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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813353/motor-cognition-and-neuroscience-in-sport-psychology
#1
REVIEW
Paul S Holmes, David J Wright
Advances in technology have allowed research in cognitive neuroscience to contribute significantly to the discipline of sport psychology. In most cases, the research has become more rigorous and has directed current thinking on the mechanisms subserving a number of psychological theories and models of practice. Currently, the three most common neuroscience techniques informing sport and exercise research are electroencephalography, transcranial magnetic stimulation and functional magnetic resonance imaging...
August 2017: Current Opinion in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813297/creating-relationships-that-foster-resilience-in-emotionally-focused-therapy
#2
REVIEW
Stephanie A Wiebe, Susan M Johnson
Emotionally Focused Therapy for Couples (EFT) is an evidence-based couple therapy based in attachment theory. Research has amassed over the past three decades pointing to the role of relationships in health and and well-being. Affective neuroscience suggests that secure relationships appear to foster adaptive stress co-regulation. The effectiveness of EFT has been demonstrated in couples facing high levels of stress, and has been shown to reduce depressive and post-traumatic stress symptoms. Furthermore, EFT has been shown to help couples regulate their neurophysiological stress response...
February 2017: Current Opinion in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812270/oxytocin-and-facial-emotion-recognition
#3
Mark A Ellenbogen
The expression of emotion in faces serves numerous meaningful functions, such as conveying messages of danger or approach, facilitating communication, and promoting the formation of social bonds and relationships. The study of facial expressions of emotion has become integral to research in social psychology and social neuroscience, particularly with respect to the neuropeptide oxytocin. This chapter examines how oxytocin influences the processing of emotion in faces by reviewing intranasal administration studies of automatic processing, selective attention, and emotion recognition...
August 16, 2017: Current Topics in Behavioral Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28809649/linking-neuroscience-function-and-intervention-a-scoping-review-of-sensory-processing-and-mental-illness
#4
Antoine L Bailliard, Stephanie C Whigham
PURPOSE: Sensory approaches to mental illness are increasingly prominent in occupational therapy. Despite indicators of efficacy, a paucity of literature supports these approaches. This article provides a scoping review of research on the relationship between sensory processing and mental illness. METHOD: Using Arksey and O'Malley's (2005) framework, we mapped this area of research and identified gaps in the knowledge base. We searched PubMed, CINAHL Plus, PsycINFO, OTseeker, and the Cochrane Library using the terms sensory and mental health...
September 2017: American Journal of Occupational Therapy: Official Publication of the American Occupational Therapy Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806201/brain-gut-microbiota-axis-and-mental-health
#5
Timothy G Dinan, John F Cryan
OBJECTIVE: The brain-gut-microbiota axis has been put forward as a new paradigm in neuroscience, which may be of relevance to mental illness. The mechanisms of signal transmission in the brain-gut-microbiota axis are complex and involve bidirectional communications which enables gut microbes to communicate with the brain, and the brain to communicate with the microbes. This review assesses the potential usefulness and limitations of the paradigm. METHODS: A selective literature review was conducted to evaluate the current knowledge in clinical and pre-clinical brain-gut-microbiota interactions as related to psychiatric disorders...
August 11, 2017: Psychosomatic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28804508/a-psychology-of-the-human-brain-gut-microbiome-axis
#6
Andrew P Allen, Timothy G Dinan, Gerard Clarke, John F Cryan
In recent years, we have seen increasing research within neuroscience and biopsychology on the interactions between the brain, the gastrointestinal tract, the bacteria within the gastrointestinal tract, and the bidirectional relationship between these systems: the brain-gut-microbiome axis. Although research has demonstrated that the gut microbiota can impact upon cognition and a variety of stress-related behaviours, including those relevant to anxiety and depression, we still do not know how this occurs. A deeper understanding of how psychological development as well as social and cultural factors impact upon the brain-gut-microbiome axis will contextualise the role of the axis in humans and inform psychological interventions that improve health within the brain-gut-microbiome axis...
April 2017: Social and Personality Psychology Compass
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28804452/supervised-and-unsupervised-learning-technology-in-the-study-of-rodent-behavior
#7
REVIEW
Katsiaryna V Gris, Jean-Philippe Coutu, Denis Gris
Quantifying behavior is a challenge for scientists studying neuroscience, ethology, psychology, pathology, etc. Until now, behavior was mostly considered as qualitative descriptions of postures or labor intensive counting of bouts of individual movements. Many prominent behavioral scientists conducted studies describing postures of mice and rats, depicting step by step eating, grooming, courting, and other behaviors. Automated video assessment technologies permit scientists to quantify daily behavioral patterns/routines, social interactions, and postural changes in an unbiased manner...
