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Reversing calcification

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057890/in-vitro-3d-model-and-mirna-drug-delivery-to-target-calcific-aortic-valve-disease
#1
REVIEW
Casper F T van der Ven, Pin-Jou Wu, Mark W Tibbitt, Alain van Mil, Joost P G Sluijter, Robert Langer, Elena Aikawa
Calcific aortic valve disease (CAVD) is the most prevalent valvular heart disease in the Western population, claiming 17000 deaths per year in the United States and affecting 25% of people older than 65 years of age. Contrary to traditional belief, CAVD is not a passive, degenerative disease but rather a dynamic disease, where initial cellular changes in the valve leaflets progress into fibrotic lesions that induce valve thickening and calcification. Advanced thickening and calcification impair valve function and lead to aortic stenosis (AS)...
February 1, 2017: Clinical Science (1979-)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28048959/expression-and-localization-of-carbonic-anhydrase-genes-in-the-serpulid-polychaete-hydroides-elegans
#2
Grant Batzel, Brian T Nedved, Michael G Hadfield
The metalloenzyme, carbonic anhydrase (CA), catalyzes the reversible hydration of carbon dioxide into bicarbonate, and is responsible for biomineralization processes in animals. In the Annelida, the marine worms in the family Serpulidae are typified by the construction of calcium carbonate tubes. Hydroides elegans, a common member of warmwater biofouling communities around the world, provides an outstanding model for studies of calcification. To better understand the molecular process of biomineralization in H...
December 2016: Biological Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28004064/-secondary-hyperuricemia-in-chronic-renal-failure-promotes-vascular-calcification-in-rats
#3
Zhe Song, Yang Zhao, Xian Wang, Ming-Jiang Xu
The present study was aimed to explore the effects of hyperuricemia on vascular calcification in chronic renal failure (CRF) and the mechanisms. Adenine diet-induced CRF rat model was used. Twenty-three male 8-week-old Wistar rats were randomly divided into control group (Ctr, n = 5), CRF group (n = 8) and CRF plus allopurinol group (CRF + ALL, n = 10), and the rats were given standard diet plus standard drinking water, adenine diet plus standard drinking water and adenine diet plus allopurinol drinking for 6 weeks, respectively...
December 25, 2016: Sheng Li Xue Bao: [Acta Physiologica Sinica]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27984337/inhibition-of-osteo-chondrogenic-transformation-of-vascular-smooth-muscle-cells-by-mgcl2-via-calcium-sensing-receptor
#4
Ioana Alesutan, Rashad Tuffaha, Tilman Auer, Martina Feger, Burkert Pieske, Florian Lang, Jakob Voelkl
OBJECTIVES: The progression of vascular calcification, an active process promoted by osteo/chondrogenic transformation of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) is attenuated by activation of the calcium-sensing receptor (CASR). Recent in-vitro studies revealed that vascular calcification could be blunted by Mg, but the underlying mechanisms remained elusive. The present study explored whether the effects of MgCl2 on vascular calcification involve the CASR. METHODS: Experiments were performed in primary human aortic smooth muscle cells (HAoSMCs) and in the mouse vascular calcification model of vitamin D3 overload...
December 15, 2016: Journal of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27965940/coronary-calcification-is-reversely-related-with-bone-and-hair-calcium-the-relationship-among-different-calcium-pools-in-body
#5
Sang-Hoon Lee, Soo-Jung Park, Kyu-Nam Kim, Doo-Yeoun Cho, Young-Sang Kim, Bom-Taeck Kim
BACKGROUND: With aging, calcium efflux from bone is increased with age-related bone loss, and it can reduce bone mineral density (BMD). On the contrary, age-related calcium adoption into arterial wall progressively stiffens blood vessels. Theses process insinuates shift of calcium among different pools in body. However, their relationships have not been elucidated yet. So we investigated the correlation among calcium contents in different body pools, such as hair, bone, and blood vessels in women...
