduced-in-sleep
#4
Jana Speth, Astrid M Schloerscheidt, Clemens Speth
We present a quantitative study of mental time travel to the future in sleep. Three independent, blind judges analysed a total of 563 physiology-monitored mentation reports from sleep onset, REM sleep, non-REM sleep, and waking. The linguistic tool for the mentation report analysis is based on established grammatical and cognitive-semantic theories and has been validated in previous studies. Our data indicate that REM and non-REM sleep must be characterized by a reduction in mental time travel to the future, which would support earlier physiological evidence at the level of brain function...
December 9, 2016: Consciousness and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27942036/determinants-of-three-year-change-in-children-s-objectively-measured-sedentary-time
#5
Andrew J Atkin, Louise Foley, Kirsten Corder, Ulf Ekelund, Esther M F van Sluijs
BACKGROUND: Sedentary behaviours (SB) are highly prevalent in young people and may be adversely associated with physical and mental health. Understanding of the modifiable determinants of SB is necessary to inform the design of behaviour change interventions but much of the existing research is cross-sectional and focussed upon screen-based behaviours. PURPOSE: To examine the social, psychological and environmental determinants of change in children's objectively measured sedentary time from age 11 to 14 years...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894358/attentional-and-affective-consequences-of-technology-supported-mindfulness-training-a-randomised-active-control-efficacy-trial
#6
Sheffy Bhayee, Patricia Tomaszewski, Daniel H Lee, Graeme Moffat, Lou Pino, Sylvain Moreno, Norman A S Farb
BACKGROUND: Mindfulness training (MT) programs represent an approach to attention training with well-validated mental health benefits. However, research supporting MT efficacy is based predominantly on weekly-meeting, facilitator-led, group-intervention formats. It is unknown whether participants might benefit from neurofeedback-assisted, technology-supported MT (N-tsMT), in which meditation is delivered individually, without the need for a facilitator, travel to a training site, or the presence of a supportive group environment...
November 29, 2016: BMC Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893483/game-times-and-higher-winning-percentages-of-west-coast-teams-of-the-national-football-league-correspond-with-reduced-prevalence-of-regular-season-injury
#7
Allison J Brager, R Justin Mistovich
West coast teams of the National Football League (NFL) are more statistically likely to win home night games against east coast opponents. The alignment of game times with daily rhythms of alertness is thought to contribute to this advantage. The present study aims to determine if rates of turnovers and injuries during the regular season, putative measures of mental and physical fatigue, impact winning percentages. Regular season schedules and rates of turnovers for each of the thirty-two teams were obtained from Pro-Football-Reference...
November 16, 2016: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881776/time-is-not-space-core-computations-and-domain-specific-networks-for-mental-travels
#8
Baptiste Gauthier, Virginie van Wassenhove
: Humans can consciously project themselves in the future and imagine themselves at different places. Do mental time travel and mental space navigation abilities share common cognitive and neural mechanisms? To test this, we recorded fMRI while participants mentally projected themselves in time or in space (e.g., 9 years ago, in Paris) and ordered historical events from their mental perspective. Behavioral patterns were comparable for mental time and space and shaped by self-projection and by the distance of historical events to the mental position of the self, suggesting the existence of egocentric mapping in both dimensions...
November 23, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27788399/mental-time-travel-ability-and-the-mental-reinstatement-of-context-for-crime-witnesses
#9
James H Smith-Spark, Joshua Bartimus, Rachel Wilcock
Mental time travel ability marks how well the phenomenological aspects of events are mentally re-experienced during recall. The Cognitive Interview (CI) elicits eyewitness information. One of its techniques, Mental Reinstatement of Context (MRC), asks eyewitnesses to reinstate the incident's context mentally before recall. Fifty-six participants watched a simulated crime video. Self-report measures were then taken to estimate general mental time travel ability. Participants were questioned subsequently about the video...
