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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223955/stability-and-variability-in-aesthetic-experience-a-review
#1
REVIEW
Thomas Jacobsen, Susan Beudt
Based on psychophysics' pragmatic dualism, we trace the cognitive neuroscience of stability and variability in aesthetic experience. With regard to different domains of aesthetic processing, we touch upon the relevance of cognitive schemata for aesthetic preference. Attitudes and preferences are explored in detail. Evolutionary constraints on attitude formation or schema generation are elucidated, just as the often seemingly arbitrary influences of social, societal, and cultural nature are. A particular focus is put on the concept of critical periods during an individual's ontogenesis...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223129/regenerative-medicine-in-huntington-s-disease-strengths-and-weaknesses-of-preclinical-studies
#2
REVIEW
A M Tartaglione, P Popoli, G Calamandrei
TARTAGLIONE, A.M., P. Popoli and G. Calamandrei. Regenerative medicine in Huntington's disease: strengths and weaknesses of pre-clinical studies. NEUROSCIENCE BIOBEHAV REV (2016). Huntington's disease (HD) is an inherited neurodegenerative disorder, characterized by impairment in motor, cognitive and psychiatric domains. Currently, there is no specific therapy to act on the onset or progression of HD. The marked neuronal death observed in HD is a main argument in favour of stem cells (SCs) transplantation as a promising therapeutic perspective to replace the population of lost neurons and restore the functionality of the damaged circuitry...
February 18, 2017: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220082/synaptic-and-neuronal-autoantibody-associated-psychiatric-syndromes-controversies-and-hypotheses
#3
Adam Al-Diwani, Thomas A Pollak, Alexander E Langford, Belinda R Lennox
Autoimmune encephalitis (AE) mediated by antibodies against synaptic and neuronal surface targets frequently presents with a psychiatric syndrome. In these patients, removal of autoantibodies treats the disease and outcomes are closely linked to early intervention. The discovery of these autoantibodies in isolated psychiatric syndromes has raised the possibility that these patients may derive similar benefits from immunotherapy, a potentially transformational approach to the treatment of mental illness. Although open-label case series suggest impressive therapeutic outcomes, the pathological relevance of these autoantibodies outside of canonical presentations is debated...
2017: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219455/clinical-and-therapeutic-role-of-mentalization-in-schizophrenia-a-review
#4
Trisevgeni Dimopoulou, Frank I Tarazi, Evangelia M Tsapakis
Recent empirical findings from clinical and genetic studies suggest that mentalization, a key area of social cognition, is a distinct construct, although it is closely related to the neurocognitive deficits and symptoms of schizophrenia. Mentalization contributes a great deal to impaired social functioning. Current measures often display methodological problems, and many aspects should be taken into account when assessing mentalization. Moreover, advances in cognitive and affective neurosciences have led to the development of more advanced behavioral methods to assess the relationship between cognitive functions, symptoms, and social cognition based on their underlying neural mechanisms...
February 21, 2017: CNS Spectrums
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213812/the-neuroscience-of-human-decision-making-through-the-lens-of-learning-and-memory
#5
Lesley K Fellows
We are called upon to make decisions, large and small, many times a day. Whether in the voting booth, the stock exchange, or the cafeteria line, we identify potential options, estimate and compare their subjective values, and make a choice. Decision-making has only recently become a focus for cognitive neuroscience. The last two decades have seen rapid progress in our understanding of the brain basis of at least some aspects of this rather complex aspect of cognition. This work has provided fresh perspectives on poorly understood brain regions, such as orbitofrontal cortex and ventral striatum...
February 18, 2017: Current Topics in Behavioral Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213292/improving-therapeutic-outcomes-in-autism-spectrum-disorders-enhancing-social-communication-and-sensory-processing-through-the-use-of-interactive-robots
#6
REVIEW
Felippe Sartorato, Leon Przybylowski, Diana K Sarko
For children with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs), social robots are increasingly utilized as therapeutic tools in order to enhance social skills and communication. Robots have been shown to generate a number of social and behavioral benefits in children with ASD including heightened engagement, increased attention, and decreased social anxiety. Although social robots appear to be effective social reinforcement tools in assistive therapies, the perceptual mechanism underlying these benefits remains unknown...