November 2016: Journal of Bone Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27959380/sequencing-and-bioinformatics-analysis-of-the-differentially-expressed-genes-in-herniated-discs-with-or-without-calcification
#6
Jia Shao, Miao Yu, Liang Jiang, Fengliang Wu, Xiaoguang Liu
The purpose of this study was to detect the differentially expressed genes between ossified herniated discs and herniated discs without ossification. In addition, we sought to identify a few candidate genes and pathways by using bioinformatics analysis. We analyzed 6 samples each of ossified herniated discs (experimental group) and herniated discs without ossification (control group). Purified mRNA and cDNA extracted from the samples were subjected to sequencing. The NOISeq method was used to statistically identify the differentially expressed genes (DEGs) between the 2 groups...
January 2017: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27939134/persistence-of-vascular-calcification-after-reversal-of-uremia
#7
Koba A Lomashvili, Kelly E Manning, M Neale Weitzmann, Valentin Nelea, Marc D McKee, W Charles O'Neill
The extent to which vascular calcification is reversible and the possible mechanisms are unclear. To address this, calcified aortas from uremic mice were transplanted orthotopically into normal mice, and the calcium content, histology, and minerals of the allografts were compared with the nontransplanted donor aorta. Calcium content decreased immediately after transplantation but remained constant thereafter, with 68% ± 12% remaining after 34 weeks. X-ray diffraction showed the presence of apatite in both donor aortas and allografts...
December 8, 2016: American Journal of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27876618/tlr4-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-ceramide-signaling-contributes-to-ox-ldl-induced-calcification-of-human-vascular-smooth-muscle-cells
#8
Yan Song, Menglin Hou, Zhenlin Li, Chufan Luo, Jing-Song Ou, Huimin Yu, Jianyun Yan, Lihe Lu
Vascular calcification is a major feature of advanced atherosclerosis and highly associated with cardiovascular diseases. Oxidized low density lipoprotein (Ox-LDL) has been recognized as a critical risk factor for atherosclerosis and osteogenic differentiation of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). Previous studies have demonstrated that toll like receptor 4 (TLR4) is highly expressed in atherosclerotic lesions and participates in the progression of atherosclerosis. However, the role of TLR4 in vascular calcification remains unknown...
January 5, 2017: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27866029/understanding-the-structural-features-of-symptomatic-calcific-aortic-valve-stenosis-a-broad-spectrum-clinico-pathologic-study-in-236-consecutive-surgical-cases
#9
Daniela Galli, Roberta Manuguerra, Rodolfo Monaco, Laura Manotti, Matteo Goldoni, Gabriella Becchi, Cecilia Carubbi, Giulia Vignali, Nicola Cucurachi, Tiziano Gherli, Francesco Nicolini, Roberto Lorusso, Marco Vitale, Domenico Corradi
BACKGROUND: With age, aortic valve cusps undergo varying degrees of sclerosis which, sometimes, can progress to calcific aortic valve stenosis (AVS). To perform a retrospective clinico-pathologic investigation in patients with calcific AVS. METHODS: We characterized and graded the structural remodeling in 236 aortic valves (200 tricuspid and 36 bicuspid) from patients with calcific AVS (148 males; average 72years); possible relationships between general/clinical/echocardiographic characteristics and the histopathologic changes were explored...
February 1, 2017: International Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27835878/apocynin-attenuates-angiotensin-ii-induced-vascular-smooth-muscle-cells-osteogenic-switching-via-suppressing-extracellular-signal-regulated-kinase-1-2
#10
Weijing Feng, Kun Zhang, Yu Liu, Jie Chen, Qingqing Cai, Yinyin Zhang, Mongheng Wang, Jingfeng Wang, Hui Huang
Vascular calcification (VC) is a significant risk factor for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. We recently reported that apocynin had benefits for preventing cardiovascular diseases. However, whether apocynin could attenuate VC is unknown. Here, we investigated the role of apocynin in VC and its underlying mechanisms. 163 participants with high or normal ankle-brachial index (ABI) were enrolled in this study for analyzing the demographic and biochemical data. In vitro, vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) were exposed to calcification medium containing b-glycerophosphate and angiotensin II (Ang II) for 24 hours...
