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Atypical antipsychotics

Ahmed Refaat, Magda Sokar, Fatma Ismail, Nabila Boraei
Quetiapine (QT) is a short acting atypical antipsychotic drug effective in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. This study aims at designing a novel dosage form of sustained release taste-masked QT orally disintegrating tablets (ODTs) based on solid lipid micro-pellets (SLMPs). QT SLMPs were prepared using the hot melt extrusion technique and utilizing three lipid carriers: Compritol, Precirol and white beeswax either alone or in mixtures. They showed sustained QT release and a taste masking effect. The selected QT SLMP was further blended with an aqueous solution containing polyvinylpyrollidone (2...
December 1, 2016: Acta Pharmaceutica
Pawel Zagozdzon, Bartosz Goyke, Magdalena Wrotkowska
BACKGROUND: The role of antipsychotics in influencing mortality of patients with mental disorders is still unexplained. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to determine mortality rates of patients treated with atypical and typical antipsychotics and to compare these data with the mortality rates for the general population. METHODS: The study was based on the 2008-2012 prescription drug reimbursement data from the Polish National Health Fund in Gdansk and mortality data from the death registry...
September 2016: Drugs—Real World Outcomes
Fahad D Alosaimi, Fay S Alruwais, Fadah A Alanazi, Ghaida A Alabidi, Nadia A Aljomah, Nuha S Alsalameh
OBJECTIVE: To explore the possible causes behind adults seeking psychotropic medications without a prescription; identify the most commonly used psychotropic medications without a prescription; and determine the prevalence of depression and anxiety disorders among adults who used psychotropic medications without a prescription in Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted from November 2014 to August 2015. A convenience sample was taken by distributing a self-administered questionnaire among participants who had obtained psychotropic medications without a prescription from retail pharmacies during the 4 weeks prior to study intake in Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia...
October 2016: Neurosciences: the Official Journal of the Pan Arab Union of Neurological Sciences
Patricia Pilkinton, Carlos Berry, Seth Norrholm, Al Bartolucci, Badari Birur, Lori L Davis
OBJECTIVE: Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) remain the first-line treatment for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). However, adjunctive atypical antipsychotics are often used to target residual or refractory symptoms. Asenapine is a novel atypical antipsychotic that possesses a high serotonin (5-HT2A) to dopamine (D2) affinity ratio and alpha-adrenergic antagonism, which may be advantageous in treating PTSD. This pilot study aimed to identify the therapeutic potential of asenapine as an adjunctive treatment for PTSD...
August 15, 2016: Psychopharmacology Bulletin
Sevcan Karakoç Demirkaya, Behiye Alyanak
Obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) is characterized by recurrent, unwanted thoughts (obsessions) and/or repetitive behaviors (compulsions). Although selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors are widely used to treat OCD, only half of the patients respond well. Several potentiation strategies including off-label use of antipsychotics (mostly risperidone, quetiapine) have been tried. Ziprasidone is an atypical antipsychotic with the best affinity ratio of 5 HT 2A/D2 and 5HT2C/D2 receptors. There is a limited data on ziprasidone in pediatric groups...
March 1, 2016: Psychopharmacology Bulletin
Lin Cui, Wei Sun, Ming Yu, Nan Li, Li Guo, Huating Gu, Yu Zhou
Disrupted-in-schizophrenia 1(DISC1) is a promising candidate susceptibility gene for a spectrum of psychiatric illnesses that share cognitive impairments in common, including schizophrenia, bipolar disorder and major depression. Here we report that DISC1 L100P homozygous mutant shows normal anxiety- and depression-like behavior, but impaired object recognition which is prevented by administration of atypical antipsychotic drug clozapine. Ca(2+) image analysis reveals suppression of glutamate-evoked elevation of cytoplasmic [Ca(2+)] in L100P hippocampal slices...
