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Reversing calcification

Hyun-Soo Kim, Mingzhen Zheng, Do-Kyung Kim, Won-Pyo Lee, Sang-Joun Yu, Byung-Ock Kim
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 on the proliferation, differentiation, and matrix mineralization of MC3T3-E1 osteoblast-like cells in vitro. Methods: MC3T3-E1 osteoblastic cells and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 were prepared. Cytotoxic effects and osteogenic differentiation were evaluated using the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity assay, ALP staining, alizarin red S staining, and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) for osteogenic differentiation markers such as ALP, collagen type I (Col-I), osteocalcin (OCN), vitamin D receptor (VDR), and glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase...
February 2018: Journal of Periodontal & Implant Science
Philippa Howlett, Jane K Cleal, Huihai Wu, Nikunj Shah, Alex Horton, Nick Curzen, Michael Mahmoudi
Objective: MicroRNAs (miRNAs) may serve as potential biomarkers in a variety of pathologies. The aim of this study was to determine whether miRNAs could serve as blood-based markers of isolated coronary artery calcification (CAC) defined as CAC in the absence of an underlying metabolic abnormality. Methods: 24 age-matched and sex-matched patients who had been referred for elective CT coronary calcium score and angiography as part of investigation for cardiac chest pain were recruited...
2018: Open Heart
Panagiotis I Georgianos, Maria I Pikilidou, Vassilios Liakopoulos, Elias V Balaskas, Pantelis E Zebekakis
Arterial stiffness is an important risk factor for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD). Arterial stiffness aggravates cardiovascular risk via multiple pathways, such as augmentation of aortic systolic pressure, subendocardial hypoperfusion, and excess pulsatile energy transmission from macro- to microcirculation. Pathogenesis of the arteriosclerotic process in ESRD is complex and not yet fully understood. Several factors unique to ESRD, such as mineral metabolism disturbances, vascular calcifications, formation of advanced glycation end-products, and acute and chronic volume overload, are proposed to play a particular role in the progression of arteriosclerosis in ESRD...
March 12, 2018: Hypertension Research: Official Journal of the Japanese Society of Hypertension
Wei Ling Lau, Javad Savoj, Michael B Nakata, Nosratola D Vaziri
In chronic kidney disease (CKD), influx of urea and other retained toxins exerts a change in the gut microbiome. There is decreased number of beneficial bacteria that produce short-chain fatty acids, an essential nutrient for the colonic epithelium, concurrent with an increase in bacteria that produce uremic toxins such as indoxyl sulphate, p -cresyl sulphate, and trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO). Due to intestinal wall inflammation and degradation of intercellular tight junctions, gut-derived uremic toxins translocate into the bloodstream and exert systemic effects...
March 15, 2018: Clinical Science (1979-)
Muhannad Alanazi, Alaa AlDuraibi, Mohamamed M Shoukri, Ahmed Fathala
Background: Coronary artery calcification score (CACS) is well validated prognostic tool in coronary artery disease (CAD). The data on the prevalence of myocardial ischemia on myocardial perfusion single photon emission computed tomography (MPS) in symptomatic patients with zero CACS and low to intermediate risk probability is lacking and controversial. The aim of our study was to evaluate the capability of zero CACS to exclude myocardial ischemia on MPS. Methods: A total of 157 patients ((mean age 53 ± 10 years), 88 (56%) female patients, 69 (44%) male patients) who were suspected to have CAD and having low to intermediate pretest likelihood for CAD underwent CACS on dedicated computed tomography (CT) scanners...
February 2018: Cardiology Research
Zhi-Yuan Cheng, Ting Ye, Qiu-Yang Ling, Ting Wu, Gang-Yong Wu, Gang-Jun Zong
Vascular calcification (VC) occurs in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) and contributes to cardiovascular dysfunction and mortality. Parathyroid hormone (PTH) is a crucial regulator of VC. High PTH serum levels constitute as a major risk factor for patients with CKD. However, the effect and mechanism of PTH on osteoblastic differentiation in endothelial cells have not been fully elucidated. In the present study, the role of PTH in VC was investigated using an in vitro calcification model. Endothelial cells were stimulated with PTH in the femto- to picomolar range...
February 2018: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
Robert S English
Androgenic alopecia, also known as pattern hair loss, is a chronic progressive condition that affects 80% of men and 50% of women throughout a lifetime. But despite its prevalence and extensive study, a coherent pathology model describing androgenic alopecia's precursors, biological step-processes, and physiological responses does not yet exist. While consensus is that androgenic alopecia is genetic and androgen-mediated by dihydrotestosterone, questions remain regarding dihydrotestosterone's exact role in androgenic alopecia onset...
