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Reversing calcification

Pablo Molina, José L Górriz, Sandra Beltrán, Belén Vizcaino, Luis M Pallardó
Although some experimental targets involved in calcium deposition are emerging, no intervention has been described to reliably reverse vascular calcification (VC). We report a case of severe VC regression in a parathyroidectomized patient on hemodialysis over 12-year follow-up, highlighting the use of calcium-free phosphate binders and a 2.5 mEq/L calcium dialysate for reducing calcium loading, despite persistent asymptomatic hypocalcemia occurrences. This case suggests that phosphate-binder choice and calcium dialysate concentration could be influenced by other components of CKD-MBD besides biochemical parameters, such as the presence of VC, so concluding that asymptomatic hypocalcemia may not be as harmful as once supposed, and conferring greater prognostic weight to the presence of VC than to calcium levels...
October 10, 2016: Clinical Nephrology
Nasim Nosoudi, Aniqa Chowdhury, Steven Siclari, Saketh Karamched, Vaideesh Parasaram, Joe Parrish, Patrick Gerard, Narendra Vyavahare
Degeneration of elastic lamina and vascular calcification are common features of vascular pathology such as aortic aneurysms. We tested whether dual therapy with targeted nanoparticles (NPs) can remove mineral deposits (by delivery of a chelating agent, ethylene diamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA)) and restore elastic lamina (by delivery of a polyphenol, pentagalloyl glucose (PGG)) to reverse moderate aneurysm development. EDTA followed by PGG NP delivery led to reduction in macrophage recruitment, matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) activity, elastin degradation and calcification in the aorta as compared to delivery of control blank NPs...
2016: Theranostics
Débora Alvares Leite Figueiredo, Paola Cristina Branco, Douglas Amaral Dos Santos, Andrews Krupinski Emerenciano, Renata Stecca Iunes, João Carlos Shimada Borges, José Roberto Machado Cunha da Silva
The rising concentration of atmospheric CO2 by anthropogenic activities is changing the chemistry of the oceans, resulting in a decreased pH. Several studies have shown that the decrease in pH can affect calcification rates and reproduction of marine invertebrates, but little attention has been drawn to their immune response. Thus this study evaluated in two adult tropical sea urchin species, Lytechinus variegatus and Echinometra lucunter, the effects of ocean acidification over a period of 24h and 5days, on parameters of the immune response, the extracellular acid base balance, and the ability to recover these parameters...
September 17, 2016: Aquatic Toxicology
Fareed B Kamar, Bikaramjit Mann, Gregory Kline
BACKGROUND: Tumoral calcinosis is a rare manifestation of extraskeletal calcification, featuring large calcified cystic masses in the periarticular regions of large joints. In chronic kidney disease (CKD), this disorder is thought to evolve through a chronically elevated calcium-phosphorus solubility product leading to calcium precipitation in soft tissue. Treating tumoral calcinosis in these patients involves interventions to lower the calcium-phosphorus product such as reduction in vitamin D therapy and intensive hemodialysis regimens...
September 29, 2016: BMC Nephrology
Toshifumi Sugatani, Olga A Agapova, Yifu Fang, Alycia G Berman, Joseph M Wallace, Hartmut H Malluche, Marie-Claude Faugere, William Smith, Victoria Sung, Keith A Hruska
Dysregulation of skeletal remodeling is a component of renal osteodystrophy. Previously, we showed that activin receptor signaling is differentially affected in various tissues in chronic kidney disease (CKD). We tested whether a ligand trap for the activin receptor type 2A (RAP-011) is an effective treatment of the osteodystrophy of the CKD-mineral bone disorder. With a 70% reduction in the glomerular filtration rate, CKD was induced at 14 weeks of age in the ldlr-/- high fat-fed mouse model of atherosclerotic vascular calcification and diabetes...
September 22, 2016: Kidney International
Min Zhang, Alan D L Sihoe, Ming Du
BACKGROUND: Single-port video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS) left upper lobectomy is difficult amongst all the lobes. At the beginning of single-port lobectomies, the upper lobes were believed not to be amenable for single-port approach due to the difficult angulation for staplers. Gonzalez reported the first single-port VATS left upper lobectomy in 2011. METHODS: We report a new technique of single-port VATS left upper lobectomy with the concept of "reverse direction"...
August 2016: Journal of Thoracic Disease
Tuomas Peltonen, Pauli Ohukainen, Heikki Ruskoaho, Jaana Rysä
Calcific aortic valve disease (CAVD) represents a spectrum of disease spanning from milder degrees of calcification of valve leaflets, i.e. aortic sclerosis, to severe calcification i.e. aortic stenosis (AS) with hemodynamic instability. The prevalence of CAVD is increasing rapidly due to the aging of the population, being up to 2,8% among patients over 75 years of age. Even without significant aortic valve stenosis, aortic sclerosis is associated with a 50% increased risk of myocardial infarction and death from cardiovascular causes...