October 24, 2016: Consciousness and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27786529/children-s-predictions-of-future-perceptual-experiences-temporal-reasoning-and-phenomenology
#10
Patrick Burns, James Russell
We investigated the development and cognitive correlates of envisioning future experiences in 3.5- to 6.5-year old children across 2 experiments, both of which involved toy trains traveling along a track. In the first, children were asked to predict the direction of train travel and color of train side, as it would be seen through an arch. Children below 5 years typically failed the task, while performance on it was associated with performance on a "before/after" comprehension task in which order-of-mention in a sentence had to be mapped to a video of 2 actions (after McCormack & Hanley, 2011)...
November 2016: Developmental Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27770476/familiarity-expands-space-and-contracts-time
#11
Anna Jafarpour, Hugo Spiers
When humans draw maps, or make judgments about travel-time, their responses are rarely accurate and are often systematically distorted. Distortion effects on estimating time to arrival and the scale of sketch-maps reveal the nature of mental representation of time and space. Inspired by data from rodent entorhinal grid cells, we predicted that familiarity to an environment would distort representations of the space by expanding the size of it. We also hypothesized that travel-time estimation would be distorted in the same direction as space-size, if time and space rely on the same cognitive map...
January 2017: Hippocampus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27768580/a-cross-sectional-study-to-determine-whether-adjustment-to-an-ostomy-can-predict-health-related-and-or-overall-quality-of-life
#12
Kirsten Lerum Indrebø, Gerd Karin Natvig, John Roger Andersen
Ostomy-specific adjustment may or may not predict health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and/or overall quality of life (QoL). A cross-sectional study was conducted among patients recruited from the customer registers of 8 surgical suppliers and pharmacies across Norway between November 2010 and March 2011 to determine which of the 34 items of the Ostomy Adjustment Scale (OAS) are the strongest predictors for HRQoL and overall QoL and to determine the HRQoL and overall QoL of individuals with an ostomy compared to a control group representing the general population...
October 2016: Ostomy/wound Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27766765/individual-differences-in-positive-and-negative-emotion-regulation-which-strategies-explain-variability-in-loneliness
#13
Sinead M Kearns, Ann-Marie Creaven
Loneliness is the distressing feeling accompanying the perception that one's social needs are not being met by one's social relationships. Conceptual models point to a role for cognitive factors in this experience. Because research on determinants of loneliness is sparse, this study investigates associations between individual differences in emotion regulation (ER) and loneliness. Participants (N = 116) completed measures of loneliness, and a vignette-based measure of adaptive and maladaptive ER in response to positive and negative scenarios...
October 20, 2016: Personality and Mental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27763847/impact-of-a-mass-media-mental-health-campaign-on-psychiatric-emergency-department-visits
#14
Joyce Cheng, Paul Benassi, Claire De Oliveira, Juveria Zaheer, Michael Collins, Paul Kurdyak
OBJECTIVE: Despite the high prevalence of mental illnesses and addictions, treatment rates remain low. In April 2010, a regional mass media campaign was implemented to increase awareness of mental health services in central Toronto, Canada. We studied the impact of this campaign on rates of psychiatric emergency department (PED) visits among all hospital emergency departments (EDs) located in Toronto. DESIGN: Monthly PED visit totals were obtained for all Toronto EDs from April 1, 2007 to March 31, 2012 (n = 148,704)...
October 20, 2016: Canadian Journal of Public Health. Revue Canadienne de Santé Publique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27703782/ketamine-stimulating-antidepressant-treatment
#15
Gin S Malhi, Yulisha Byrow, Frederick Cassidy, Andrea Cipriani, Koen Demyttenaere, Mark A Frye, Michael Gitlin, Sidney H Kennedy, Terence A Ketter, Raymond W Lam, Rupert McShane, Alex J Mitchell, Michael J Ostacher, Sakina J Rizvi, Michael E Thase, Mauricio Tohen
SUMMARY: The appeal of ketamine - in promptly ameliorating depressive symptoms even in those with non-response - has led to a dramatic increase in its off-label use. Initial promising results await robust corroboration and key questions remain, particularly concerning its long-term administration. It is, therefore, timely to review the opinions of mood disorder experts worldwide pertaining to ketamine's potential as an option for treating depression and provide a synthesis of perspectives - derived from evidence and clinical experience - and to consider strategies for future investigations...