2017: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802636/cardiac-neuroanatomy-imaging-nerves-to-define-functional-control
#8
REVIEW
Peter Hanna, Pradeep S Rajendran, Olujimi A Ajijola, Marmar Vaseghi, J Andrew Armour, Jefrrey L Ardell, Kalyanam Shivkumar
The autonomic nervous system regulates normal cardiovascular function and plays a critical role in the pathophysiology of cardiovascular disease. Further understanding of the interplay between the autonomic nervous system and cardiovascular system holds promise for the development of neuroscience-based cardiovascular therapeutics. To this end, techniques to image myocardial innervation will help provide a basis for understanding the fundamental underpinnings of cardiac neural control. In this review, we detail the evolution of gross and microscopic anatomical studies for functional mapping of cardiac neuroanatomy...
July 29, 2017: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic & Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801185/neuroimaging-epigenetics-challenges-and-recommendations-for-best-practices
#9
REVIEW
Katie Lancaster, James P Morris, Jessica J Connelly
Neuroimaging epigenetics is an interdisciplinary application of epigenetics to cognitive neuroscience that seeks to identify molecular and neural predictors of human behavior. This approach can be sensitive to the dynamic interaction between biological predisposition and environmental influences, and is potentially more informative than an approach using static genetic code. Recent work in this field has generated considerable enthusiasm, yet caution is warranted since any novel cross-disciplinary approach lacks a set of established conventions or standards...
August 8, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797199/the-power-of-projectomes-genetic-mosaic-labeling-in-the-larval-zebrafish-brain-reveals-organizing-principles-of-sensory-circuits
#10
Estuardo Robles
In no vertebrate species do we possess an accurate, comprehensive tally of neuron types in the brain. This is in no small part due to the vast diversity of neuronal types that comprise complex vertebrate nervous systems. A fundamental goal of neuroscience is to construct comprehensive catalogs of cell types defined by structure, connectivity, and physiological response properties. This type of information will be invaluable for generating models of how assemblies of neurons encode and distribute sensory information and correspondingly alter behavior...
August 10, 2017: Journal of Neurogenetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797134/looking-beyond-the-intervertebral-disc-the-need-for-behavioral-assays-in-models-of-discogenic-pain
#11
REVIEW
Grace E Mosley, Thomas W Evashwick-Rogler, Alon Lai, James C Iatridis
Orthopedic research into chronic discogenic back pain has commonly focused on aging- and degeneration-related changes in intervertebral disc structure, biomechanics, and biology. However, the primary spine-related reason for physician office visits is pain. The ambiguous nature of the human condition of discogenic low back pain motivates the use of animal models to better understand the pathophysiology. Discogenic back pain models must consider both emergent behavioral changes following pain induction and changes in the nervous system that mediate such behavior...
August 10, 2017: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28794101/modulation-of-taste-processing-by-temperature
#12
Christian H Lemon
Taste stimuli have a temperature that can stimulate thermosensitive neural machinery in the mouth during gustatory experience. Although taste and oral temperature are sometimes discussed as different oral sensory modalities, there is a body of literature that demonstrates temperature is an important component and modulator of the intensity of gustatory neural and perceptual responses. Available data indicate that the influence of temperature on taste, herein referred to as "thermogustation", can vary across taste qualities, can also vary among stimuli presumed to share a common taste quality, and is conditioned on taste stimulus concentration, with neuronal and psychophysical data revealing larger modulatory effects of temperature on gustatory responding to weakened taste solutions compared to concentrated...
August 9, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28792276/oxygen-metabolism-in-acute-ischemic-stroke
#13
Weili Lin, William J Powers
Gaining insights into brain oxygen metabolism has been one of the key areas of research in neurosciences. Extensive efforts have been devoted to developing approaches capable of providing measures of brain oxygen metabolism not only under normal physiological conditions but, more importantly, in various pathophysiological conditions such as cerebral ischemia. In particular, quantitative measures of cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen using positron emission tomography (PET) have been shown to be capable of discerning brain tissue viability during ischemic insults...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28791729/applications-of-optogenetic-and-chemogenetic-methods-to-seizure-circuits-where-to-go-next
#14
REVIEW
Patrick A Forcelli
Epilepsy is the quintessential circuit disorder, with seizure activity propagating through anatomically constrained pathways. These pathways, necessary for normal sensory, motor, and cognitive function, are hijacked during seizures. Understanding the network architecture at the level of both local microcircuits and distributed macrocircuits may provide new therapeutic avenues for the treatment of epilepsy. Over the past decade, optogenetic and chemogenetic tools have enabled previously impossible levels of functional circuit mapping in neuroscience...