September 1, 2016: Annals of Medicine
Yong Chan Bae, Chi Won Choi, Kyeong Wook Nam, Ji Sun Song, Jae Woo Lee
Autogenous microfat grafting is widely used to augment depressed deformities or for other cosmetic purposes. Since the microfat survival rate is unpredictable due to absorption and calcification, previously cryopreserved fat is widely used for secondary procedures. Sphingosylphosphorylcholine (SPC) is a lysophospholipid, which has a role in several cellular responses, and is known to stimulate DNA synthesis and proliferation. Since endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) are known to enhance the survival rate of transplanted fat tissue, the present study assessed the effects of SPC on EPCs, in order to verify its positive effects on proliferation...
October 2016: Molecular Medicine Reports
Kate Russell, Sara E Oliver, Lillianne Lewis, Wanda D Barfield, Janet Cragan, Dana Meaney-Delman, J Erin Staples, Marc Fischer, Georgina Peacock, Titilope Oduyebo, Emily E Petersen, Sherif Zaki, Cynthia A Moore, Sonja A Rasmussen
CDC has updated its interim guidance for U.S. health care providers caring for infants born to mothers with possible Zika virus infection during pregnancy (1). Laboratory testing is recommended for 1) infants born to mothers with laboratory evidence of Zika virus infection during pregnancy and 2) infants who have abnormal clinical or neuroimaging findings suggestive of congenital Zika syndrome and a maternal epidemiologic link suggesting possible transmission, regardless of maternal Zika virus test results...
2016: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
Ellen Neven, Britt Opdebeeck, Annelies De Maré, Rida Bashir-Dar, Geert Dams, Rita Marynissen, Geert J Behets, Anja Verhulst, Bruce L Riser, Patrick C D'Haese
Vascular calcification significantly contributes to mortality in chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients. Sevelamer and pyrophosphate (PPi) have proven to be effective in preventing vascular calcification, the former by controlling intestinal phosphate absorption, the latter by directly interfering with the hydroxyapatite crystal formation. Since most patients present with established vascular calcification, it is important to evaluate whether these compounds may also halt or reverse the progression of preexisting vascular calcification...
November 2016: Calcified Tissue International
Qiaoli Li, Joshua Kingman, John P Sundberg, Michael A Levine, Jouni Uitto
Pseudoxanthoma elasticum (PXE) and generalized arterial calcification of infancy (GACI) are heritable disorders manifesting with ectopic tissue mineralization. Most cases of PXE and some cases of GACI are caused by mutations in the ABCC6 gene, resulting in reduced plasma pyrophosphate (PPi) levels. There is no effective treatment for these disorders. It has been suggested that administration of bisphosphonates, stable and non-hydrolyzable PPi analogs, could counteract ectopic mineralization in these disorders...
July 20, 2016: Oncotarget
Yan-Chun Gong, Yue He, Hao Wang, Wen-Quan Niu, Kai-Da Ji, Hua Li
The process of vascular calcification shares numerous similarities with that of skeletal mineralization and involves the deposition of hydroxyapatite crystals in arteries and cardiac valves. However, the underlying cellular mechanism remains to be fully elucidated. Microarray analysis in the present study demonstrated that greater than 2,000 genes were upregulated during the calcification of murine vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs), of which osterix (OSX) and integrin‑binding sialoprotein (IBSP) were the most significantly differentially expressed genes...
September 2016: Molecular Medicine Reports
Juan Shao, Panfeng Wu, Jiliang Wu, Mincai Li
Objective To investigate the effect of the angiotensin II receptor 1 (AT1R) blocker losartan on vascular calcification in rat aortic artery and explore the underlying mechanisms. Methods SD rats were divided randomly into control group, vascular calcification model group and treatment group. Vascular calcification models were made by subcutaneous injection of warfarin plus vitamin K1 for two weeks. Rats in the treatment group were subcutaneously injected with losartan (10 mg/kg) at the end of the first week and consecutively for one week...
