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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29345974/cognitive-effects-of-cancer-and-cancer-treatments
#1
Tim A Ahles, James C Root
As the population of cancer survivors has grown into the millions, there has been increasing emphasis on understanding how the late effects of treatment affect survivors' ability to return to work/school, their capacity to function and live independently, and their overall quality of life. This review focuses on cognitive change associated with cancer and cancer treatments. Research in this area has progressed from a pharmacotoxicology perspective to a view of the cognitive change as a complex interaction of aspects of the treatment, vulnerability factors that increase risk for posttreatment cognitive decline, cancer biology, and the biology of aging...
January 18, 2018: Annual Review of Clinical Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29342053/gradual-symmetric-progression-of-dfna34-hearing-loss-caused-by-an-nlrp3-mutation-and-cochlear-autoinflammation
#2
Hiroshi Nakanishi, Yoshiyuki Kawashima, Kiyoto Kurima, Julie A Muskett, H Jeffrey Kim, Carmen C Brewer, Andrew J Griffith
OBJECTIVE: To characterize the audiometric phenotype of autosomal-dominant DFNA34 hearing loss (HL) caused by a missense substitution in the NLRP3 gene. NLRP3 encodes a critical component of the NLRP3 inflammasome that is activated in innate immune responses. STUDY DESIGN: This study was conducted under protocol 01-DC-0229 approved by the NIH Combined Neurosciences IRB. We performed medical and developmental history interviews and physical and audiological examinations of affected individuals with DFNA34 HL caused by the p...
January 16, 2018: Otology & Neurotology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29338070/the-use-of-chemogenetics-in-behavioural-neuroscience-receptor-variants-targeting-approaches-and-caveats
#3
REVIEW
Erin J Campbell, Nathan J Marchant
The last decade has seen major advances in neuroscience tools allowing us to selectively modulate cellular pathways in freely moving animals. Chemogenetic approaches such as Designer Receptors Exclusively Activated by Designer Drugs (DREADDs) permit the remote control of neuronal function by systemic drug administration. These approaches have dramatically advanced our understanding of the neural control of behaviour. Here we review the different techniques and genetic approaches available for the restriction of chemogenetic receptors to defined neuronal populations...
January 16, 2018: British Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29337440/-addictions
#4
Jacques Besson, Jeremy Grivel, Alexander Tomei, Mélina Andronicos, Daniele Zullino, Gabriel Thorens, Stergios Tsartsalis, Isabelle Gothuey, Monique Séguin
This year, the actuality for addictions in this edition addresses four points. The disease model of addiction is criticized by the cognitive neurosciences which need to consider the agentivity of the persons. Regarding the societal actuality, clinical pharmacology review of cannabidiol presents an update on legal cannabis. The suicidality of excessive gamblers may be prevented specifically. Addiction and first psychotic episodes need an integrated care.
January 10, 2018: Revue Médicale Suisse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29336507/-learn-ing-what-is-important-to-children-and-young-people-with-intellectual-disabilities-when-they-are-in-hospital
#5
K Oulton, D Sell, F Gibson
BACKGROUND: The need to review health service provision for children and young people (CYP) with disabilities and their families in the United Kingdom has been expressed in multiple reports: the most consistent message being that services need to be tailored to meet their individual needs. Our aim was to understand the hospital-related needs and experiences of CYP with intellectual disabilities. METHOD: An ethnographic study of a neurosciences ward and outpatient department was conducted within a paediatric tertiary hospital setting...
January 16, 2018: Journal of Applied Research in Intellectual Disabilities: JARID
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29335679/deep-tissue-imaging-with-multiphoton-fluorescence-microscopy
#6
David R Miller, Jeremy W Jarrett, Ahmed M Hassan, Andrew K Dunn
We present a review of imaging deep-tissue structures with multiphoton microscopy. We examine the effects of light scattering and absorption due to the optical properties of biological sample and identify 1,300 nm and 1,700 nm as ideal excitation wavelengths. We summarize the availability of fluorophores for multiphoton microscopy as well as ultrafast laser sources to excite available fluorophores. Lastly, we discuss the applications of multiphoton microscopy for neuroscience.
December 2017: Current Opinion in Biomedical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332074/diffusion-tensor-imaging-of-the-basal-ganglia-for-functional-neurosurgery-applications
#7
Francesco Sammartino, Mojgan Hodaie
Since its introduction, diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) has become an important tool in neuroscience given its unprecedented ability to image brain white matter in vivo. The interest in understanding the mechanisms of action of Deep Brain Stimulation in different targets and indications, together with the constant drive towards the improvement in long-term clinical outcomes, has found a logical complement in the application of tractography in this field. Diffusion tensor imaging has been traditionally associated with an increased susceptibility to MRI artifacts, and expensive computational resources...
