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Mental time travel

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302595/behavioral-indicators-on-a-mobile-sensing-platform-predict-clinically-validated-psychiatric-symptoms-of-mood-and-anxiety-disorders
#1
Skyler Place, Danielle Blanch-Hartigan, Channah Rubin, Cristina Gorrostieta, Caroline Mead, John Kane, Brian P Marx, Joshua Feast, Thilo Deckersbach, Alex Sandy Pentland, Andrew Nierenberg, Ali Azarbayejani
BACKGROUND: There is a critical need for real-time tracking of behavioral indicators of mental disorders. Mobile sensing platforms that objectively and noninvasively collect, store, and analyze behavioral indicators have not yet been clinically validated or scalable. OBJECTIVE: The aim of our study was to report on models of clinical symptoms for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depression derived from a scalable mobile sensing platform. METHODS: A total of 73 participants (67% [49/73] male, 48% [35/73] non-Hispanic white, 33% [24/73] veteran status) who reported at least one symptom of PTSD or depression completed a 12-week field trial...
March 16, 2017: Journal of Medical Internet Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214771/future-oriented-mental-time-travel-in-individuals-with-disordered-gambling
#2
Xavier Noël, Mélanie Saeremans, Charles Kornreich, Nematollah Jaafari, Arnaud D'Argembeau
This study investigated the ability of individuals with disordered gambling to imagine future events. Problem gamblers (n=35) and control participants (n=35) were asked to imagine positive and negative future events for three temporal distances (one week, one year, 5-10years). Then, a variety of phenomenological aspects of their future thoughts (e.g., sensory and contextual details, autonoetic consciousness) were rated. Compared to control subjects, problem gamblers generated fewer positive and negative events across all temporal distances, an impairment that was correlated to verbal fluency scores...
March 2017: Consciousness and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214132/language-evolution-a-changing-perspective
#3
REVIEW
Michael C Corballis
From ancient times, religion and philosophy have regarded language as a faculty bestowed uniquely and suddenly on our own species, primarily as a mode of thought with communication as a byproduct. This view persists among some scientists and linguists and is counter to the theory of evolution, which implies that the evolution of complex structures is incremental. I argue here that language derives from mental processes with gradual evolutionary trajectories, including the generative capacities to travel mentally in time and space and into the minds of others...
February 14, 2017: Trends in Cognitive Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208966/study-of-parental-perceptions-on-health-social-needs-of-children-with-neuro-developmental-disability-and-it-s-impact-on-the-family
#4
Nusrat Jahan Rafique Ansari, Ramchandra Keshav Dhongade, Preeti Sagar Lad, Ashwin Borade, Suvarna Yg, Vishal Yadav, Ashwini Mehetre, Rahul Kulkarni
INTRODUCTION: The term Neuro Developmental Disorder (NDD) is used for conditions caused by a dysfunction in any part of the brain or nervous system, resulting in physical and/or psychological symptoms as a child develops. Family of children with NDD face many problems. It is very important to find them and create awareness so that gaps in essential services and supports can be decreased. AIM: To explore parental perceptions on health & social needs of children with NDD, to understand the impact of disability on the families having children with disability, and to find out the parental perceptions on availability of services for children with NDD and its utilization by families...
December 2016: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28157585/thinking-about-threats-memory-and-prospection-in-human-threat-management
#5
REVIEW
Adam Bulley, Julie D Henry, Thomas Suddendorf
Humans have evolved mechanisms for the detection and management of possible threats in order to abate their negative consequences for fitness. Internally generated ('detached') cognition may have evolved in part because of its contributions to this broad function, but important questions remain about its role in threat management. In this article, we therefore present a taxonomy of threat-related internally generated cognition comprising episodic and semantic formats of memory and prospection. We address the proximate mechanisms of each of the capacities in this taxonomy, and discuss their respective contributions to adaptive threat management in humans...
March 2017: Consciousness and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28157277/predictors-and-barriers-to-mental-health-treatment-utilization-among-older-veterans-living-with-hiv
#6
Raeanne C Moore, María J Marquine, Elizabeth Straus, Colin A Depp, David J Moore, Dawn M Schiehser, Neil M Richtand, Dilip V Jeste, Lisa T Eyler
Objective: To identify key mood, social, and functional correlates of current participation in mental health treatment and barriers to participation in mental health treatment among older HIV infected (HIV+) veterans. Methods: HIV+ veterans (N = 150) aged ≥ 50 years receiving HIV-related medical care at the VA San Diego Healthcare System, San Diego, California, anonymously completed a survey assessing current self-reported mood, social support, daily functioning problems, mental health service utilization, and barriers to participating in mental health services...