February 7, 2017: Journal of Psychiatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213134/speech-in-noise-perception-in-musicians-a-review
#7
REVIEW
Emily B J Coffey, Nicolette Mogilever, Robert J Zatorre
The ability to understand speech in the presence of competing sound sources is an important neuroscience question in terms of how the nervous system solves this computational problem. It is also a critical clinical problem that disproportionally affects the elderly, children with language-related learning disorders, and those with hearing loss. Recent evidence that musicians have an advantage on this multifaceted skill has led to the suggestion that musical training might be used to improve or delay the decline of speech-in-noise (SIN) function...
February 14, 2017: Hearing Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209460/pharmacologic-cardioversion-with-intravenous-amiodarone-is-likely-safe-in-neurocritically-ill-patients
#8
Michael Su, David Seki, Asma M Moheet
Neurological injury is often associated with cardiac abnormalities, including electrophysiological issues. Cardioversion of acute atrial fibrillation (<48h' duration) without anticoagulation carries about a 0.7% risk of thromboembolism. There is limited data on managing acute atrial fibrillation specifically in the neuroscience intensive care unit (NSICU) setting. We sought to determine the safety of using intravenous (IV) amiodarone for restoring sinus rhythm in patients with presumed new onset atrial or ventricular tachycardia after neurological injury...
February 13, 2017: Journal of Clinical Neuroscience: Official Journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28205652/bridging-the-gap-microfluidic-devices-for-short-and-long-distance-cell-cell-communication
#9
REVIEW
Timothy Quang Vu, Ricardo Miguel Bessa de Castro, Lidong Qin
Cell-cell communication is a crucial component of many biological functions. For example, understanding how immune cells and cancer cells interact, both at the immunological synapse and through cytokine secretion, can help us understand and improve cancer immunotherapy. The study of how cells communicate and form synaptic connections is important in neuroscience, ophthalmology, and cancer research. But in order to increase our understanding of these cellular phenomena, better tools need to be developed that allow us to study cell-cell communication in a highly controlled manner...
February 16, 2017: Lab on a Chip
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28203635/grounded-understanding-of-abstract-concepts-the-case-of-stem-learning
#10
REVIEW
Justin C Hayes, David J M Kraemer
Characterizing the neural implementation of abstract conceptual representations has long been a contentious topic in cognitive science. At the heart of the debate is whether the "sensorimotor" machinery of the brain plays a central role in representing concepts, or whether the involvement of these perceptual and motor regions is merely peripheral or epiphenomenal. The domain of science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) learning provides an important proving ground for sensorimotor (or grounded) theories of cognition, as concepts in science and engineering courses are often taught through laboratory-based and other hands-on methodologies...
2017: Cogn Res Princ Implic
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28199022/recent-advances-in-exploring-the-neural-underpinnings-of-auditory-scene-perception
#11
Joel S Snyder, Mounya Elhilali
Studies of auditory scene analysis have traditionally relied on paradigms using artificial sounds-and conventional behavioral techniques-to elucidate how we perceptually segregate auditory objects or streams from each other. In the past few decades, however, there has been growing interest in uncovering the neural underpinnings of auditory segregation using human and animal neuroscience techniques, as well as computational modeling. This largely reflects the growth in the fields of cognitive neuroscience and computational neuroscience and has led to new theories of how the auditory system segregates sounds in complex arrays...
February 15, 2017: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28198703/implantable-optoelectronic-probes-for-in-vivo-optogenetics
#12
Ege Iseri, Duygu Kuzum
More than a decade has passed since optics and genetics came together and lead to the emerging technologies of optogenetics. The advent of light-sensitive opsins made it possible to optically trigger the neurons into activation or inhibition by using visible light. The importance of spatiotemporally isolating a segment of a neural network and controlling nervous signaling in a precise manner has driven neuroscience researchers and engineers to invest great efforts in designing high precision in-vivo implantable devices...
February 15, 2017: Journal of Neural Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196374/the-visual-white-matter-the-application-of-diffusion-mri-and-fiber-tractography-to-vision-science
#13
Ariel Rokem, Hiromasa Takemura, Andrew S Bock, K Suzanne Scherf, Marlene Behrmann, Brian A Wandell, Ione Fine, Holly Bridge, Franco Pestilli
Visual neuroscience has traditionally focused much of its attention on understanding the response properties of single neurons or neuronal ensembles. The visual white matter and the long-range neuronal connections it supports are fundamental in establishing such neuronal response properties and visual function. This review article provides an introduction to measurements and methods to study the human visual white matter using diffusion MRI. These methods allow us to measure the microstructural and macrostructural properties of the white matter in living human individuals; they allow us to trace long-range connections between neurons in different parts of the visual system and to measure the biophysical properties of these connections...
