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Episodic future thinking

Kevin P Madore, Karl K Szpunar, Donna Rose Addis, Daniel L Schacter
Recent behavioral work suggests that an episodic specificity induction-brief training in recollecting the details of a past experience-enhances performance on subsequent tasks that rely on episodic retrieval, including imagining future experiences, solving open-ended problems, and thinking creatively. Despite these far-reaching behavioral effects, nothing is known about the neural processes impacted by an episodic specificity induction. Related neuroimaging work has linked episodic retrieval with a core network of brain regions that supports imagining future experiences...
September 20, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Joana Coutinho, Oscar Filipe Goncalves, José Miguel Soares, Paulo Marques, Adriana Sampaio
Obsessive-compulsive personality (OCPD) disorder is characterized by a pattern of excessive self-control, perfectionism and behavioral and cognitive rigidity. Despite the fact that OCPD is the most common personality disorder in the general population, published studies looking at the brain correlates of this disorder are practically nonexistent. The main goal of this study was to analyze the presence of brain alterations in OCPD when compared to healthy controls, specifically at the level of the Default Mode Network (DMN)...
October 30, 2016: Psychiatry Research
Jeffrey S Stein, A George Wilson, Mikhail N Koffarnus, Tinuke Oluyomi Daniel, Leonard H Epstein, Warren K Bickel
RATIONALE: Delay discounting, or the devaluation of delayed outcomes, appears to play an etiological role in tobacco and other substance-use disorders. OBJECTIVES: No human studies to our knowledge have been designed to examine whether experimental reductions in delay discounting produce concomitant reduction in drug use. METHODS: Using methods from prior studies on delay discounting and obesity, we examined the effects of episodic future thinking (EFT; a form of mental prospection) on delay discounting and cigarette self-administration in smokers...
October 2016: Psychopharmacology
Eiran Vadim Harel, Robert Langley Tennyson, Maurizio Fava, Moshe Bar
It has been proposed that mood correlates with the breadth of associative thinking. Here we set this hypothesis to the test in healthy and depressed individuals. Generating contextual associations engages a network of cortical regions including the parahippocampal cortex (PHC), retrosplenial complex, and medial prefrontal cortex. The link between mood, associative processing, and its underlying cortical infrastructure provides a promising avenue for elucidating the mechanisms underlying the cognitive impairments in major depressive disorder (MDD)...
August 23, 2016: Cognitive, Affective & Behavioral Neuroscience
Valentina La Corte, Pascale Piolino
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2016: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
Xing-Jie Chen, Lu-Lu Liu, Ji-Fang Cui, Ya Wang, An-Tao Chen, Feng-Hua Li, Wei-Hong Wang, Han-Feng Zheng, Ming-Yuan Gan, Chun-Qiu Li, David H K Shum, Raymond C K Chan
Mental time travel refers to the ability to recall past events and to imagine possible future events. Schizophrenia (SCZ) patients have problems in remembering specific personal experiences in the past and imagining what will happen in the future. This study aimed to examine episodic past and future thinking in SCZ spectrum disorders including SCZ patients and individuals with schizotypal personality disorder (SPD) proneness who are at risk for developing SCZ. Thirty-two SCZ patients, 30 SPD proneness individuals, and 33 healthy controls participated in the study...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
Yuji Naya
Declarative memories are our so-called daily language memories, which we are able to describe or explicitly experience through the act of remembering. This conscious recollection makes it possible for us to think about the future based on our previous experience (episodic memory) and knowledge (semantic memory). This cognitive function is substantiated by the medial temporal lobe (MTL), a hierarchically organized complex in which the perirhinal cortex and parahippocampal cortex provide item and context information to the hippocampus via the entorhinal cortex, and the hippocampus plays the main role in association and recollection...
July 11, 2016: Neuroscience Research
D J Palombo, M M Keane, M Verfaellie
The capacity to envision the future plays an important role in many aspects of cognition, including our ability to make optimal, adaptive choices. Past work has shown that the medial temporal lobe (MTL) is necessary for decisions that draw on episodic future thinking. By contrast, little is known about the role of the MTL in decisions that draw on semantic future thinking. Accordingly, the present study investigated whether the MTL contributes to one form of decision making, namely intertemporal choice, when such decisions depend on semantic consideration of the future...
August 2016: Neuropsychologia
Anett Kretschmer-Trendowicz, Judith A Ellis, Mareike Altgassen
The present study is the first to investigate the benefits of episodic future thinking (EFT) at encoding on prospective memory (PM) in preschool (age: M = 66.34 months, SD = 3.28) and primary school children (age: M = 88.36 months, SD = 3.12). A second aim was to examine if self-projection influences the possible effects of EFT instructions. PM was assessed using a standard PM paradigm in children with a picture-naming task as the ongoing activity in which the PM task was embedded. Further, two first- and two second-order ToM tasks were administered as indicator of children's self-projection abilities...
2016: PloS One
Muireann Irish, Nadine Eyre, Nadene Dermody, Claire O'Callaghan, John R Hodges, Michael Hornberger, Olivier Piguet
The ability to envisage personally relevant events at a future time point represents an incredibly sophisticated cognitive endeavor and one that appears to be intimately linked to episodic memory integrity. Far less is known regarding the neurocognitive mechanisms underpinning the capacity to envisage non-personal future occurrences, known as semantic future thinking. Moreover the degree of overlap between the neural substrates supporting episodic and semantic forms of prospection remains unclear. To this end, we sought to investigate the capacity for episodic and semantic future thinking in Alzheimer's disease (n = 15) and disease-matched behavioral-variant frontotemporal dementia (n = 15), neurodegenerative disorders characterized by significant medial temporal lobe (MTL) and frontal pathology...