February 2, 2017: Primary Care Companion to CNS Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100294/why-do-we-remember-the-communicative-function-of-episodic-memory
#7
Johannes Mahr, Gergely Csibra
Episodic memory has been analyzed in a number of different ways in both philosophy and psychology, and most controversy has centered on its self-referential, 'autonoetic' character. Here, we offer a comprehensive characterization of episodic memory in representational terms, and propose a novel functional account on this basis. We argue that episodic memory should be understood as a distinctive epistemic attitude taken towards an event simulation. On this view, episodic memory has a metarepresentational format and should not be equated with beliefs about the past...
January 19, 2017: Behavioral and Brain Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27989779/tracking-thoughts-exploring-the-neural-architecture-of-mental-time-travel-during-mind-wandering
#8
Theodoros Karapanagiotidis, Boris C Bernhardt, Elizabeth Jefferies, Jonathan Smallwood
The capacity to imagine situations that have already happened or fictitious events that may take place in the future is known as mental time travel (MTT). Studies have shown that MTT is an important aspect of spontaneous thought, yet we lack a clear understanding of how the neurocognitive architecture of the brain constrains this element of human cognition. Previous functional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies have shown that MTT involves the coordination between multiple regions that include mesiotemporal structures such as the hippocampus, as well as prefrontal and parietal regions commonly associated with the default mode network (DMN)...
February 15, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27974940/orientation-to-the-patient-as-a-marketing-strategy-in-the-romanian-healthcare-system
#9
B I Coculescu, E C Coculescu, V L Purcărea
In the context of the European political and socio-economic changes of the early 90s, health care reform in Romania has become inevitable, both for patients and for health professionals in the system. The first stage of the health care reform in Romania is focused on decentralization and improving primary health care. The Romanian medical system is currently in the process of changing the mentality, which requires time, patience, and perseverance, despite the unforeseeable or resistance inevitably faced. It is a commonly known and recognized fact that in this painful period of transition, Romanian medicine, like other fields too, has traveled a winding road, with obstacles (medical malpractices, scandals in the press related to the misappropriation of funds or underfunding of the public health system, etc...
July 2016: Journal of Medicine and Life
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27951414/mental-time-travel-to-the-future-might-be-reduced-in-sleep
#10
Jana Speth, Astrid M Schloerscheidt, Clemens Speth
We present a quantitative study of mental time travel to the future in sleep. Three independent, blind judges analysed a total of 563 physiology-monitored mentation reports from sleep onset, REM sleep, non-REM sleep, and waking. The linguistic tool for the mentation report analysis is based on established grammatical and cognitive-semantic theories and has been validated in previous studies. Our data indicate that REM and non-REM sleep must be characterized by a reduction in mental time travel to the future, which would support earlier physiological evidence at the level of brain function...
February 2017: Consciousness and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27942036/determinants-of-three-year-change-in-children-s-objectively-measured-sedentary-time
#11
Andrew J Atkin, Louise Foley, Kirsten Corder, Ulf Ekelund, Esther M F van Sluijs
BACKGROUND: Sedentary behaviours (SB) are highly prevalent in young people and may be adversely associated with physical and mental health. Understanding of the modifiable determinants of SB is necessary to inform the design of behaviour change interventions but much of the existing research is cross-sectional and focussed upon screen-based behaviours. PURPOSE: To examine the social, psychological and environmental determinants of change in children's objectively measured sedentary time from age 11 to 14 years...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894358/attentional-and-affective-consequences-of-technology-supported-mindfulness-training-a-randomised-active-control-efficacy-trial
#12
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Sheffy Bhayee, Patricia Tomaszewski, Daniel H Lee, Graeme Moffat, Lou Pino, Sylvain Moreno, Norman A S Farb
BACKGROUND: Mindfulness training (MT) programs represent an approach to attention training with well-validated mental health benefits. However, research supporting MT efficacy is based predominantly on weekly-meeting, facilitator-led, group-intervention formats. It is unknown whether participants might benefit from neurofeedback-assisted, technology-supported MT (N-tsMT), in which meditation is delivered individually, without the need for a facilitator, travel to a training site, or the presence of a supportive group environment...
November 29, 2016: BMC Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893483/game-times-and-higher-winning-percentages-of-west-coast-teams-of-the-national-football-league-correspond-with-reduced-prevalence-of-regular-season-injury
#13
Allison J Brager, Ronald J Mistovich
Brager, AJ and Mistovich, RJ. Game times and higher winning percentages of west coast teams of the National Football League correspond with reduced prevalence of regular season injury. J Strength Cond Res 31(2): 462-467, 2017-West coast teams of the National Football League are more statistically likely to win home night games against east coast opponents. The alignment of game times with daily rhythms of alertness is thought to contribute to this advantage. This study aims to determine whether rates of turnovers and injuries during the regular season, putative measures of mental and physical fatigue, impact winning percentages...
