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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525301/mood-the-circadian-system-and-melanopsin-retinal-ganglion-cells
#1
Lorenzo Lazzerini Ospri, Glen Prusky, Samer Hattar
The discovery of a third type of photoreceptors in the mammalian retina, intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells (ipRGCs), has had a revolutionary impact on chronobiology. We can now properly account for numerous nonvision-related functions of light, including its effect on the circadian system. Here, we give an overview of ipRGCs and their function as it relates specifically to mood and biological rhythms. Although circadian disruptions have been traditionally hypothesized to be the mediators of light's effects on mood, here we present an alternative model that dispenses with assumptions of causality between the two phenomena and explains mood regulation by light via another ipRGC-dependent mechanism...
May 17, 2017: Annual Review of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523673/the-function-of-language-in-parent-infant-psychotherapy
#2
Björn Salomonsson
Parent-infant psychotherapy, a rather new field in psychoanalysis, raises questions of how to conceptualize the clinical process. Previous publications have used semiotic concepts to account for the therapist's non-verbal communication and investigated the countertransference, including what the baby might grasp of its variations. The present paper focuses on another argument for using verbal interventions to a baby in therapy; they present him with a symbolic order that differs from that of the parent. The qualitative difference between the parent's and the analyst's address is conceptualized by Dolto's term parler vrai...
May 19, 2017: International Journal of Psycho-analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523552/epigenetics-of-huntington-s-disease
#3
Silvia Bassi, Takshashila Tripathi, Alan Monziani, Francesca Di Leva, Marta Biagioli
Huntington's disease (HD) is a genetic, fatal autosomal dominant neurodegenerative disorder typically occurring in midlife with symptoms ranging from chorea, to dementia, to personality disturbances (Philos Trans R Soc Lond Ser B Biol Sci 354:957-961, 1999). HD is inherited in a dominant fashion, and the underlying mutation in all cases is a CAG trinucleotide repeat expansion within exon 1 of the HD gene (Cell 72:971-983, 1993). The expanded CAG repeat, translated into a lengthened glutamine tract at the amino terminus of the huntingtin protein, affects its structural properties and functional activities...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28516669/state-of-the-art-novel-applications-for-deep-brain-stimulation
#4
REVIEW
Holly A Roy, Alexander L Green, Tipu Z Aziz
OBJECTIVES: Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is a rapidly developing field of neurosurgery with potential therapeutic applications that are relevant to conditions traditionally viewed as beyond the limits of neurosurgery. Our objective, in this review, is to highlight some of the emerging applications of DBS within three distinct but overlapping spheres, namely trauma, neuropsychiatry, and autonomic physiology. REVIEW METHODS: An extensive literature review was carried out in MEDLINE, to identify relevant studies and review articles describing applications of DBS in the areas of trauma, neuropsychiatry and autonomic neuroscience...
May 17, 2017: Neuromodulation: Journal of the International Neuromodulation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28508358/degradomics-in-neurotrauma-profiling-traumatic-brain-injury
#5
Hadi Abou-El-Hassan, Fares Sukhon, Edwyn Jeremy Assaf, Hisham Bahmad, Hussein Abou-Abbass, Hussam Jourdi, Firas H Kobeissy
Degradomics has recently emerged as a subdiscipline in the omics era with a focus on characterizing signature breakdown products implicated in various disease processes. Driven by promising experimental findings in cancer, neuroscience, and metabolomic disorders, degradomics has significantly promoted the notion of disease-specific "degradome." A degradome arises from the activation of several proteases that target specific substrates and generate signature protein fragments. Several proteases such as calpains, caspases, cathepsins, and matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are involved in the pathogenesis of numerous diseases that disturb the physiologic balance between protein synthesis and protein degradation...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507240/mathematical-methods-in-medicine-neuroscience-cardiology-and-pathology
#6
José M Amigó, Michael Small
The application of mathematics, natural sciences and engineering to medicine is gaining momentum as the mutual benefits of this collaboration become increasingly obvious. This theme issue is intended to highlight the trend in the case of mathematics. Specifically, the scope of this theme issue is to give a general view of the current research in the application of mathematical methods to medicine, as well as to show how mathematics can help in such important aspects as understanding, prediction, treatment and data processing...
June 28, 2017: Philosophical Transactions. Series A, Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507232/energy-landscape-analysis-of-neuroimaging-data
#7
Takahiro Ezaki, Takamitsu Watanabe, Masayuki Ohzeki, Naoki Masuda
Computational neuroscience models have been used for understanding neural dynamics in the brain and how they may be altered when physiological or other conditions change. We review and develop a data-driven approach to neuroimaging data called the energy landscape analysis. The methods are rooted in statistical physics theory, in particular the Ising model, also known as the (pairwise) maximum entropy model and Boltzmann machine. The methods have been applied to fitting electrophysiological data in neuroscience for a decade, but their use in neuroimaging data is still in its infancy...