November 8, 2016: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27776971/association-between-vascular-calcification-assessed-by-simple-radiography-and-non-fatal-cardiovascular-events-in-hemodialysis-patients
#11
Vaida Petrauskiene, Ruta Vaiciuniene, Inga Arune Bumblyte, Vytautas Kuzminskis, Edita Ziginskiene, Saulius Grazulis, Egle Jonaitiene
BACKGROUND: Vascular calcification (VC) is one of the factors associated with cardiovascular mortality in hemodialysis (HD) patients. Recommendations concerning screening for VC differ. Possible ability to prevent and reversibility of VC are major subjects on debate whether screening for VC could improve outcomes of renal patients. The objective of the study was to evaluate the significance of simple vascular calcification score (SVCS) based on plane radiographic films and to test its association with non-fatal cardiovascular events in patients on chronic HD...
December 2016: Néphrologie & Thérapeutique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27719736/regression-of-vascular-calcification-in-a-parathyroidectomized-patient-on-dialysis-with-untreated-hypocalcemia-over-12-year-follow-up%C3%A2
#12
Pablo Molina, José L Górriz, Sandra Beltrán, Belén Vizcaino, Luis M Pallardo
Although some experimental targets involved in calcium deposition are emerging, no intervention has been described to reliably reverse vascular calcification (VC). We report a case of severe VC regression in a parathyroidectomized patient on hemodialysis over 12-year follow-up, highlighting the use of calcium-free phosphate binders and a 2.5 mEq/L calcium dialysate for reducing calcium loading, despite persistent asymptomatic hypocalcemia occurrences. This case suggests that phosphate-binder choice and calcium dialysate concentration could be influenced by other components of CKD-MBD besides biochemical parameters, such as the presence of VC, so concluding that asymptomatic hypocalcemia may not be as harmful as once supposed, and conferring greater prognostic weight to the presence of VC than to calcium levels...
December 2016: Clinical Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27698934/reversal-of-vascular-calcification-and-aneurysms-in-a-rat-model-using-dual-targeted-therapy-with-edta-and-pgg-loaded-nanoparticles
#13
Nasim Nosoudi, Aniqa Chowdhury, Steven Siclari, Saketh Karamched, Vaideesh Parasaram, Joe Parrish, Patrick Gerard, Narendra Vyavahare
Degeneration of elastic lamina and vascular calcification are common features of vascular pathology such as aortic aneurysms. We tested whether dual therapy with targeted nanoparticles (NPs) can remove mineral deposits (by delivery of a chelating agent, ethylene diamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA)) and restore elastic lamina (by delivery of a polyphenol, pentagalloyl glucose (PGG)) to reverse moderate aneurysm development. EDTA followed by PGG NP delivery led to reduction in macrophage recruitment, matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) activity, elastin degradation and calcification in the aorta as compared to delivery of control blank NPs...
2016: Theranostics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27684601/ocean-acidification-affects-parameters-of-immune-response-and-extracellular-ph-in-tropical-sea-urchins-lytechinus-variegatus-and-echinometra-luccunter
#14
Débora Alvares Leite Figueiredo, Paola Cristina Branco, Douglas Amaral Dos Santos, Andrews Krupinski Emerenciano, Renata Stecca Iunes, João Carlos Shimada Borges, José Roberto Machado Cunha da Silva
The rising concentration of atmospheric CO2 by anthropogenic activities is changing the chemistry of the oceans, resulting in a decreased pH. Several studies have shown that the decrease in pH can affect calcification rates and reproduction of marine invertebrates, but little attention has been drawn to their immune response. Thus this study evaluated in two adult tropical sea urchin species, Lytechinus variegatus and Echinometra lucunter, the effects of ocean acidification over a period of 24h and 5days, on parameters of the immune response, the extracellular acid base balance, and the ability to recover these parameters...
November 2016: Aquatic Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27683096/sudden-onset-of-parathyroid-hormone-independent-severe-hypercalcemia-from-reversal-of-tumoral-calcinosis-in-a-dialysis-patient
#15
Fareed B Kamar, Bikaramjit Mann, Gregory Kline
BACKGROUND: Tumoral calcinosis is a rare manifestation of extraskeletal calcification, featuring large calcified cystic masses in the periarticular regions of large joints. In chronic kidney disease (CKD), this disorder is thought to evolve through a chronically elevated calcium-phosphorus solubility product leading to calcium precipitation in soft tissue. Treating tumoral calcinosis in these patients involves interventions to lower the calcium-phosphorus product such as reduction in vitamin D therapy and intensive hemodialysis regimens...