May 2016: BJPsych Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27677051/daydreams-and-trait-affect-the-role-of-the-listener-s-state-of-mind-in-the-emotional-response-to-music
#16
Corinna S Martarelli, Boris Mayer, Fred W Mast
Music creates room for the mind to wander, mental time travel, and departures into more fantastical worlds. We examined the mediating role of daydreams and the moderating function of personality differences for the emotional response to music by using a moderated mediation approach. The results showed that the valence of daydreams played a mediating role in the reaction to the musical experience: happy music was related to more positive daydreams, which were associated with greater relaxation with the happy music and to greater liking of the happy music...
September 24, 2016: Consciousness and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27665087/as-we-fall-asleep-we-forget-about-the-future-a-quantitative-linguistic-analysis-of-mentation-reports-from-hypnagogia
#17
Jana Speth, Astrid M Schloerscheidt, Clemens Speth
We present a quantitative study of mental time travel to the past and future in sleep onset hypnagogia. Three independent, blind judges analysed a total of 150 mentation reports from different intervals prior to and after sleep onset. The linguistic tool for the mentation report analysis grounds on established grammatical and cognitive-semantic theories, and proof of concept has been provided in previous studies. The current results indicate that memory for the future, but not for the past, decreases in sleep onset - thereby supporting preliminary physiological evidence at the level of brain function...
October 2016: Consciousness and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27663819/the-new-functional-identity-a-body-that-thinks-a-mind-that-feels-frontiers-and-unexplored-territories-of-the-body-and-mind-zone
#18
Maria Grazia Spurio
For a long time, terms like "mind" and "emotion" have rarely been taken into account, not even mentioned in the medical texts. The latest scientific researches, including the studies of Candace Pert, on the contrary, have emphasized that the entire body thinks, because every single cell hears, and feels emotions. The international researcher has discovered the endocrines and a vast number of neuropeptides, that work as an "information network" that interconnects the entire body, the "psychic" molecules are transmitted and travel, communicating information as in a circular and recursive body - mind mechanism...
September 2016: Psychiatria Danubina
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27557054/evaluating-perceived-probability-of-threat-relevant-outcomes-and-temporal-orientation-in-flying-phobia
#19
Elena Mavromoustakos, Gavin I Clark, Adam J Rock
Probability bias regarding threat-relevant outcomes has been demonstrated across anxiety disorders but has not been investigated in flying phobia. Individual temporal orientation (time perspective) may be hypothesised to influence estimates of negative outcomes occurring. The present study investigated whether probability bias could be demonstrated in flying phobia and whether probability estimates of negative flying events was predicted by time perspective. Sixty flying phobic and fifty-five non-flying-phobic adults were recruited to complete an online questionnaire...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27539004/exposure-to-pm2-5-causes-genetic-changes-in-fetal-rat-cerebral-cortex-and-hippocampus
#20
Ming-Wei Chao, Chin-Hua Yang, Po-Ting Lin, Yu-Hsiu Yang, Yu-Chen Chuang, Meng-Chi Chung, Chia-Yi Tseng
PM2.5 travels along the respiratory tract and enters systemic blood circulation. Studies have shown that PM2.5 increases the incidence of various diseases not only in adults but also in newborn infants. It causes chronic inflammation in pregnant women and retards fetal development. In this study, pregnant rats were exposed to PM2.5 for extended periods of time and it was found that PM2.5 exposure increased immune cells in mother rats. In addition, cytokines and free radicals rapidly accumulated in the amniotic fluid and indirectly affected the fetuses...
August 19, 2016: Environmental Toxicology
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