February 2018: Medical Hypotheses
Lizhen Liao, Xiaodong Zhuang, Weidong Li, Qibiao Su, Jie Zhao, Ying Liu
Polysaccharide from Fuzi (FPS) is a water‑soluble polysaccharide isolated from the traditional Chinese herbal medicine Fuzi. It has been demonstrated to protect hepatocytes against ischemia‑reperfusion injury through its potent antioxidant effects, and to attenuate starvation‑induced cytotoxicity in H9c2 cells by increasing autophagic activity. In the present study, Alizarin Red S staining was used to detect mineral deposition and reverse transcription‑quantitative polymerase chain reaction was used to detect the core binding factor α1 and smooth muscle 22α mRNA expression...
January 25, 2018: Molecular Medicine Reports
Patrick A Sibony, Junchao Wei, Ian A Sigal
PURPOSE: To determine if ocular ductions deform intrapapillary and peripapillary tissues in optic nerve head drusen (ONHD) and to compare these deformations with healthy eyes and eyes with other optic neuropathies. DESIGN: Observational case series. PARTICIPANTS: Twenty patients with ONHD. METHODS: Axial rasters of the optic nerve from a spectral-domain OCT device (Cirrus 5000; Carl Zeiss Meditec, Inc, Dublin, CA) were used to analyze the shape of the peripapillary basement membrane (ppBM) layer in 20 confirmed cases of ONHD...
January 17, 2018: Ophthalmology
Sayuri Kawada, Yasuyuki Nagasawa, Mutsuki Kawabe, Hideki Ohyama, Aritoshi Kida, Nahoko Kato-Kogoe, Masayoshi Nanami, Yukiko Hasuike, Takahiro Kuragano, Hiromitsu Kishimoto, Keiji Nakasho, Takeshi Nakanishi
In CKD patients, arteriosclerotic lesions, including calcification, can occur in vascular smooth muscle cells in a process called Moenckeberg's medial arteriosclerosis. Iron overload induces several complications, including the acceleration of arteriosclerosis. However, the relationship between Moenckeberg's arteriosclerosis in vascular smooth muscle cells and iron accumulation has remained unknown. We tested the accelerated effect of iron on calcification in cultured human aortic vascular smooth muscle cells (HASMCs)...
January 12, 2018: Scientific Reports
Eva Gravesen, Maria Lerche Mace, Anders Nordholm, Jacob Hofman-Bang, Keith Hruska, Carsten Haagen Nielsen, Andreas Kjær, Klaus Olgaard, Ewa Lewin
Hyperphosphatemia and vascular calcification are frequent complications of chronic renal failure and bone morphogenetic protein 7 (BMP7) has been shown to protect against development of vascular calcification in uremia. The present investigation examined the potential reversibility of established uremic vascular calcification by treatment of uremic rats with BMP7. A control model of isogenic transplantation of a calcified aorta from uremic rats into healthy littermates examined whether normalization of the uremic environment reversed vascular calcification...
2018: PloS One
Alexandra Yannoutsos, Sola Aoun Bahous, Michel E Safar, Jacques Blacher
: Evidence suggests that aortic stiffness may antedate and contribute initially to the development of hypertension and cardiovascular risk (CVR). In treated hypertensive patients, both diabetes and end-stage renal disease (ESRD) are comorbid conditions associated with increased aortic stiffness and high CVR. Thus, the pathophysiological relationship between aortic stiffness, blood pressure (BP) and CVR may have clinical implication in the management of hypertension. In patients with diabetes or ESRD, aortic stiffness is a significant predictor of CVR, independently of BP control...
January 2, 2018: Journal of Hypertension
Mohammad Zare Mehrjardi, Farzaneh Shobeirian
Zika virus (ZIKV) is an arthropod-borne arbovirus from the family Flaviviridae , which has been recently confirmed to cause severe neurological abnormalities (such as microcephaly, brain parenchymal calcification, hydrocephalus, and malformations of cortical development) in the infected fetuses. The Placenta plays a multifold role in prenatally acquired ZIKV infection. It serves as a port of virus transmission to the fetus, and also can be directly affected by ZIKV leading to a diminished fetal blood supply or a disrupted/changed biological mediators' synthesis...
September 2017: Virusdisease
Eraldo Fonseca Dos Santos Junior, Roberta Rodrigues de Lemos Gitirana, Darlene Paiva Bezerra, João Ricardo Mendes de Oliveira
Tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) is a neurocutaneous syndrome with autosomal dominant inheritance, and most of the cases are related to loss of function of the TSC1 and TSC2 genes. TSC may occur with a wide range of clinical findings and skin, kidney, brain, and heart are the most commonly affected organs. Brain calcifications in TSC are also described and reported as diffuse and without pattern of symmetry or bilaterality. Recently, a new discovery opened the possibility of using vitamin D (VitD) for treating cerebral calcifications...