2016: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
Sarah E Snider, Stephen M LaConte, Warren K Bickel
BACKGROUND: Episodic future thinking (EFT) requires an individual to vividly pre-experience a realistic future event. Inspired by previous reports of reducing delay discounting following EFT in other populations, we examined the effects of engaging alcohol-dependent individuals in EFT or episodic recent thinking (ERT; control) to examine its effects on delay discounting and alcohol purchasing. METHODS: Participants (n = 50) with alcohol dependence were allocated into EFT or ERT groups and asked to generate positive future or recent past events for each of 5 time points...
July 2016: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
Adam D Brown, Nicole A Kouri, Nadia Rahman, Amy Joscelyne, Richard A Bryant, Charles R Marmar
Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) is associated with maladaptive changes in self-identity, including impoverished perceived self-efficacy. This study examined if enhancing perceptions of self-efficacy in combat veterans with and without symptoms of PTSD promotes cognitive strategies associated with positive mental health outcomes. Prior to completing a future thinking and social problem-solving task, sixty-two OEF/OIF veterans with and without symptoms of PTSD were randomized to either a high self-efficacy (HSE) induction in which they were asked to recall three autobiographical memories demonstrating self-efficacy or a control condition in which they recalled any three autobiographical events...
August 30, 2016: Psychiatry Research
Francis Eustache, Armelle Viard, Béatrice Desgranges
The Memory NEo-Structural Inter-Systemic model (MNESIS; Eustache and Desgranges, Neuropsychology Review, 2008) is a macromodel based on neuropsychological data which presents an interactive construction of memory systems and processes. Largely inspired by Tulving's SPI model, MNESIS puts the emphasis on the existence of different memory systems in humans and their reciprocal relations, adding new aspects, such as the episodic buffer proposed by Baddeley. The more integrative comprehension of brain dynamics offered by neuroimaging has contributed to rethinking the existence of memory systems...
July 1, 2016: Neuropsychologia
Sachin M Apte, Kavita Patel
With the signing of the Medicare Access and CHIP Reauthorization Act in April 2015, the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) is now positioned to drive the development and implementation of sweeping changes to how physicians and hospitals are paid for the provision of oncology-related services. These changes will have a long-lasting impact on the sub-specialty of gynecologic oncology, regardless of practice structure, physician employment and compensation model, or local insurance market. Recently, commercial payers have piloted various models of payment reform via oncology-specific clinical pathways, oncology medical homes, episode payment arrangements, and accountable care organizations...
2016: Frontiers in Oncology
Rex E Jung, Ranee A Flores, Dan Hunter
Imagination involves episodic memory retrieval, visualization, mental simulation, spatial navigation, and future thinking, making it a complex cognitive construct. Prior studies of imagination have attempted to study various elements of imagination (e.g., visualization), but none have attempted to capture the entirety of imagination ability in a single instrument. Here we describe the Hunter Imagination Questionnaire (HIQ), an instrument designed to assess imagination over an extended period of time, in a naturalistic manner...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
Marie My Lien Rebetez, Catherine Barsics, Lucien Rochat, Arnaud D'Argembeau, Martial Van der Linden
Despite the intrinsic temporal nature of procrastination, little research has examined the link between this form of self-regulatory failure and the consideration of future consequences, and no study has addressed the link between procrastination and episodic future thinking. The aim of the present study was to explore these relationships. Participants were asked to project themselves into possible future events and to rate the amount of sensory-perceptual details and autonoetic consciousness associated with their representations...
May 2016: Consciousness and Cognition
Edith Lehner, Arnaud D'Argembeau
Although autonoetic experience-a sense of mental time travel-has been considered as the hallmark of episodic future thinking, what determines this subjective feeling is not yet fully understood. Here, we investigated the role of autobiographical knowledge by manipulating the relevance of imagined events for personal goals. Participants were asked to imagine three types of events (goal-related future events, experimenter-provided future events, and atemporal events) and to assess various characteristics of their mental representations...
May 2016: Consciousness and Cognition
Felipe De Brigard, Kelly S Giovanello, Gregory W Stewart, Amber W Lockrow, Margaret M O'Brien, R Nathan Spreng
Recent evidence demonstrates remarkable overlap in the neural and cognitive mechanisms underlying episodic memory, episodic future thinking, and episodic counterfactual thinking. However, the extent to which the phenomenological characteristics associated with these mental simulations change as a result of ageing remains largely unexplored. The current study employs adapted versions of the Memory Characteristics Questionnaire and the Autobiographical Interview to compare the phenomenological characteristics associated with both positive and negative episodic past, future, and counterfactual simulations in younger and older adults...
March 30, 2016: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology: QJEP
Mareike Altgassen, Anett Kretschmer, Katharina Marlene Schnitzspahn
Studies on prospective memory (PM) development in adolescents point to age-related increases through to adulthood. The goal of the present study was to examine whether instructing adolescents to engage in an episodic prospection of themselves executing future actions (i.e., future thinking) when forming an intention would improve their PM performance and reduce age-related differences. Further, we set out to explore whether future thinking instructions result in stronger memory traces and/or stronger cue-context associations by evaluating retrospective memory for the PM cues after task completion and monitoring costs during PM task processing...
March 28, 2016: Child Neuropsychology: a Journal on Normal and Abnormal Development in Childhood and Adolescence
Valentina La Corte, Pascale Piolino
The ability to project the self forward in time to pre-experience personal events is referred to as episodic future thinking. Different theories have been proposed to try to explain the neurocognitive mechanisms underlying episodic future thinking. In this paper we focus on studies concerning the episodic prospection capacity in cognitive aging and in neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease and semantic dementia. Older adults usually produce fewer episodic details than young adults when recalling past events and when imagining future events...
March 2016: Gériatrie et Psychologie Neuropsychiatrie du Vieillissement
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