June 28, 2017: Philosophical Transactions. Series A, Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507228/understanding-principles-of-integration-and-segregation-using-whole-brain-computational-connectomics-implications-for-neuropsychiatric-disorders
#8
REVIEW
Louis-David Lord, Angus B Stevner, Gustavo Deco, Morten L Kringelbach
To survive in an ever-changing environment, the brain must seamlessly integrate a rich stream of incoming information into coherent internal representations that can then be used to efficiently plan for action. The brain must, however, balance its ability to integrate information from various sources with a complementary capacity to segregate information into modules which perform specialized computations in local circuits. Importantly, evidence suggests that imbalances in the brain's ability to bind together and/or segregate information over both space and time is a common feature of several neuropsychiatric disorders...
June 28, 2017: Philosophical Transactions. Series A, Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506694/optogenetics-gets-to-the-heart-a-guiding-light-beyond-defibrillation
#9
REVIEW
Claudia Crocini, Cecilia Ferrantini, Francesco S Pavone, Leonardo Sacconi
Optogenetics provides a tool for controlling the electrical activity of excitable cells by means of the interaction of light with light-gated ion channels. Despite the fact that optogenetics has been intensively utilized in the neurosciences, it has been more rarely employed as an instrument for studying cardiac pathophysiology. However, the advantages of optical approaches to perturb cardiac electrical activity are numerous, especially when the spatio-temporal qualities of light are utterly exploited. Here, we review the main breakthroughs employing optogenetics to perturb cardiac pathophysiology and attempt a comparison of methods and procedures that have employed optogenetics in the heart...
May 12, 2017: Progress in Biophysics and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506658/-cognitive-neuroscience-of-aging-explanatory-models
#10
Fabrissio Grandi, Javier Tirapu Ustárroz
The aim of the cognitive neuroscience of aging is the study of brain activity and the cognitive processes associated with age. In order to understand the dynamics of neurocognitive activity in older people, the present review highlights four explanatory models. The first one (HAROLD) highlights brain bilaterality, mainly in the pre-frontal cortex. The second paradigm (PASA) places special emphasis on neuronal polarisation (anterior-posterior). The third model (CRUNCH) relates the manifest activity of the brain to the level of complexity of the task...
May 12, 2017: Revista Española de Geriatría y Gerontología
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506440/the-wistar-audiogenic-rat-war-strain-and-its-contributions-to-epileptology-and-related-comorbidities-history-and-perspectives
#11
Norberto Garcia-Cairasco, Eduardo H L Umeoka, José A Cortes de Oliveira
In the context of modeling epilepsy and neuropsychiatric comorbidities, we review the Wistar Audiogenic Rat (WAR), first introduced to the neuroscience international community more than 25years ago. The WAR strain is a genetically selected reflex model susceptible to audiogenic seizures (AS), acutely mimicking brainstem-dependent tonic-clonic seizures and chronically (by audiogenic kindling), temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). Seminal neuroethological, electrophysiological, cellular, and molecular protocols support the WAR strain as a suitable and reliable animal model to study the complexity and emergent functions typical of epileptogenic networks...
May 11, 2017: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28503833/moral-enhancement-meets-normative-and-empirical-reality-assessing-the-practical-feasibility-of-moral-enhancement-neurotechnologies
#12
Veljko Dubljević, Eric Racine
Moral enhancement refers to the possibility of making individuals and societies better from a moral standpoint. A fierce debate has emerged about the ethical aspects of moral enhancement, notably because steering moral enhancement in a particular direction involves choosing amongst a wide array of competing options, and these options entail deciding which moral theory or attributes of the moral agent would benefit from enhancement. Furthermore, the ability and effectiveness of different neurotechnologies to enhance morality have not been carefully examined...
June 2017: Bioethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28503831/can-neuroscience-contribute-to-practical-ethics-a-critical-review-and-discussion-of-the-methodological-and-translational-challenges-of-the-neuroscience-of-ethics
#13
Eric Racine, Veljko Dubljević, Ralf J Jox, Bernard Baertschi, Julia F Christensen, Michele Farisco, Fabrice Jotterand, Guy Kahane, Sabine Müller
Neuroethics is an interdisciplinary field that arose in response to novel ethical challenges posed by advances in neuroscience. Historically, neuroethics has provided an opportunity to synergize different disciplines, notably proposing a two-way dialogue between an 'ethics of neuroscience' and a 'neuroscience of ethics'. However, questions surface as to whether a 'neuroscience of ethics' is a useful and unified branch of research and whether it can actually inform or lead to theoretical insights and transferable practical knowledge to help resolve ethical questions...