January 2018: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience: MN
Liang Liu, Yong Liu, Ying Zhang, Xianjin Bi, Ling Nie, Chi Liu, Jiachuan Xiong, Ting He, Xinlin Xu, Yanlin Yu, Ke Yang, Jun Gu, Yunjian Huang, Jingbo Zhang, Zhiren Zhang, Bo Zhang, Jinghong Zhao
Medial arterial calcification associated with hyperphosphatemia is a main cause of cardiovascular mortality in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD), but the mechanisms underlying high phosphate-induced vascular calcification remain largely unknown. Here, we observed a significant decrease in the expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma (PPARγ) in calcified arteries both in CKD patients and in a mouse model of CKD with hyperphosphatemia. In vitro, high phosphate treatment led to a decreased expression of PPARγ in mouse vascular smooth muscle cells (VMSCs), accompanied by apparent osteogenic differentiation and calcification...
January 2018: Journal of Molecular and Cellular Cardiology
Heba Allah M Elbaghdady, Maha A Alwaili, Reda S El-Demerdash
Cadmium (Cd) and its compounds are highly toxic to virtually all organ systems of the mammals. Cd-induced testicular injuries have been reported in various animal species, using different protocols. The self-renewal capacity and the ability to generate different specialized cell types make the mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) one of the ideal choices for restoring tissue damages of various etiologies. The use of bone marrow-derived MSCs (BM-MSCs) is among the most recent strategies to repair the Cd-induced testicular damage, but empirical studies in this regard are largely missing...
February 2018: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
Kei Yabuki, Atsuji Matsuyama, Eisuke Shiba, Gunji Nagatani, Masanori Hisaoka
In this article, we report a case of sclerosing mucoepidermoid carcinoma (MEC) arising in the parotid gland, with CRTC1-MAML2 gene fusion. A 73-year-old woman with a mass in the right parotid region was referred to our hospital. Radiological imaging tests revealed a well-defined mass, measuring 25 mm in diameter, with foci of calcification in the deep lobe of the parotid gland, extending to the parapharyngeal space. Microscopically, the tumor was composed of a proliferation of atypical glandular epithelial cells having intracytoplasmic mucin, squamoid cells, and intermediate cells arranged in nests embedded in a fibrosclerotic stroma, associated with a dense chronic inflammatory infiltrate containing immunoglobulin G4-immunoreactive plasma cells...
November 1, 2017: International Journal of Surgical Pathology
Silvina Noemí Contreras-Capetillo, Nina Valadéz-González, Pablo Manrique-Saide, Rafael Eduardo Carcaño-Castillo, Freddy Pacheco-Tugores, Hirian Alonso Moshe Barrera-Pérez, Doris Pinto-Escalante, Manuel Lliteras-Cardín, José Alfredo Hoil-Parra, José Luis Cáceres-Solís, Norma Pavía-Ruz
Part of the work agenda of international health authorities is to define the clinical spectrum of the congenital Zika syndrome (CZS) in different territories. We describe the clinical variability that gave rise to the suspicion of CZS in 3 newborn patients in the south of Mexico with active transmission of Zika. All of them presented Zika RNA by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and positive antibodies for IgM by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. None of the mothers tested positive for active viremia, only one mother had Zika-symptoms and titers of Zika-positive IgM...
November 1, 2017: Clinical Pediatrics
Katie L Barott, Megan E Barron, Martin Tresguerres
Maintaining stable intracellular pH (pHi) is essential for homeostasis, and requires the ability to both sense pH changes that may result from internal and external sources, and to regulate downstream compensatory pH pathways. Here we identified the cAMP-producing enzyme soluble adenylyl cyclase (sAC) as the first molecular pH sensor in corals. sAC protein was detected throughout coral tissues, including those involved in symbiosis and calcification. Application of a sAC-specific inhibitor caused significant and reversible pHi acidosis in isolated coral cells under both dark and light conditions, indicating sAC is essential for sensing and regulating pHi perturbations caused by respiration and photosynthesis...
November 15, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
Mariana Espiga Maioli, Vinicius Daher Alvares Delfino, Amanda Carolina Damasceno Zanuto Guerra, Luiz Fernando Kunii, Raquel Ferreira Nassar Frange
Tumoral calcinosis is an uncommon type of extraosseous calcification characterized by large rubbery or cystic masses containing calcium-phosphate deposits. The condition prevails in the periarticular tissue with preservation of osteoarticular structures. Elevated calcium-phosphorus products and severe secondary hyperparathyroidism are present in most patients with uremic tumoral calcionosis (UTC). Case report of an obese secondary to chronic glomerulonephritis, undergoing continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) reported the appearance of painless tumors in the medial surface of fifth finger and left arm...
April 2017: Jornal Brasileiro de Nefrologia: ʹorgão Oficial de Sociedades Brasileira e Latino-Americana de Nefrologia
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