August 2016: Xi Bao Yu Fen Zi Mian Yi Xue za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Cellular and Molecular Immunology
Jiaji Yue, Shanzi Jin, Yaqiang Li, Li Zhang, Wenwei Jiang, Chunxi Yang, Jiang Du
Tendon calcification has been widely regarded by researchers to result from the osteogenic differentiation of Tendon-Derived Stem Cells (TDSCs) and ectopic mineralization caused by the calcification of cellular matrix. Recent studies have revealed a correlation between the Mg(2+)/Ca(2+) balance and the degeneration or calcification of tendon tissues. Furthermore, the ATP-P2X/P2Y receptor pathway has been shown to play a decisive role in the process of calcification, with calcium exportation from mitochondria and calcium oscillations potentially representing the cohesive signal produced by this pathway...
September 9, 2016: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Tonghui Lin, Xue-Lin Wang, Sara L Zettervall, Yujun Cai, Raul J Guzman
BACKGROUND: Medial artery calcification develops in diabetes, chronic kidney disease, and as part of the aging process. It is associated with increased morbidity and mortality in vascular patients. Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) have previously been implicated in the initiation and progression of vascular calcification. We thus evaluated whether dorsomorphin homologue 1 (DMH1), a highly selective BMP inhibitor, could attenuate vascular calcification in vitro and in an organ culture model of medial calcification...
June 30, 2016: Journal of Vascular Surgery
Surinder S Rana, Arvind Dambalkar, Puneet Chhabra, Ravi Sharma, Ritambhra Nada, Vishal Sharma, Satyavati Rana, Deepak K Bhasin
BACKGROUND: Although exocrine pancreatic insufficiency (EPI) has been reported in a number of patients with celiac disease (CD), it is not clear if this is primarily a functional or a structural defect. We studied pancreatic structural abnormalities by endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) in adult CD patients with EPI. METHODS: Pancreatic exocrine function was prospectively assessed in 36 recently diagnosed CD patients (mean age: 29.8 years) by measuring fecal elastase. Pancreatic structural changes were assessed in CD patients with EPI by EUS and elastography...
July 2016: Annals of Gastroenterology: Quarterly Publication of the Hellenic Society of Gastroenterology
Ruben V C Buijs, Clark J Zeebregts, Tineke P Willems, Tryfon Vainas, Ignace F J Tielliu
OBJECTIVE: In endovascular aortic aneurysm repair (EVAR), proximal type 1A endoleaks can occur as a result of hostile neck anatomy or over- or undersizing of the endograft. As the current standard is based on the diameter or average of the short and long axes in a central lumen reconstruction image, it can falter in irregularly shaped aortic necks. An alternative method is circumference-based, therefore minimizing the measurement error. In this study we aimed to assess the degree of discrepancy between both methods and the association of this discrepancy with the occurrence of endoleak type 1A...
2016: PloS One
Kun Zhang, Jingwei Gao, Jie Chen, Xun Liu, Qingqing Cai, Pinming Liu, Hui Huang
In chronic kidney disease (CKD), simultaneous mineral and skeleton changes are prevalent, known as CKD-mineral bone disorder (CKD-MBD). Arterial calcification (AC) is a clinically important complication of CKD-MBD. It can increase arterial stiffness, which leads to severe cardiovascular events. However, current treatments have little effect on regression of AC, as its mechanisms are still unclear. There are multiple risk factors of AC, among which Malnutrition-Inflammation Complex Syndrome (MICS) is a new and crucial one...
October 1, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Renal Physiology
Zhongshan Wang, Guangsheng Wu, Mengying Wei, Qian Liu, Jian Zhou, Tian Qin, Xiaoke Feng, Huan Liu, Zhihong Feng, Yimin Zhao
Cell sheet engineering has emerged as a novel approach to effectively deliver seeding cells for tissue regeneration, and developing human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell (hBMMSC) sheets with high osteogenic ability is a constant requirement from clinics for faster and higher-quality bone formation. In this work, we fabricated biocompatible and safe chitosan (CS)/hyaluronic acid (HA) nanoparticles (NPs) to deliver microRNA-21 (miR-21), which has been proved to accelerate osteogenesis in hBMMSCs; then, the CS/HA/miR-21 NPs were cross-linked onto the surfaces of culture plates with 0...
2016: International Journal of Nanomedicine
Purav Mody, Parag H Joshi, Amit Khera, Colby R Ayers, Anand Rohatgi
BACKGROUND: Cholesterol efflux capacity (CEC), which is a key step in the reverse cholesterol transport pathway, is independently associated with atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD). However, whether it predicts ASCVD beyond validated novel risk markers is unknown. OBJECTIVES: This study assessed if CEC improved ACSVD risk prediction beyond using coronary artery calcium (CAC), family history (FH), and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP). METHODS: CEC, CAC, self-reported FH, and hs-CRP were assessed among participants without baseline ASCVD who were enrolled in the Dallas Heart Study (DHS)...
May 31, 2016: Journal of the American College of Cardiology
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