February 1, 2017: Journal of Vision
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28194821/image-formation-in-diffusion-mri-a-review-of-recent-technical-developments
#14
REVIEW
Wenchuan Wu, Karla L Miller
: Diffusion magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a standard imaging tool in clinical neurology, and is becoming increasingly important for neuroscience studies due to its ability to depict complex neuroanatomy (eg, white matter connectivity). Single-shot echo-planar imaging is currently the predominant formation method for diffusion MRI, but suffers from blurring, distortion, and low spatial resolution. A number of methods have been proposed to address these limitations and improve diffusion MRI acquisition...
February 14, 2017: Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging: JMRI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188890/the-hierarchical-basis-of-neurovisceral-integration
#15
REVIEW
Ryan Smith, Julian F Thayer, Sahib S Khalsa, Richard D Lane
The neurovisceral integration (NVI) model was originally proposed to account for observed relationships between peripheral physiology, cognitive performance, and emotional/physical health. This model has also garnered a considerable amount of empirical support, largely from studies examining cardiac vagal control. However, recent advances in functional neuroanatomy, and in computational neuroscience, have yet to be incorporated into the NVI model. Here we present an updated/expanded version of the NVI model that incorporates these advances...
February 8, 2017: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188401/-research-domain-criteria-rdoc-psychiatric-research-as-applied-cognitive-neuroscience
#16
H Walter
BACKGROUND: Just before the official launch of the DSM-5 in 2013, the Research Domain Criteria (RDoC) initiative of the National Institute of Mental Health was made public and is becoming increasingly more important in psychiatric research. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this paper is to clarify the conceptual approach of RDoC, to systematically discuss limitations, to present exemplary RDoC-based studies and to consider the relevance of the RDoC concepts for clinicians and scientists...
February 10, 2017: Der Nervenarzt
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28186675/open-review-and-the-quest-for-increased-transparency-in-neuroscience-publication
#17
EDITORIAL
John J Foxe, J Paul Bolam
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 10, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28174078/hypnosis-and-top-down-regulation-of-consciousness
#18
REVIEW
Devin B Terhune, Axel Cleeremans, Amir Raz, Steven Jay Lynn
Hypnosis is a unique form of top-down regulation in which verbal suggestions are capable of eliciting pronounced changes in a multitude of psychological phenomena. Hypnotic suggestion has been widely used both as a technique for studying basic science questions regarding human consciousness but also as a method for targeting a range of symptoms within a therapeutic context. Here we provide a synthesis of current knowledge regarding the characteristics and neurocognitive mechanisms of hypnosis. We review evidence from cognitive neuroscience, experimental psychopathology, and clinical psychology regarding the utility of hypnosis as an experimental method for modulating consciousness, as a model for studying healthy and pathological cognition, and as a therapeutic vehicle...
February 4, 2017: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28170220/classics-in-chemical-neuroscience-haloperidol
#19
Marshall W Tyler, Josefa Zaldivar-Diez, Stephen J Haggarty
The discovery of haloperidol catalyzed a breakthrough in our understanding of the biochemical basis of schizophrenia, improved the treatment of psychosis, and facilitated deinstitutionalization. In doing so, it solidified the role for chemical neuroscience as a means to elucidate the molecular underpinnings of complex neuropsychiatric disorders. In this Review, we will cover aspects of haloperidol's synthesis, manufacturing, metabolism, pharmacology, approved and off-label indications, and adverse effects. We will also convey the fascinating history of this classic molecule and the influence that it has had on the evolution of neuropsychopharmacology and neuroscience...
February 15, 2017: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28169814/examen-de-la-port%C3%A3-e-des-connaissances-sur-les-concepts-du-toucher-et-du-massage-et-de-leurs-effets-sur-l%C3%A2-agitation-et-le-stress-des-personnes-%C3%A3-g%C3%A3-es-hospitalis%C3%A3-es-atteintes-de-d%C3%A3-mence
#20
Corinne Schaub, Armin von Gunten, Diane Morin
<ce:para>This scoping review examines the effects of touch/massage on agitation and stress in aged hospitalized patients suffering from dementia. This intervention is multidimensional, at the edges of medical neurosciences, nursing sciences, and social sciences. This review is primarily supported by a biological model of social relations, describing the interconnection between cognition, affect, and endocrine aspects of attachment modes. It is also guided by nursing sciences conceptualizations which anchors touch/massage in the heart of nursing practice...
October 27, 2016: Recherche en Soins Infirmiers
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