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Harsh Mathur, Vincenzo Fallico, Paula M O'Connor, Mary C Rea, Paul D Cotter, Colin Hill, R Paul Ross
Thuricin CD is a two-component bacteriocin, consisting of the peptides Trnα and Trnβ, and belongs to the newly designated sactibiotic subclass of bacteriocins. While it is clear from studies conducted thus far that it is a narrow-spectrum bacteriocin, requiring the synergistic activity of the two peptides, the precise mechanism of action of thuricin CD has not been elucidated. This study used a combination of flow cytometry and traditional culture-dependent assays to ascertain the effects of the thuricin CD peptides on the morphology, physiology and viability of sensitive Bacillus firmus DPC6349 cells...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
Tianpei Huang, Xiaojuan Zhang, Jieru Pan, Xiaoyu Su, Xin Jin, Xiong Guan
Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt), one of the most successful biopesticides, may expand its potential by producing bacteriocins (thuricins). The aim of this study was to investigate the antimicrobial potential of a novel Bt bacteriocin, thuricin BtCspB, produced by Bt BRC-ZYR2. The results showed that this bacteriocin has a high similarity with cold-shock protein B (CspB). BtCspB lost its activity after proteinase K treatment; however it was active at 60 °C for 30 min and was stable in the pH range 5-7. The partial loss of activity after the treatments of lipase II and catalase were likely due to the change in BtCspB structure and the partial degradation of BtCspB, respectively...
October 20, 2016: Scientific Reports
Kaberi Gautam, Timothy D Schwinghamer, Donald L Smith
Microbe-to-plant signals can enhance the growth of a wide range of crops. The responses by soybean (Glycine max var. 91M01) to 2 signal molecules were investigated: Bradyrhizobium japonicum 532C lipo-chitooligosaccharide (Nod Bj V [C:18, MeFuc]) (LCO); and Bacillus thuringiensis strain NEB17 bacteriocin thuricin 17 (Th17). The objective was to assess and quantify the response by soybean, in terms of factors that contribute to yield, to the experimental signal molecules in germination experiments and field experiments...
October 2, 2016: Plant Signaling & Behavior
Sowmyalakshmi Subramanian, Alfred Souleimanov, Donald L Smith
Plants, being sessile organisms, are exposed to widely varying environmental conditions throughout their life cycle. Compatible plant-microbe interactions favor plant growth and development, and help plants deal with these environmental challenges. Microorganisms produce a diverse range of elicitor molecules to establish symbiotic relationships with the plants they associate with, in a given ecological niche. Lipo-chitooligosaccharide (LCO) and Thuricin 17 (Th17) are two such compounds shown to positively influence plant growth of both legumes and non-legumes...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
Sowmyalakshmi Subramanian, Emily Ricci, Alfred Souleimanov, Donald L Smith
Salt stress is an important abiotic stressor affecting crop growth and productivity. Of the 20 percent of the terrestrial earth's surface available as agricultural land, 50 percent is estimated by the United Nations Environment Program to be salinized to the level that crops growing on it will be salt-stressed. Increased soil salinity has profound effects on seed germination and germinating seedlings as they are frequently confronted with much higher salinities than vigorously growing plants, because germination usually occurs in surface soils, the site of greatest soluble salt accumulation...
2016: PloS One
Bingyue Xin, Jinshui Zheng, Hualin Liu, Junhua Li, Lifang Ruan, Donghai Peng, Muhammad Sajid, Ming Sun
Due to the rapidly increasing prevalence of multidrug-resistant bacterial strains, the need for new antimicrobial drugs to treat infections has become urgent. Bacteriocins, which are antimicrobial peptides of bacterial origin, are considered potential alternatives to conventional antibiotics and have attracted widespread attention in recent years. Among these bacteriocins, lantibiotics, especially two-component lantibiotics, exhibit potent antimicrobial activity against some clinically relevant Gram-positive pathogens and have potential applications in the pharmaceutical industry...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
Harsh Mathur, Mary C Rea, Paul D Cotter, Colin Hill, R Paul Ross
BACKGROUND: Thuricin CD is a two-component antimicrobial, belonging to the recently designated sactibiotic subclass of bacteriocins. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of thuricin CD, as well as the antibiotics, tigecycline, vancomycin, teicoplanin, rifampicin and nitazoxanide when used independently and when combined at low concentrations on the viability of Clostridium difficile 20291 R027, TL178 R002, Liv022 R106, DPC6350 and VPI10463 biofilms and planktonic cells...