October 12, 2016: Molecular Brain
Maurizio Pompili, Ross J Baldessarini, Alberto Forte, Denise Erbuto, Gianluca Serafini, Andrea Fiorillo, Mario Amore, Paolo Girardi
Modern antipsychotic drugs are employed increasingly in the treatment of mood disorders as well as psychoses, stimulating interest in their possible contributions to altering suicidal risk. Clozapine remains the only treatment with an FDA-recognized indication for reducing suicidal risk (in schizophrenia). We carried out a systematic, computerized search for reports of studies involving antipsychotic drug treatment and suicidal behaviors. A total of 19 reports provide data with preliminary support for potential suicide risk-reducing effects of olanzapine, quetiapine, ziprasidone, aripiprazole, and asenapine in addition to clozapine, and provide some support for antipsychotic drug treatment in general...
October 11, 2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
William M Greenberg, Leslie Citrome
Lurasidone hydrochloride, a benzisothiazol derivative, is a second-generation (atypical) antipsychotic agent that has received regulatory approval for the treatment of schizophrenia in the US, Canada, the EU, Switzerland, and Australia, and also for bipolar depression in the US and Canada. In addition to its principal antagonist activity at dopamine D2 and serotonin 5-HT2A receptors, lurasidone has distinctive 5-HT7 antagonistic activity, and displays partial agonism at 5-HT1A receptors, as well as modest antagonism at noradrenergic α2A and α2C receptors...
October 8, 2016: Clinical Pharmacokinetics
Jaspinder Kaur, Dileep Kumar, Mostafa Alfishawy, Ricardo Lopez, Issac Sachmechi
Paliperidone, an active metabolite of risperidone, is a new atypical antipsychotic agent. Syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone (SIADH), neuroleptic malignant syndrome (NMS), and rhabdomyolysis are the uncommon side effects of psychotropic drugs. We report a case of 35-year-old male with schizoaffective disorder who was admitted for acute-on-chronic exacerbation of his psychotic disorder for which intramuscular paliperidone 234 mg injection was given. Two days later, the patient developed hyponatremic seizures secondary to SIADH which was treated with hypertonic saline...
2016: Case Reports in Critical Care
Zsófia Majláth, Izabella Obál, László Vécsei
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder with prominent motor and non-motor symptoms. Psychosis develops in over 40% of PD patients and it is one of the most distressing symptoms for patients and caregivers alike. Until recently, atypical antipsychotics, clozapine and quetiapine were used to treat psychotic symptoms, but treatment was associated with substantial concerns for side-effects of clozapine and unfounded efficacy for quetiapine. Extensive research has shown that the antipsychotic effect of these drugs could be attributed to serotonin 2a receptor (5 HT2a) triggered mechanisms...
October 6, 2016: CNS & Neurological Disorders Drug Targets
Jakub Trawiński, Robert Skibiński
Consumption of psychotropic drugs is still increasing, especially in high-income countries. One of the most crucial consequences of this fact is significant release of them to the environment. Considerable amounts of atypical antipsychotics, benzodiazepines, antidepressants, and their metabolites were detected in river, lake, and sea water, as well as in tissues of aquatic organisms. Their ecotoxicity was proved by numerous studies. It should be noticed that interaction between psychotropic pharmaceuticals and radiation may lead to formation of potentially more toxic intermediates...
September 30, 2016: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Eric C Landsness, Leo H Wang, Robert C Bucelli
Migraine headache is among the most prevalent neurologic disorders. Status migrainosus often leads to hospitalization, and multiple medications are sometimes required for symptomatic relief. In 2008, neurologists at our institution started using the atypical antipsychotic ziprasidone as an abortive medication for status migrainosus. The Clinical Investigation Data Exploration Repository was used to search for patients admitted to the Barnes-Jewish Hospital inpatient neurology service with diagnoses of "headache" or "migraine...
