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Atypical antipsychotics

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098496/real-world-adherence-assessment-of-lurasidone-and-other-oral-atypical-antipsychotics-among-patients-with-schizophrenia-an-administrative-claims-analysis
#1
Krithika Rajagopalan, Sally Wade, Nicole Meyer, Antony Loebel
OBJECTIVE: To compare adherence with lurasidone to other oral atypical antipsychotics among Medicaid- and commercially-insured patients with schizophrenia. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Administrative claims of patients with schizophrenia treated with atypical antipsychotics (lurasidone, aripiprazole, olanzapine, quetiapine, risperidone, or ziprasidone) from October 2010-September 2011 were identified from MarketScan Commercial and Medicaid Databases, and were classified by the first (index) antipsychotic...
January 18, 2017: Current Medical Research and Opinion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096877/efficacy-and-safety-of-bitopertin-in-patients-with-schizophrenia-and-predominant-negative-symptoms-subgroup-analysis-of-japanese-patients-from-the-global-randomized-phase-2-trial
#2
Yoshio Hirayasu, Shin-Ichi Sato, Norifumi Shuto, Miwa Nakano, Teruhiko Higuchi
OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study was to perform a subgroup analysis of data from a phase II global, multi-center, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study to evaluate the efficacy and safety of bitopertin, a glycine reuptake inhibitor that activates N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors by increasing the concentration of glycine in the synaptic cleft, in Japanese and non-Japanese patients with schizophrenia and predominant negative symptoms. METHODS: Patients with schizophrenia and predominant negative symptoms on one or two antipsychotic drugs, including atypical antipsychotic drugs (olanzapine, risperidone, quetiapine, aripiprazole, and paliperidone) as the primary treatment, received bitopertin (10, 30, or 60 mg/day) or placebo once daily for 8 weeks as an add-on treatment...
January 2017: Psychiatry Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093254/risperidone-ameliorated-a%C3%AE-1-42-induced-cognitive-and-hippocampal-synaptic-impairments-in-mice
#3
Lingzhi Wu, Xiaowen Feng, Tingting Li, Baojuan Sun, Muhammad Zahid Khan, Ling He
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a complex neurodegenerative disorder with cognitive impairment and major neuropathologic hallmark of amyloid-beta (Aβ) peptides. Risperidone, an atypical antipsychotic, can improve concentration and cognitive deficit in schizophrenia patients. In this study, behavior tests including Morris Water Maze test, Step-through passive avoidance test, Open Field test, Step-Down test, Hole-Board test and Novel object recognition test were preformed to examine the effect of Risperidone on Aβ1-42-induced cognitive dysfunction in both long-term and short-term memory...
January 13, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28086761/is-treatment-resistant-schizophrenia-categorically-distinct-from-treatment-responsive-schizophrenia-a-systematic-review
#4
Amy L Gillespie, Ruta Samanaite, Jonathan Mill, Alice Egerton, James H MacCabe
BACKGROUND: Schizophrenia is a highly heterogeneous disorder, and around a third of patients are treatment-resistant. The only evidence-based treatment for these patients is clozapine, an atypical antipsychotic with relatively weak dopamine antagonism. It is plausible that varying degrees of response to antipsychotics reflect categorically distinct illness subtypes, which would have significant implications for research and clinical practice. If these subtypes could be distinguished at illness onset, this could represent a first step towards personalised medicine in psychiatry...
January 13, 2017: BMC Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078393/antipsychotic-use-is-a-risk-factor-for-hyponatremia-in-patients-with-schizophrenia-a-15-year-follow-up-study
#5
Hang-Ju Yang, Wan-Ju Cheng
RATIONALE: Hyponatremia affects 10% of patients with chronic schizophrenia and can lead to severe consequences. However, the role of antipsychotics and other risk factors in hyponatremia occurrence has remained inconsistent. OBJECTIVE: This study examined the association between antipsychotic use and hyponatremia occurrence in patients with schizophrenia. METHODS: We utilized the National Health Insurance Research Database to follow 2051 patients with schizophrenia from 1998 to 2013...