2016: Gut Pathogens
Donald L Smith, Dana Praslickova, Gayathri Ilangumaran
The organisms of the phytomicrobiome use signal compounds to regulate aspects of each other's behavior. Legumes use signals (flavonoids) to regulate rhizobial nod gene expression during establishment of the legume-rhizobia N2-fixation symbiosis. Lipochitooligosaccharides (LCOs) produced by rhizobia act as return signals to the host plant and are recognized by specific lysine motif receptor like kinases, which triggers a signal cascade leading to nodulation of legume roots. LCOs also enhance plant growth, particularly when plants are stressed...
2015: Frontiers in Plant Science
Harsh Mathur, Mary C Rea, Paul D Cotter, Colin Hill, R Paul Ross
The sactibiotics are a recently designated subclass of bacteriocins that contain characteristic cysteine sulphur to α -carbon linkages mediated through post-translational modifications. They are a relatively small subclass of bacteriocins compared to the most thoroughly studied lantibiotics. The sactibiotics that have been extensively studied thus far are thuricin CD, subtilosin A, thurincin H, and propionicin F. Despite their recent discovery, there have already been significant advances made in the study of sactibiotics, most notably the discovery of the narrow spectrum anti-Clostridium difficile sactibiotic, thuricin CD...
2015: Current Protein & Peptide Science
Bingyue Xin, Jinshui Zheng, Ziya Xu, Xiaoling Song, Lifang Ruan, Donghai Peng, Ming Sun
Lantibiotics are ribosomally synthesized peptides that contain multiple posttranslational modifications. Research on lantibiotics has increased recently, mainly due to their broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity, especially against some clinical Gram-positive pathogens. Many reports about various bacteriocins in the Bacillus cereus group have been published, but few were about lantibiotics. In this study, we identified 101 putative lanthipeptide gene clusters from 77 out of 223 strains of this group, and these gene clusters were further classified into 20 types according to their gene organization and the homologies of their functional genes...
March 2015: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
Rubén D Pacheco-Cano, Norma M de la Fuente-Salcido, Rubén Salcedo-Hernández, M Fabiola León-Galván, Dennis K Bideshi, Gustavo Hernández-Guzmán, J Eleazar Barboza-Corona
Bacteriocins synthesized by entomopathogenic Bacillus thuringiensis are gaining attention owing to their inhibitory effects against a wide variety of pathogenic bacteria. In the present study, we purified and characterized Tolworthcin 524, a bacteriocin synthesized by B. thuringiensis subsp. tolworthi, and compared it with other bacteriocins synthesized by B. thuringiensis. Tolworthcin 524 was separated and purified from the secretome of B. thuringiensis by fast protein liquid chromatography with a gel filtration column to obtain yields of 17% and a specific activity of ∼3600U/mgprotein...
December 2014: Microbiological Research
Jian Wang, Hongchu Ma, Xiaoxuan Ge, Jie Zhang, Kunling Teng, Zhizeng Sun, Jin Zhong
Lantibiotics are ribosomally-synthesized and posttranslationally modified peptides with potent antimicrobial activities. Discovery of novel lantibiotics has been greatly accelerated with the soaring release of genomic information of microorganisms. As a unique class II lantibiotic, bovicin HJ50 is produced by Streptococcus bovis HJ50 and contains one rare disulfide bridge. By using its precursor BovA as a drive sequence, 16 BovA-like peptides were revealed in a wide variety of species. From them, three representative novel lan loci from Clostridium perfringens D str...
2014: PloS One
Harsh Mathur, Paula M O'Connor, Paul D Cotter, Colin Hill, R Paul Ross
Bacteriocins are ribosomally synthesized peptides that can have a narrow or broad spectrum of antimicrobial activity. Bacteriocin producers typically possess dedicated immunity systems that often consist of an ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter system and/or a dedicated immunity protein. Here we investigated the genes responsible for immunity to thuricin CD, a narrow-spectrum two-peptide sactibiotic produced by Bacillus thuringiensis DPC6431. Heterologous expression of putative thuricin CD immunity determinants allowed us to identify and investigate the relative importance of the individual genes and gene products that contribute to thuricin CD immunity...