June 2017: Bioethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28502746/diminishing-fear-optogenetic-approach-toward-understanding-neural-circuits-of-fear-control
#14
REVIEW
Natalia V Luchkina, Vadim Y Bolshakov
Understanding complex behavioral processes, both learned and innate, requires detailed characterization of the principles governing signal flow in corresponding neural circuits. Previous studies were hampered by the lack of appropriate tools needed to address the complexities of behavior-driving micro- and macrocircuits. The development and implementation of optogenetic methodologies revolutionized the field of behavioral neuroscience, allowing precise spatiotemporal control of specific, genetically defined neuronal populations and their functional connectivity both in vivo and ex vivo, thus providing unprecedented insights into the cellular and network-level mechanisms contributing to behavior...
May 11, 2017: Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28501423/teratoma-of-the-nervous-system-a-case-series
#15
Hussein Algahtani, Bader Shirah, Ahad Abdullah, Abdulrahman Bazaid
Teratoma is a common form of germ cell tumors composed of multiple tissues foreign to the site in which arise with a histological representation of all three germ cell layers. Intracranial teratomas are very rare. In this study, we report three cases of intracranial teratomas with an interesting clinical course, neuroradiology, and outcome. In addition, we review the literature and convey important messages to the neuroscience community regarding issues related to the management of these rare tumors. The present cases are interesting examples of intracranial teratoma in terms of location of the tumor and neuroimaging findings...
May 10, 2017: Neurocirugía
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28500933/functional-consequences-of-inhibitory-plasticity-homeostasis-the-excitation-inhibition-balance-and-beyond
#16
REVIEW
Henning Sprekeler
Computational neuroscience has a long-standing tradition of investigating the consequences of excitatory synaptic plasticity. In contrast, the functions of inhibitory plasticity are still largely nebulous, particularly given the bewildering diversity of interneurons in the brain. Here, we review recent computational advances that provide first suggestions for the functional roles of inhibitory plasticity, such as a maintenance of the excitation-inhibition balance, a stabilization of recurrent network dynamics and a decorrelation of sensory responses...
May 10, 2017: Current Opinion in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28499100/probing-for-neuroadaptations-to-unpredictable-stressors-in-addiction-translational-methods-and-emerging-evidence
#17
Jesse T Kaye, Daniel E Bradford, Katherine P Magruder, John J Curtin
Stressors clearly contribute to addiction etiology and relapse in humans, but our understanding of specific mechanisms remains limited. Rodent models of addiction offer the power, flexibility, and precision necessary to delineate the causal role and specific mechanisms through which stressors influence alcohol and other drug use. This review describes a program of research using startle potentiation to unpredictable stressors that is well positioned to translate between animal models and clinical research with humans on stress neuroadaptations in addiction...
May 2017: Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28497126/vulnerability-to-depression-in-youth-advances-from-affective-neuroscience
#18
Autumn Kujawa, Katie L Burkhouse
Vulnerability models of depression posit that individual differences in trait-like vulnerabilities emerge early in life and increase risk for the later development of depression. In this review, we summarize advances from affective neuroscience using neural measures to assess vulnerabilities in youth at high risk for depression due to parental history of depression or temperament style, as well as prospective designs evaluating the predictive validity of these vulnerabilities for symptoms and diagnoses of depression across development...
January 2017: Biological Psychiatry: Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuroimaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28493809/buildings-beauty-and-the-brain-a-neuroscience-of-architectural-experience
#19
Alex Coburn, Oshin Vartanian, Anjan Chatterjee
A burgeoning interest in the intersection of neuroscience and architecture promises to offer biologically inspired insights into the design of spaces. The goal of such interdisciplinary approaches to architecture is to motivate construction of environments that would contribute to peoples' flourishing in behavior, health, and well-being. We suggest that this nascent field of neuroarchitecture is at a pivotal point in which neuroscience and architecture is poised to extend to a neuroscience of architecture. In such a research program, architectural experiences themselves are the target of neuroscientific inquiry...
May 11, 2017: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28489490/the-role-of-variability-in-motor-learning
#20
Ashesh K Dhawale, Maurice A Smith, Bence P Ölveczky
Trial-to-trial variability in the execution of movements and motor skills is ubiquitous and widely considered to be the unwanted consequence of a noisy nervous system. However, recent studies have suggested that motor variability may also be a feature of how sensorimotor systems operate and learn. This view, rooted in reinforcement learning theory, equates motor variability with purposeful exploration of motor space that, when coupled with reinforcement, can drive motor learning. Here we review studies that explore the relationship between motor variability and motor learning in both humans and animal models...
May 10, 2017: Annual Review of Neuroscience
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