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Hypoxia and autophagy and HNSCC

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25952002/roles-of-hypoxia-stem-cells-and-epithelial-mesenchymal-transition-in-the-spread-and-treatment-resistance-of-head-and-neck-cancer
#1
REVIEW
Luke Gammon, Ian C Mackenzie
Evidence from a wide range of studies indicates that hypoxia and the resulting cellular changes that are induced by HIF-1α lead to transcriptional up-regulation of a diversity of genes that play major roles in modifying the cellular behaviour of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). Although the mechanisms of cell adaptation to hypoxia are still not entirely clear, many studies relate hypoxia to enhanced survival of malignant cells. Stronger staining of tissue sections for HIF-1α correlates with poor prognostic outcomes, and the hypoxic tumour microenvironment generates selective pressures that enhance the ability of cancer stem cells (CSCs) to evade therapeutically induced cell death...
February 2016: Journal of Oral Pathology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25523227/autophagic-responses-to-hypoxia-and-anticancer-therapy-in-head-and-neck-cancer
#2
REVIEW
Haiwei Wu, Shengyun Huang, Dongsheng Zhang
Autophagy is a major intracellular pathway involving in the degradation and recycling of cytosolic material, including organelles, proteins, and ribosomes. Autophagy is commonly active in tumor cells and could be induced by stress conditions such as hypoxia, nutrient depletion and anticancer therapy. Increasing evidence supports the role of autophagy in modulating cancer behavior in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). Despite recent advances in surgery combined with chemotherapy and radiotherapy, the survival rate of patients with HNSCC has not been improved substantially...
February 2015: Pathology, Research and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/23849170/the-autophagy-associated-gene-ulk1-promotes-tolerance-to-chronic-and-acute-hypoxia
#3
Marco B E Schaaf, Dan Cojocari, Tom G Keulers, Barry Jutten, Maud H Starmans, Monique C de Jong, Adrian C Begg, Kim G M Savelkouls, Johan Bussink, Marc Vooijs, Bradly G Wouters, Kasper M A Rouschop
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Tumor hypoxia is associated with therapy resistance and malignancy. Previously we demonstrated that activation of autophagy and the unfolded protein response (UPR) promote hypoxia tolerance. Here we explored the importance of ULK1 in hypoxia tolerance, autophagy induction and its prognostic value for recurrence after treatment. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Hypoxic regulation of ULK1 mRNA and protein was assessed in vitro and in primary human head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) xenografts...
September 2013: Radiotherapy and Oncology: Journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/21236253/hypoxia-induced-autophagic-response-is-associated-with-aggressive-phenotype-and-elevated-incidence-of-metastasis-in-orthotopic-immunocompetent-murine-models-of-head-and-neck-squamous-cell-carcinomas-hnscc
#4
Nadarajah Vigneswaran, Jean Wu, Anren Song, Ananth Annapragada, Wolfgang Zacharias
Hypoxia confers resistance to chemoradiation therapy and promotes metastasis in head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (HNSCC). We investigated the effects of hypoxia in tumor phenotype using immunocompetent murine HNSCC models. Balb/c mice were injected intraorally with murine squamous cell carcinoma cells LY-2 and B4B8. Intratumoral hypoxia fraction was evaluated by the immunohistochemical detection of hypoxic probe pimonidazole and carbonic anhydrase IX (CAIX). Tumor cell apoptosis and autophagy in hypoxic areas of these tumors were examined immunohistochemically...
April 2011: Experimental and Molecular Pathology
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