February 2017: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881776/time-is-not-space-core-computations-and-domain-specific-networks-for-mental-travels
#14
Baptiste Gauthier, Virginie van Wassenhove
Humans can consciously project themselves in the future and imagine themselves at different places. Do mental time travel and mental space navigation abilities share common cognitive and neural mechanisms? To test this, we recorded fMRI while participants mentally projected themselves in time or in space (e.g., 9 years ago, in Paris) and ordered historical events from their mental perspective. Behavioral patterns were comparable for mental time and space and shaped by self-projection and by the distance of historical events to the mental position of the self, suggesting the existence of egocentric mapping in both dimensions...
November 23, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27788399/mental-time-travel-ability-and-the-mental-reinstatement-of-context-for-crime-witnesses
#15
James H Smith-Spark, Joshua Bartimus, Rachel Wilcock
Mental time travel ability marks how well the phenomenological aspects of events are mentally re-experienced during recall. The Cognitive Interview (CI) elicits eyewitness information. One of its techniques, Mental Reinstatement of Context (MRC), asks eyewitnesses to reinstate the incident's context mentally before recall. Fifty-six participants watched a simulated crime video. Self-report measures were then taken to estimate general mental time travel ability. Participants were questioned subsequently about the video...
February 2017: Consciousness and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27786529/children-s-predictions-of-future-perceptual-experiences-temporal-reasoning-and-phenomenology
#16
Patrick Burns, James Russell
We investigated the development and cognitive correlates of envisioning future experiences in 3.5- to 6.5-year old children across 2 experiments, both of which involved toy trains traveling along a track. In the first, children were asked to predict the direction of train travel and color of train side, as it would be seen through an arch. Children below 5 years typically failed the task, while performance on it was associated with performance on a "before/after" comprehension task in which order-of-mention in a sentence had to be mapped to a video of 2 actions (after McCormack & Hanley, 2011)...
November 2016: Developmental Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27770476/familiarity-expands-space-and-contracts-time
#17
Anna Jafarpour, Hugo Spiers
When humans draw maps, or make judgments about travel-time, their responses are rarely accurate and are often systematically distorted. Distortion effects on estimating time to arrival and the scale of sketch-maps reveal the nature of mental representation of time and space. Inspired by data from rodent entorhinal grid cells, we predicted that familiarity to an environment would distort representations of the space by expanding the size of it. We also hypothesized that travel-time estimation would be distorted in the same direction as space-size, if time and space rely on the same cognitive map...
January 2017: Hippocampus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27768580/a-cross-sectional-study-to-determine-whether-adjustment-to-an-ostomy-can-predict-health-related-and-or-overall-quality-of-life
#18
Kirsten Lerum Indrebø, Gerd Karin Natvig, John Roger Andersen
Ostomy-specific adjustment may or may not predict health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and/or overall quality of life (QoL). A cross-sectional study was conducted among patients recruited from the customer registers of 8 surgical suppliers and pharmacies across Norway between November 2010 and March 2011 to determine which of the 34 items of the Ostomy Adjustment Scale (OAS) are the strongest predictors for HRQoL and overall QoL and to determine the HRQoL and overall QoL of individuals with an ostomy compared to a control group representing the general population...
October 2016: Ostomy/wound Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27766765/individual-differences-in-positive-and-negative-emotion-regulation-which-strategies-explain-variability-in-loneliness
#19
Sinead M Kearns, Ann-Marie Creaven
Loneliness is the distressing feeling accompanying the perception that one's social needs are not being met by one's social relationships. Conceptual models point to a role for cognitive factors in this experience. Because research on determinants of loneliness is sparse, this study investigates associations between individual differences in emotion regulation (ER) and loneliness. Participants (N = 116) completed measures of loneliness, and a vignette-based measure of adaptive and maladaptive ER in response to positive and negative scenarios...
October 20, 2016: Personality and Mental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27763847/impact-of-a-mass-media-mental-health-campaign-on-psychiatric-emergency-department-visits
#20
Joyce Cheng, Paul Benassi, Claire De Oliveira, Juveria Zaheer, Michael Collins, Paul Kurdyak
OBJECTIVE: Despite the high prevalence of mental illnesses and addictions, treatment rates remain low. In April 2010, a regional mass media campaign was implemented to increase awareness of mental health services in central Toronto, Canada. We studied the impact of this campaign on rates of psychiatric emergency department (PED) visits among all hospital emergency departments (EDs) located in Toronto. DESIGN: Monthly PED visit totals were obtained for all Toronto EDs from April 1, 2007 to March 31, 2012 (n = 148,704)...
October 20, 2016: Canadian Journal of Public Health. Revue Canadienne de Santé Publique
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