June 2014: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
Mary C Rea, Debebe Alemayehu, Pat G Casey, Paula M O'Connor, Peadar G Lawlor, Maria Walsh, Fergus Shanahan, Barry Kiely, R Paul Ross, Colin Hill
Thuricin CD is a two component narrow spectrum bacteriocin comprising two peptides with targeted activity against Clostridium difficile. This study examined the bioavailability of thuricin with a view to developing it as an effective antimicrobial against intestinal infection. One of the peptides, Trn-β, was found to be degraded by the gastric enzymes pepsin and α-chymotrypsin both in vitro and in vivo, whereas Trn-α was resistant to digestion by these enzymes and hence was detected in the intestinal porcine digesta following oral ingestion by pigs...
February 2014: Microbiology
Harsh Mathur, Paula M O'Connor, Colin Hill, Paul D Cotter, R Paul Ross
Due to the ongoing problem of recurrence of Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea following antibiotic treatment, there is an urgent need for alternative treatment options. We assessed the MICs of five antimicrobials singly and in combinations against a range of C. difficile clinical isolates. Ramoplanin-actagardine combinations were particularly effective, with partial synergistic/additive effects observed against 61.5% of C. difficile strains tested.
June 2013: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
Serpil Ugras, Kazim Sezen, Hatice Kati, Zihni Demirbag
A novel bioactive molecule produced by Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. kurstaki Bn1 (Bt-Bn1), isolated from a common pest of hazelnut, Balaninus nucum L. (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), was determined, purified, and characterized in this study. The Bt-Bn1 strain was investigated for antibacterial activity with an agar spot assay and well diffusion assay against B. cereus, B. weinhenstephenensis, L. monocytogenes, P. savastanoi, P. syringae, P. lemoignei, and many other B. thuringiensis strains. The production of bioactive molecule was determined at the early logarithmic phase in the growth cycle of strain Bt-Bn1 and its production continued until the beginning of the stationary phase...
February 2013: Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
Kiera Murphy, Orla O'Sullivan, Mary C Rea, Paul D Cotter, R Paul Ross, Colin Hill
Thuricin CD is a two-component bacteriocin produced by Bacillus thuringiensis that kills a wide range of clinically significant Clostridium difficile. This bacteriocin has recently been characterized and consists of two distinct peptides, Trnβ and Trnα, which both possess 3 intrapeptide sulphur to α-carbon bridges and act synergistically. Indeed, thuricin CD and subtilosin A are the only antimicrobials known to possess these unusual structures and are known as the sactibiotics (sulplur to alpha carbon-containing antibiotics)...
2011: PloS One
Clarissa S Sit, Ryan T McKay, Colin Hill, R Paul Ross, John C Vederas
Thuricin CD is an antimicrobial factor that consists of two peptides, Trn-α and Trn-β, that exhibit synergistic activity against drug resistant strains of Clostridium difficile. Trn-α and Trn-β each possess three sulfur to α-carbon thioether bridges for which the stereochemistry is unknown. This report presents the three-dimensional solution structures of Trn-α and Trn-β. Structure calculations were performed for the eight possible stereoisomers of each peptide based on the same NMR data. The structure of the stereoisomer that best fit the experimental data was chosen as the representative structure for each peptide...
May 25, 2011: Journal of the American Chemical Society
Woo-Jin Jung, Fazli Mabood, Alfred Souleimanov, Donald L Smith
We have recently discovered a new class of bacteriocin (class IId) which stimulates plant growth in a way similar to Nod factors. Nod factors have been shown to provoke aspects of plant disease resistance. We investigated the effects of bacteriocins [thuricin 17 (T17) and bacthuricin F4 (BF4)] on the activities of phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL), guaiacol peroxidase (POD), ascorbate peroxidase (APX), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and polyphenol oxidase (PPO). Bacteriocin solutions were fed into the cut stems of soybean (Glycine max L...
December 20, 2011: Microbiological Research
Mary C Rea, Alleson Dobson, Orla O'Sullivan, Fiona Crispie, Fiona Fouhy, Paul D Cotter, Fergus Shanahan, Barry Kiely, Colin Hill, R Paul Ross
Vancomycin, metronidazole, and the bacteriocin lacticin 3147 are active against a wide range of bacterial species, including Clostridium difficile. We demonstrate that, in a human distal colon model, the addition of each of the three antimicrobials resulted in a significant decrease in numbers of C. difficile. However, their therapeutic use in the gastrointestinal tract may be compromised by their broad spectrum of activity, which would be expected to significantly impact on other members of the human gut microbiota...
March 15, 2011: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
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