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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642836/cultural-neuroscience-and-global-mental-health-addressing-grand-challenges
#1
Joan Y Chiao, Shu-Chen Li, Robert Turner, Su Yeon Lee-Tauler, Beverly A Pringle
Mental, neurological and substance-use (MNS) disorders comprise approximately 13% of the global burden of disease. The Grand Challenges in Global Mental Health Initiative has recently identified research priorities for the next decade to address prevention and treatment of MNS disorders. One main research priority is to identify the root causes, risks and protective factors associated with global mental health. Recent advances in cultural neuroscience have identified theoretical, methodological, and empirical methods of identifying biomarkers associated with mental health disorders across nations...
April 2017: Culture and Brain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641965/animal-models-of-psychoactive-drug-use-and-addiction-present-problems-and-future-needs-for-translational-approaches
#2
REVIEW
Christian P Müller
Drug addiction is a psychiatric disorder based on a dysfunction of the brain. It frequently develops from a controlled drug consumption and drug instrumentalization (DI). Thereby, DI is the use of a drug to improve specific non-drug related behaviors, beyond the drug's direct positive or negative reinforcing effects. Currently available pharmacotherapies for drug addiction show low effect size and rather limited long-term efficacy, which suggests that current theories on addiction are still insufficient in how they capture the phenomenon and how they allow predictions for highly efficient treatments...
June 19, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641510/recent-advances-on-the-role-of-neurogenesis-in-the-adult-brain-therapeutic-potential-in-parkinson-s-and-alzheimer-s-diseases
#3
Khaled Salman Radad, Rudolf Moldzio, Mubarak Al-Shraim, Barbara Kranner, Christopher Krewenka, Wolf-Dieter Rausch
Generation of nascent functional neurons from neural stem cells in the adult brain has recently become largely accepted by the neuroscience community. In adult mammals including humans, the process of neurogenesis has been well documented in two brain regions; the subventricular zone of the lateral ventricles and the subgranular zone in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus. Some evidence has indicated neurogenesis in other regions of the adult mammalian brain such as the neocortex, cerebellum, striatum, amygdala and hypothalamus...
June 22, 2017: CNS & Neurological Disorders Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640704/immunotherapy-for-brain-tumors
#4
John H Sampson, Marcela V Maus, Carl H June
Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most lethal form of brain tumor and remains a large, unmet medical need. This review focuses on recent advances in the neurosciences that converge with the broader field of immuno-oncology. Recent findings in neuroanatomy provide a basis for new approaches of cellular therapies for tumors that involve the CNS. The ultimate success of immunotherapy in the CNS will require improved imaging technologies and methods for analysis of the tumor microenvironment in patients with GBM. It is likely that combinatorial approaches with targeted immunotherapies will be required to exploit the vulnerabilities of GBM and other brain tumors...
June 22, 2017: Journal of Clinical Oncology: Official Journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636960/mechanisms-and-therapeutic-relevance-of-neuro-immune-communication
#5
REVIEW
Sangeeta S Chavan, Valentin A Pavlov, Kevin J Tracey
Active research at the frontiers of immunology and neuroscience has identified multiple points of interaction and communication between the immune system and the nervous system. Immune cell activation stimulates neuronal circuits that regulate innate and adaptive immunity. Molecular mechanistic insights into the inflammatory reflex and other neuro-immune interactions have greatly advanced our understanding of immunity and identified new therapeutic possibilities in inflammatory and autoimmune diseases. Recent successful clinical trials using bioelectronic devices that modulate the inflammatory reflex to significantly ameliorate rheumatoid arthritis and inflammatory bowel disease provide a path for using electrons as a therapeutic modality for targeting molecular mechanisms of immunity...
June 20, 2017: Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636959/the-enteric-network-interactions-between-the-immune-and-nervous-systems-of-the-gut
#6
REVIEW
Bryan B Yoo, Sarkis K Mazmanian
Interactions between the nervous and immune systems enable the gut to respond to the variety of dietary products that it absorbs, the broad spectrum of pathogens that it encounters, and the diverse microbiome that it harbors. The enteric nervous system (ENS) senses and reacts to the dynamic ecosystem of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract by translating chemical cues from the environment into neuronal impulses that propagate throughout the gut and into other organs in the body, including the central nervous system (CNS)...
June 20, 2017: Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632043/simultanagnosia-and-object-individuation
#7
Veronica Mazza
Simultanagnosic patients have difficulty in perceiving multiple objects when presented simultaneously. In this review article, I discuss how neuropsychological research on simultanagnosia has been inspirational for two interconnected lines of research related to the core mechanisms by which the visual system processes cluttered scenes. First, I review previous studies on enumeration tasks indicating that, despite their inability to identify multiple objects, simultanagnosic patients can enumerate up to 2-3 elements as efficiently as healthy individuals (the so-called "subitizing" phenomenon)...