September 29, 2016: BMC Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27666759/ligand-trap-of-the-activin-receptor-type-iia-inhibits-osteoclast-stimulation-of-bone-remodeling-in-diabetic-mice-with-chronic-kidney-disease
#16
Toshifumi Sugatani, Olga A Agapova, Yifu Fang, Alycia G Berman, Joseph M Wallace, Hartmut H Malluche, Marie-Claude Faugere, William Smith, Victoria Sung, Keith A Hruska
Dysregulation of skeletal remodeling is a component of renal osteodystrophy. Previously, we showed that activin receptor signaling is differentially affected in various tissues in chronic kidney disease (CKD). We tested whether a ligand trap for the activin receptor type 2A (RAP-011) is an effective treatment of the osteodystrophy of the CKD-mineral bone disorder. With a 70% reduction in the glomerular filtration rate, CKD was induced at 14 weeks of age in the ldlr-/- high fat-fed mouse model of atherosclerotic vascular calcification and diabetes...
January 2017: Kidney International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27621885/a-reverse-direction-technique-of-single-port-left-upper-pulmonary-resection
#17
Min Zhang, Alan D L Sihoe, Ming Du
BACKGROUND: Single-port video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS) left upper lobectomy is difficult amongst all the lobes. At the beginning of single-port lobectomies, the upper lobes were believed not to be amenable for single-port approach due to the difficult angulation for staplers. Gonzalez reported the first single-port VATS left upper lobectomy in 2011. METHODS: We report a new technique of single-port VATS left upper lobectomy with the concept of "reverse direction"...
August 2016: Journal of Thoracic Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27585243/targeting-vasoactive-peptides-for-managing-calcific-aortic-valve-disease
#18
Tuomas Peltonen, Pauli Ohukainen, Heikki Ruskoaho, Jaana Rysä
Calcific aortic valve disease (CAVD) represents a spectrum of disease spanning from milder degrees of calcification of valve leaflets, i.e., aortic sclerosis, to severe calcification i.e., aortic stenosis (AS) with hemodynamic instability. The prevalence of CAVD is increasing rapidly due to the aging of the population, being up to 2.8% among patients over 75 years of age. Even without significant aortic valve stenosis, aortic sclerosis is associated with a 50% increased risk of myocardial infarction and death from cardiovascular causes...
February 2017: Annals of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27572900/effects-of-sphingosylphosphorylcholine-on-cryopreserved-fat-tissue-graft-survival
#19
Yong Chan Bae, Chi Won Choi, Kyeong Wook Nam, Ji Sun Song, Jae Woo Lee
Autogenous microfat grafting is widely used to augment depressed deformities or for other cosmetic purposes. Since the microfat survival rate is unpredictable due to absorption and calcification, previously cryopreserved fat is widely used for secondary procedures. Sphingosylphosphorylcholine (SPC) is a lysophospholipid, which has a role in several cellular responses, and is known to stimulate DNA synthesis and proliferation. Since endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) are known to enhance the survival rate of transplanted fat tissue, the present study assessed the effects of SPC on EPCs, in order to verify its positive effects on proliferation...
October 2016: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27559830/update-interim-guidance-for-the-evaluation-and-management-of-infants-with-possible-congenital-zika-virus-infection-united-states-august-2016
#20
Kate Russell, Sara E Oliver, Lillianne Lewis, Wanda D Barfield, Janet Cragan, Dana Meaney-Delman, J Erin Staples, Marc Fischer, Georgina Peacock, Titilope Oduyebo, Emily E Petersen, Sherif Zaki, Cynthia A Moore, Sonja A Rasmussen
CDC has updated its interim guidance for U.S. health care providers caring for infants born to mothers with possible Zika virus infection during pregnancy (1). Laboratory testing is recommended for 1) infants born to mothers with laboratory evidence of Zika virus infection during pregnancy and 2) infants who have abnormal clinical or neuroimaging findings suggestive of congenital Zika syndrome and a maternal epidemiologic link suggesting possible transmission, regardless of maternal Zika virus test results...
August 26, 2016: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
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