January 11, 2017: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073046/olanzapine-and-aripiprazole-differentially-affect-glucose-uptake-and-energy-metabolism-in-human-mononuclear-blood-cells
#6
Britta Stapel, Alexandra Kotsiari, Michaela Scherr, Denise Hilfiker-Kleiner, Stefan Bleich, Helge Frieling, Kai G Kahl
The use of antipsychotics carries the risk of metabolic side effects, such as weight gain and new onset type-2 diabetes mellitus. The mechanisms of the observed metabolic alterations are not fully understood. We compared the effects of two atypical antipsychotics, one known to favor weight gain (olanzapine), the other not (aripiprazole), on glucose metabolism. Primary human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) were isolated and stimulated with olanzapine or aripiprazole for 72 h. Cellular glucose uptake was analyzed in vitro by 18F-FDG uptake...
December 22, 2016: Journal of Psychiatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073041/major-depressive-disorder-with-subthreshold-hypomanic-mixed-features-a-real-world-assessment-of-treatment-patterns-and-economic-burden
#7
Roger S McIntyre, Daisy Ng-Mak, Chien-Chia Chuang, Rachel Halpern, Pankaj A Patel, Krithika Rajagopalan, Antony Loebel
BACKGROUND: To compare outcomes for individuals with major depressive disorder (MDD) with or without subthreshold hypomania (mixed features) in naturalistic settings. METHODS: Using the Optum Research Database (1/1/2009─10/31/2014), a retrospective analysis of individuals newly diagnosed with MDD was conducted. Continuous enrollment for 12-months before and after the initial MDD diagnosis was required. MDD with subthreshold hypomania (mixed features) (MDD-MF) was defined based on ≥1 hypomania diagnosis within 30 days after an MDD diagnosis during the one-year follow-up period, in the absence of bipolar I diagnoses...
December 23, 2016: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28062214/in-utero-exposure-to-atypical-antipsychotic-drug-risperidone-effects-on-fetal-neurotoxicity-in-hippocampal-region-and-cognitive-impairment-in-rat-offspring
#8
K P Singh, Manoj Kr Singh
Clinical studies indicate that about one-third of pregnant women with psychotic symptoms are exposed to either typical or atypical antipsychotic drugs (APDs). Reports on prenatal subject/model are lacking hence, the present study was undertaken to investigate the effect of prenatal exposure to risperidone (RIS) on the fetal hippocampus, and their related functional changes in young rat offspring. In this study, pregnant Wistar rats were exposed to equivalent therapeutic doses of RIS at 0.8mg/kg, 1.0mg/kg, and 2...
January 4, 2017: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28060978/-ingesta-de-hidratos-de-carbono-y-%C3%A3-cidos-grasos-de-la-dieta-en-sujetos-con-esquizofrenia-y-trastorno-bipolar-y-su-asociaci%C3%A3-n-con-par%C3%A3-metros-antropom%C3%A3-tricos
#9
Natalia Santillana T, Álvaro Cavieres F, Claudia Vega S
BACKGROUND: People with psychiatric disorders have higher rates of obesity, diabetes mellitus and dyslipidemia. These comorbidities are associated with the underlying psychopathology and drug therapy. AIM: To determine the quality and quantity of carbohydrates and fatty acids in the diet and their association with anthropometric parameters in subjects with schizophrenia and bipolar disorders. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We studied 30 patients with schizophrenia and bipolar disorders in treatment with atypical antipsychotics or mood stabilizers...
September 2016: Revista Médica de Chile
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28059928/clozapine-usage-increases-the-incidence-of-pneumonia-compared-with-risperidone-and-the-general-population-a-retrospective-comparison-of-clozapine-risperidone-and-the-general-population-in-a-single-hospital-over-25-months
#10
Zachary R Stoecker, Wales T George, Jeffrey B O'Brien, Jon Jancik, Eduardo Colon, Joseph J Rasimas
The aim of this study was to determine whether the incidence of pneumonia in patients taking clozapine was more frequent compared with those taking risperidone or no atypical antipsychotics at all before admission to a tertiary care medical center. This was a retrospective, case-matched study of 465 general medicine patients over a 25 month period from 1 July 2010 to 31 July 2012. Detailed electronic medical records were analyzed to explore the association between the use of two atypical antipsychotics and incidence of pneumonia...