June 6, 2017: Cognitive Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630894/next-generation-probes-particles-and-proteins-for-neural-interfacing
#8
REVIEW
Jonathan Rivnay, Huiliang Wang, Lief Fenno, Karl Deisseroth, George G Malliaras
Bidirectional interfacing with the nervous system enables neuroscience research, diagnosis, and therapy. This two-way communication allows us to monitor the state of the brain and its composite networks and cells as well as to influence them to treat disease or repair/restore sensory or motor function. To provide the most stable and effective interface, the tools of the trade must bridge the soft, ion-rich, and evolving nature of neural tissue with the largely rigid, static realm of microelectronics and medical instruments that allow for readout, analysis, and/or control...
June 2017: Science Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630524/a-martingale-analysis-of-first-passage-times-of-time-dependent-wiener-diffusion-models
#9
Vaibhav Srivastava, Samuel F Feng, Jonathan D Cohen, Naomi Ehrich Leonard, Amitai Shenhav
Research in psychology and neuroscience has successfully modeled decision making as a process of noisy evidence accumulation to a decision bound. While there are several variants and implementations of this idea, the majority of these models make use of a noisy accumulation between two absorbing boundaries. A common assumption of these models is that decision parameters, e.g., the rate of accumulation (drift rate), remain fixed over the course of a decision, allowing the derivation of analytic formulas for the probabilities of hitting the upper or lower decision threshold, and the mean decision time...
April 2017: Journal of Mathematical Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626813/hallucinations-as-top-down-effects-on-perception
#10
Albert R Powers, Megan Kelley, Philip R Corlett
The problem of whether and how information is integrated across hierarchical brain networks embodies a fundamental tension in contemporary cognitive neuroscience, and by extension, cognitive neuropsychiatry. Indeed, the penetrability of perceptual processes in a 'top-down' manner by higher-level cognition-a natural extension of hierarchical models of perception-may contradict a strictly modular view of mental organization. Furthermore, some in the cognitive science community have challenged cognitive penetration as an unlikely, if not impossible, process...
September 2016: Biological Psychiatry: Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuroimaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624265/the-neuroscience-of-understanding-the-emotions-of-others
#11
REVIEW
Robert P Spunt, Ralph Adolphs
We cannot help but impute emotions to the behaviors of others, and constantly infer not only what others are feeling, but also why they feel that way. The comprehension of other people's emotional states is computationally complex and difficult, requiring the flexible, context-sensitive deployment of cognitive operations that encompass rapid orienting to, and recognition of, emotionally salient cues; classification of emotions into culturally-learned categories; and using an abstract theory of mind to reason about what caused the emotion, what future actions the person might be planning, and what we should do next in response...
June 15, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622675/state-of-the-art-methods-for-brain-tissue-segmentation-a-review
#12
Lingraj Dora, Sanjay Agrawal, Rutuparna Panda, Ajith Abraham
Brain tissue segmentation is one of the most sought after research area in medical image processing. It provides detailed quantitative brain analysis for accurate disease diagnosis, detection and classification of abnormalities. It plays an essential role in discriminating healthy tissues from lesion tissues. Therefore, accurate disease diagnosis and treatment planning depends merely on the performance of segmentation method used. In this paper, we have studied the recent advances in brain tissue segmentation methods and their state-of-the-art in neuroscience research...
June 14, 2017: IEEE Reviews in Biomedical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620348/the-utility-of-fdg-pet-ct-in-clinically-suspected-paraneoplastic-neurological-syndrome-a-literature-review-and-retrospective-case-series
#13
Mark P Maskery, Jonathan Hill, John R Cain, Hedley C A Emsley
Paraneoplastic neurological syndrome (PNS) describes a spectrum of rare, heterogeneous neurological conditions associated with an underlying malignancy. Diagnosis of PNS is inherently difficult, with frequent misdiagnosis and delay. The literature suggests an underlying immune-mediated pathophysiology, and patients are usually tested for the presence of onconeural antibodies. With direct tumor therapy being the most effective method of stabilizing patients, there is a strong emphasis on detecting underlying tumors...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28619656/the-large-scale-functional-connectivity-correlates-of-consciousness-and-arousal-during-the-healthy-and-pathological-human-sleep-cycle
#14
REVIEW
Enzo Tagliazucchi, Eus J W van Someren
Advances in neuroimaging have greatly improved our understanding of human sleep from a systems neuroscience perspective. However, cognition and awareness are reduced during sleep, hindering the applicability of standard task-based paradigms. Methods recently developed to study spontaneous brain activity fluctuations have proven useful to overcome this limitation. In this review, we focus on the concept of functional connectivity (FC, i.e. statistical covariance between brain activity signals) and its application to functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data acquired during sleep...