October 2016: Neurohospitalist
Vaios Peritogiannis, Nefeli Menti, Venetsanos Mavreas
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2016: Journal of Neurosciences in Rural Practice
Diane Grillault Laroche, Adeline Gaillard
The prevalence of OCS and OCD is higher in schizophrenic patients than in the general population. These disorders are sometimes induced by AAPs. There is higher frequency of OCS and greater severity in patients treated with antipsychotics with predominant anti-serotoninergic profiles opposed to those with predominant dopaminergic blockade. Induced OCS may be due to complex neuromodulation involving many serotonin, dopamine and glutamate receptors and several subtypes. Concerning connectivity, AAPs differentially influence the BOLD signal, depending on the intensity of D2 receptor blockade...
September 21, 2016: Psychiatry Research
Kamini Vasudev, Yun-Hee Choi, Ross Norman, Richard B Kim, Ute I Schwarz
OBJECTIVE: Atypical antipychotics are linked to a higher incidence of metabolic side effects, including weight gain, dyslipidemia, and diabetes. In this study, we examined the prevalence and potential genetic predictors of metabolic side effects in 60 adult patients on clozapine. METHOD: Genetic variants of relevance to clozapine metabolism, clearance, and response were assessed through targeted genotyping of cytochrome P450 enzymes CYP1A2 and CYP2C19, the efflux transporter ABCB1, the serotonin receptor (HTR2C), leptin (LEP), and leptin receptor (LEPR)...
September 28, 2016: Canadian Journal of Psychiatry. Revue Canadienne de Psychiatrie
Jonathan R Scarff
Schizophrenia occurs in approximately 0.3 to 0.7 percent of the world's population and is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Although atypical antipsychotics reduce positive and negative symptoms, they are associated with varying degrees of metabolic adverse effects. This necessitates continued development of efficacious yet metabolically favorable treatments. This article reviews brexpiprazole, a medication recently approved to treat patients with schizophrenia. Brexpiprazole was well-tolerated, and adverse reactions were statistically insignificant...
July 2016: Innovations in Clinical Neuroscience
Sibel Cakir, Zeynep Senkal
BACKGROUND: Second-generation antipsychotics (SGAs) have been used in the augmentation of treatment-resistant depression. However, little is known about their effectiveness, tolerability, and adverse events in the treatment of late-life depression, which were the aim of this study. METHODS: The retrospective data of patients aged >65 years who had a major depressive episode with inadequate response to antidepressant treatment and had adjuvant SGA treatment were analyzed...
2016: Clinical Interventions in Aging
Lisa A Raedler
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2016: American Health & Drug Benefits
Qi Pei, Lu Huang, Jie Huang, Jing-Kai Gu, Yun Kuang, Xiao-Cong Zuo, Jun-Jie Ding, Hong-Yi Tan, Cheng-Xian Guo, Shi-Kun Liu, Guo-Ping Yang
AIM: Iloperidone is an atypical antipsychotic drug that is mainly metabolized by CYP2D6, CYP3A4, and cytosolic enzymes. Previous studies show that extensive and poor metabolizers of CYP2D6 exhibit different plasma concentrations of iloperidone and its metabolites. The aim of this study was to develop a parent-metabolite population pharmacokinetic (PPK) model to quantify the effects of CYP2D6(*)10 allele on the pharmacokinetics of iloperidone and its metabolites in Chinese schizophrenia patients...
September 26, 2016: Acta Pharmacologica Sinica
Jillian J Weeks, Lauren J Carlson, Hannah L Radabaugh, Patricia B de la Tremblaye, Corina O Bondi, Anthony E Kline
Traumatic brain injury (TBI)-induced agitation and aggression pose major obstacles to clinicians in the acute hospital and rehabilitation settings. Thus, management of these symptoms is crucial. Antipsychotic drugs (APDs) are a common treatment approach for alleviating these symptoms. However, previous preclinical TBI studies have indicated that daily and chronic administration of these drugs (e.g., haloperidol; HAL) can exacerbate cognitive and motor deficits. Quetiapine (QUE) is an atypical APD that differs from many typical APDs, such as HAL, in its relatively rapid dissociation from the D2 receptor...
September 21, 2016: Behavioural Brain Research
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