January 4, 2017: International Clinical Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28053591/potentially-inappropriate-medications-prescribed-for-elderly-patients-through-family-physicians
#11
Abdulaziz Al Odhayani, Ayla Tourkmani, Mohammed Alshehri, Hala Alqahtani, Adel Mishriky
The elderly population is increasing throughout the globe, resulting in higher healthcare costs. Potential inappropriate medication (PIM) prescriptions are a major health problem affecting the elderly persons. Due to limited studies in PIM use in primary care and home healthcare in Saudi Arabia, we aim to examine the extent of PIM prescription for and use by elderly patients. This study was carried out with 798 elderly patients, arbitrarily selected from Prince Sultan Medical Military City through the patient register...
January 2017: Saudi Journal of Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28049887/evaluation-of-the-expression-profile-of-extrapyramidal-symptoms-due-to-antipsychotics-by-data-mining-of-japanese-adverse-drug-event-report-jader-database
#12
Eiji Kose, Kana Uno, Hiroyuki Hayashi
 Typical antipsychotics are easily expressed as adverse events such as extrapyramidal symptom (EPS). On the other hand, incidence of adverse events due to atypical antipsychotics is low. Therefore, currently, atypical antipsychotics are widely used to treat schizophrenia. However, it has been reported that there is no difference in the frequency of EPS in atypical and typical antipsychotics. This study aimed to evaluate the expression profile of EPS in atypical and typical antipsychotics treatment using the Japanese Adverse Drug Event Report (JADER) database...
2017: Yakugaku Zasshi: Journal of the Pharmaceutical Society of Japan
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28045840/acute-dystonia-versus-neuroleptic-malignant-syndrome-without-fever-in-an-eight-year-old-child
#13
Rita Sridaran, Chadd E Nesbit
Neuroleptic malignant syndrome (NMS) is a rare but potentially fatal complication of the use of certain medications. It is being seen more often in the pediatric population because of the increasing use of both typical and atypical antipsychotics in children. Rapid recognition of NMS is important to emergency physicians because timely treatment can be life saving. Acute dystonia is also a well-known and more common adverse effect of certain types of antipsychotics, more commonly seen with the typical antipsychotics versus the atypical antipsychotics...
January 2017: Pediatric Emergency Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28044943/forgotten-but-not-gone-new-developments-in-the-understanding-and-treatment-of-tardive-dyskinesia
#14
Jonathan M Meyer
The broad use of atypical antipsychotics was expected to dramatically reduce the prevalence and incidence of tardive dyskinesia (TD), but data show that TD remains an important challenge due the persistent nature of its symptoms and resistance to numerous treatment modalities, including antipsychotic discontinuation. Recent insights on genetic risk factors and new concepts surrounding pathophysiology have spurred interest in the possibility of targeted treatment for TD. As will be reviewed in this article, the number of evidence-based strategies for TD treatment is small: only clonazepam, amantadine, ginkgo biloba extract, and the vesicular monoamine transporter 2 (VMAT2) inhibitor tetrabenazine have compelling data...
December 2016: CNS Spectrums
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28044468/investigations-on-pharmacokinetics-and-biodistribution-of-polymeric-and-solid-lipid-nanoparticulate-systems-of-atypical-antipsychotic-drug-effect-of-material-used-and-surface-modification
#15
Emil Joseph, Ranendra N Saha
The present study focuses on the effect of material used for the preparation of nanoparticulate systems (NP) and surface modification on the pharmacokinetics and biodistribution of atypical antipsychotic, Olanzapine (OLN). Nanoparticulate carriers of OLN were prepared from two different materials such as polymer (polycaprolactone) and solid lipid (Glyceryl monostearate). These systems were further surface modified with surfactant, Polysorbate 80 and studied for pharmacokinetics-biodistribution in wistar rats using in-house developed bioanalytical methods...