June 12, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28616997/emotion-and-the-prefrontal-cortex-an-integrative-review
#15
Matthew L Dixon, Ravi Thiruchselvam, Rebecca Todd, Kalina Christoff
The prefrontal cortex (PFC) plays a critical role in the generation and regulation of emotion. However, we lack an integrative framework for understanding how different emotion-related functions are organized across the entire expanse of the PFC, as prior reviews have generally focused on specific emotional processes (e.g., decision making) or specific anatomical regions (e.g., orbitofrontal cortex). Additionally, psychological theories and neuroscientific investigations have proceeded largely independently because of the lack of a common framework...
June 15, 2017: Psychological Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28612130/acute-brain-diseases-as-triggers-for-stress-cardiomyopathy-clinical-characteristics-and-outcomes
#16
Deena M Nasr, Sara Tomasini, Abhiram Prasad, Alejandro A Rabinstein
OBJECTIVE: To determine the clinical characteristics and outcomes of patients with neurogenic stress cardiomyopathy (NSC) among patients admitted to our neuroscience intensive care unit (NICU). METHODS: Following institutional review board approval, consecutive adult patients admitted to the NICU between 2009 and 2013 with definite and possible NSC were included. Data on patient demographics, baseline clinical information, cardiac function, and laboratory values were collected...
June 13, 2017: Neurocritical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28612089/the-intensive-care-delirium-research-agenda-a-multinational-interprofessional-perspective
#17
REVIEW
Pratik P Pandharipande, E Wesley Ely, Rakesh C Arora, Michele C Balas, Malaz A Boustani, Gabriel Heras La Calle, Colm Cunningham, John W Devlin, Julius Elefante, Jin H Han, Alasdair M MacLullich, José R Maldonado, Alessandro Morandi, Dale M Needham, Valerie J Page, Louise Rose, Jorge I F Salluh, Tarek Sharshar, Yahya Shehabi, Yoanna Skrobik, Arjen J C Slooter, Heidi A B Smith
Delirium, a prevalent organ dysfunction in critically ill patients, is independently associated with increased morbidity. This last decade has witnessed an exponential growth in delirium research in hospitalized patients, including those critically ill, and this research has highlighted that delirium needs to be better understood mechanistically to help foster research that will ultimately lead to its prevention and treatment. In this invited, evidence-based paper, a multinational and interprofessional group of clinicians and researchers from within the fields of critical care medicine, psychiatry, pediatrics, anesthesiology, geriatrics, surgery, neurology, nursing, pharmacy, and the neurosciences sought to address five questions: (1) What is the current standard of care in managing ICU delirium? (2) What have been the major recent advances in delirium research and care? (3) What are the common delirium beliefs that have been challenged by recent trials? (4) What are the remaining areas of uncertainty in delirium research? (5) What are some of the top study areas/trials to be done in the next 10 years? Herein, we briefly review the epidemiology of delirium, the current best practices for management of critically ill patients at risk for delirium or experiencing delirium, identify recent advances in our understanding of delirium as well as gaps in knowledge, and discuss research opportunities and barriers to implementation, with the goal of promoting an integrated research agenda...
June 13, 2017: Intensive Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28598717/inhibitory-plasticity-balance-control-and-codependence
#18
Guillaume Hennequin, Everton J Agnes, Tim P Vogels
Inhibitory neurons, although relatively few in number, exert powerful control over brain circuits. They stabilize network activity in the face of strong feedback excitation and actively engage in computations. Recent studies reveal the importance of a precise balance of excitation and inhibition in neural circuits, which often requires exquisite fine-tuning of inhibitory connections. Wereview inhibitory synaptic plasticity and its roles in shaping both feedforward and feedback control. We discuss the necessity of complex, codependent plasticity mechanisms to build nontrivial, functioning networks, and we end by summarizing experimental evidence of such interactions...
June 9, 2017: Annual Review of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28590986/functional-movement-disorders
#19
Anita Barbey, Selma Aybek
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The review highlights the clinical presentation of functional movement disorders (FMDs) and presents current evidence on bedside signs and paraclinical tests to differentiate them from other neurological disorders. RECENT FINDINGS: FMDs are diagnosed by the presence of positive clinical signs as emphasized in the new Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-5 classification criteria. Bedside signs are numerous, and a subset of them has been validated in controlled studies...
June 5, 2017: Current Opinion in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28585380/astrocytes-in-a-dish-using-pluripotent-stem-cells-to-model-neurodegenerative-and-neurodevelopmental-disorders
#20
Lucy A Crompton, Oscar Cordero-Llana, Maeve A Caldwell
Neuroscience and Neurobiology have historically been neuron biased, yet up to 40% of the cells in the brain are astrocytes. These cells are heterogeneous and regionally diverse but universally essential for brain homeostasis. Astrocytes regulate synaptic transmission as part of the tripartite synapse, provide metabolic and neurotrophic support, recycle neurotransmitters, modulate blood flow and brain blood barrier permeability and are implicated in the mechanisms of neurodegeneration. Using pluripotent stem cells (PSC), it is now possible to study regionalised human astrocytes in a dish and to model their contribution to neurodevelopmental and neurodegenerative disorders...
July 2017: Brain Pathology
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