August 9, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28777371/-long-and-difficult-way-towards-the-understanding-of-sleep-function-period-before-the-age-of-electrophysiology
#15
REVIEW
I N Pigarev, M L Pigareva
It was proposed that historical analysis of ideas concerning the function of sleep will help to evaluate the tendencies in this field of science and will show the probable direction for further approach to understanding of this problem. We reviewed ideas of Ivan Pavlov and his Russian forerunners (Ivan Tarkhanoff and Maria Manaceine) and followers (Nikolay Rozjanskiy and Konstantin Bykov) on the functional role of sleep. This analysis led to the conclusion that state of sleep have been connected with realization of such functional operations, which have not been considered in the past and are not under consideration in the present neuroscience...
2017: Zhurnal Nevrologii i Psikhiatrii Imeni S.S. Korsakova
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28772120/silencing-neurons-tools-applications-and-experimental-constraints
#16
REVIEW
J Simon Wiegert, Mathias Mahn, Matthias Prigge, Yoav Printz, Ofer Yizhar
Reversible silencing of neuronal activity is a powerful approach for isolating the roles of specific neuronal populations in circuit dynamics and behavior. In contrast with neuronal excitation, for which the majority of studies have used a limited number of optogenetic and chemogenetic tools, the number of genetically encoded tools used for inhibition of neuronal activity has vastly expanded. Silencing strategies vary widely in their mechanism of action and in their spatial and temporal scales. Although such manipulations are commonly applied, the design and interpretation of neuronal silencing experiments present unique challenges, both technically and conceptually...
August 2, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28772103/architecture-function-and-assembly-of-the-mouse-visual-system
#17
Tania A Seabrook, Timothy J Burbridge, Michael C Crair, Andrew D Huberman
Vision is the sense humans rely on most to navigate the world, make decisions, and perform complex tasks. Understanding how humans see thus represents one of the most fundamental and important goals of neuroscience. The use of the mouse as a model for parsing how vision works at a fundamental level started approximately a decade ago, ushered in by the mouse's convenient size, relatively low cost, and, above all, amenability to genetic perturbations. In the course of that effort, a large cadre of new and powerful tools for in vivo labeling, monitoring, and manipulation of neurons were applied to this species...
July 25, 2017: Annual Review of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28760698/assessment-of-behavioural-deficits-following-ischaemic-stroke-in-the-marmoset
#18
REVIEW
Rozenn Le Gal, Myriam Bernaudin, Jérôme Toutain, Omar Touzani
Stroke is a common and devastating disease worldwide. Over the last two decades, many therapeutic approaches to ameliorate ischaemic stroke have been promising in animal studies but failed when transferred to the clinical situation. One of the possible explanations for these failures is the widespread use of animal models of cerebral ischemia that do not mimic the pathology encountered in the clinic. Accordingly, many expert committees recommended the integration of higher order species such as non-human primates in pre-clinical stroke studies...
July 29, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28759177/breastfeeding-outcomes-after-oxytocin-use-during-childbirth-an-integrative-review
#19
REVIEW
Elise N Erickson, Cathy L Emeis
INTRODUCTION: Despite widespread use of exogenous synthetic oxytocin during the birth process, few studies have examined the effect of this drug on breastfeeding. Based on neuroscience research, endogenous oxytocin may be altered or manipulated by exogenous administration or by blocking normal function of the hormone or receptor. Women commonly cite insufficient milk production as their reason for early supplementation, jeopardizing breastfeeding goals. Researchers need to consider the role of birth-related medications and interventions on the production of milk...
July 2017: Journal of Midwifery & Women's Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28758581/implications-of-pegylation-of-carbon-nanotubes-for-central-nervous-system-bioavailability
#20
Gisele Eva Bruch, Marcos F Cordeiro, Livia S Gomides, Carolina Peixoto, Arthur P Cordeiro, Lidiane Dal Bosco, Adelina P Santos, Daniela M Barros
In this mini-review we have compiled the most recent and comparable information to shed a light on the action of PEGylation in the biodistribution of Carbon Nanotubes (CNT) in the Central Nervous System (CNS). It is well known that due to the complexity of the CNS and the severity of the outcome of changes in this system, this is one of the areas where there are more investments in research to develop new technologies and approaches for more effective and less invasive treatments. The CNS is highly protected against toxic and invasive microorganisms thanks to the blood brain barrier (BBB), but this protection also prevents the passage of potentially beneficial molecules for the treatment of neurological disorders, Nanotechnology attempts to develop nanocompounds that are biocompatible and non-immunogenic, and that are able to cross the BBB in therapeutic amounts without causing damage and to diffuse through nerve tissue...
July 31, 2017: CNS & Neurological Disorders Drug Targets
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