January 3, 2017: Drug Development and Industrial Pharmacy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28044455/health-care-resource-utilization-and-costs-of-california-medicaid-patients-with-schizophrenia-treated-with-paliperidone-palmitate-once-monthly-or-atypical-oral-antipsychotic-treatment
#16
Jacqueline A Pesa, Dilesh Doshi, Li Wang, Huseyin Yuce, Onur Baser
OBJECTIVE: To compare all-cause health care utilization and costs between patients with schizophrenia treated with once-monthly paliperidone palmitate (PP1M; Invega® Sustenna(®)) and atypical oral antipsychotic therapy (OAT). METHODS: This was a retrospective claims-based analysis among adult California Medicaid (Medi-Cal) patients with schizophrenia having ≥2 claims for PP1M or OAT from 01JUL2009-31DEC2013 and continuous health plan enrollment for ≥1 year pre- and post-index date (PP1M or OAT initiation date)...
January 3, 2017: Current Medical Research and Opinion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28038920/analysis-of-differential-gene-expression-mediated-by-clozapine-in-human-postmortem-brains
#17
Brian J Lee, Luigi Marchionni, Carrie E Andrews, Alexis L Norris, Leslie G Nucifora, Yeewen Candace Wu, Robert A Wright, Jonathan Pevsner, Christopher A Ross, Russell L Margolis, Akira Sawa, Frederick C Nucifora
Clozapine is the only medication indicated for treating refractory schizophrenia, due to its superior efficacy among all antipsychotic agents, but its mechanism of action is poorly understood. To date, no studies of human postmortem brain have characterized the gene expression response to clozapine. Therefore, we addressed this question by analyzing expression data extracted from published microarray studies involving brains of patients on antipsychotic therapy. We first performed a systematic review and identified four microarray studies of postmortem brains from antipsychotic-treated patients, then extracted the expression data...
December 27, 2016: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28035686/interaction-between-atypical-antipsychotics-and-the-gut-microbiome-in-a-bipolar-disease-cohort
#18
Stephanie A Flowers, Simon J Evans, Kristen M Ward, Melvin G McInnis, Vicki L Ellingrod
OBJECTIVES: The atypical antipsychotic (AAP) class is often associated with metabolic disease, but the mechanistic underpinnings of this risk are not understood. Due to reports linking gut bacteria function to metabolic disease, we hypothesize that AAP-treatment in adults results in gut dysbiosis potentiating metabolic criteria. This report describes recent findings linking AAP-treatment with differences in gut microbiota communities in a human cohort with bipolar disorder (BD). METHODS: In a cross- sectional design, we obtained 16S ribosomal sequences from 117 BD patients (49 AAP-treated, 68 non-AAP treated)...
December 30, 2016: Pharmacotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28033519/characteristics-of-new-depression-diagnoses-in-patients-with-and-without-prior-chronic-opioid-use
#19
Jeffrey F Scherrer, Joanne Salas, F David Schneider, Kathleen K Bucholz, Mark D Sullivan, Laurel A Copeland, Brian K Ahmedani, Thomas Burroughs, Patrick J Lustman
: Chronic use (>90 Days) of opioid analgesics significantly increases the risk of development of new depression episodes (NDE). It is unclear whether depression that develops in this manner is similar to or different from NDE in persons not exposed to opioid analgesic use (OAU). METHODS: VA patients were classified into two groups, those who did not receive an opioid and developed depression (non-OAU+NDE, n=4314) and those that had >90 days OAU and developed NDE (OAU+NDE, n=444)...
December 21, 2016: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28009769/movement-disorders-induced-by-the-atypical-antipsychotic-aripiprazole
#20
Karim Selfani, Valérie L Soland, Sylvain Chouinard, Philippe Huot
OBJECTIVES: Aripiprazole is an antipsychotic that acts as a partial agonist at dopamine D2 receptors. Because of its partial agonist activity, it was believed that aripiprazole would be less susceptible than typical antipsychotics to induce extrapyramidal side effects. However, a few case-reports and case-series detailing aripiprazole-induced movement disorders have been published, suggesting that aripiprazole-induced movement disorders may arise. Here, we seek to report further cases of aripiprazole-induced movement disorders to raise the awareness of clinicians on this adverse effect...
January 2017: Neurologist
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