2018: Progress in Neurological Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321077/social-anxiety-disorder-looking-back-and-moving-forward
#8
Matthew P Hyett, Peter M McEvoy
Fifty years have passed since social anxiety disorder (SAD) was first differentiated from other phobias. In the years since research has largely aligned with the zeitgeist of categorical classificatory frameworks, and has spanned identifying causes, maintenance factors and innovative interventions. Despite significant advances in the field, the capacity to conceptualise SAD as an independent entity is limited given the heterogeneity and dimensionality of diagnostic criteria, high rates of comorbidity, and non-specificity of aetiological mechanisms, maintaining factors and approaches to treatment...
January 11, 2018: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29316506/expansion-microscopy-development-and-neuroscience-applications
#9
REVIEW
Emmanouil D Karagiannis, Edward S Boyden
Many neuroscience questions center around understanding how the molecules and wiring in neural circuits mechanistically yield behavioral functions, or go awry in disease states. However, mapping the molecules and wiring of neurons across the large scales of neural circuits has posed a great challenge. We recently developed expansion microscopy (ExM), a process in which we physically magnify biological specimens such as brain circuits. We synthesize throughout preserved brain specimens a dense, even mesh of a swellable polymer such as sodium polyacrylate, anchoring key biomolecules such as proteins and nucleic acids to the polymer...
January 6, 2018: Current Opinion in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29314142/retinoblastoma-the-visible-cns-tumor-a-review
#10
Helen Dimaras, Timothy W Corson
The pediatric ocular cancer retinoblastoma is the only central nervous system (CNS) tumor readily observed without specialized equipment: it can be seen by, and in, the naked eye. This accessibility enables unique imaging modalities. Here, we review this cancer for a neuroscience audience, highlighting these clinical and research imaging options, including fundus imaging, optical coherence tomography, ultrasound, and magnetic resonance imaging. We also discuss the subtype of retinoblastoma driven by the MYCN oncogene more commonly associated with neuroblastoma, and consider trilateral retinoblastoma, in which an intracranial tumor arises along with ocular tumors in patients with germline RB1 gene mutations...
January 3, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29303607/immunity-a-significant-pathogenic-factor-as-well-as-an-integral-part-of-the-sychoneuroendocrine-immune-regulations
#11
F VoŽeh
Immunity plays an important role in the reactivity of the organism and, in this context, is an essential factor in the pathogenesis of many diseases. Basically, there is no system or organ in the body, whose dysfunction is not related to immunity consequences. In addition, there are also multisystem diseases simultaneously involving multiple body systems. They are not always caused by weak immunity, but also often by modified immune reactions known as overshooting. The essence of all these diseases is a change in the reactivity of the organism where immunity plays an important role...
January 5, 2018: Physiological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29300000/the-use-of-tungsten-as-a-chronically-implanted-material
#12
Ahmad Shah Idil, Nick Donaldson
This review paper shows that tungsten should not generally by used as a chronically implanted material. The metal has a long implant history, from neuroscience, vascular medicine, radiography, orthopaedics, prosthodontics, and various other fields, primarily as a result of its high density, radiopacity, tensile strength and yield point. However a crucial material criterion for chronically implanted metals is their long term resistance to corrosion in body fluids, either by inherently noble metallic surfaces, or by protective passivation layers of metal oxide...
January 4, 2018: Journal of Neural Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29295763/corrigendum-to-ependymomas-arising-outside-of-the-central-nervous-system-a-case-series-and-literature-review-j-clin-neurosci-47-2018-202-207
#13
Shlomit Yust Katz, David Cachia, Carlos Kamiya-Matsuoka, Adriana Olar, Brett Theeler, Marta Penas Prado, Mark R Gilbert, Terri Armstrong
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 30, 2017: Journal of Clinical Neuroscience: Official Journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29289930/nanomaterials-at-the-neural-interface
#14
REVIEW
Denis Scaini, Laura Ballerini
Interfacing the nervous system with devices able to efficiently record or modulate the electrical activity of neuronal cells represents the underlying foundation of future theranostic applications in neurology and of current openings in neuroscience research. These devices, usually sensing cell activity via microelectrodes, should be characterized by safe working conditions in the biological milieu together with a well-controlled operation-life. The stable device/neuronal electrical coupling at the interface requires tight interactions between the electrode surface and the cell membrane...
December 28, 2017: Current Opinion in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29289816/electrochemical-sensor-and-biosensor-platforms-based-on-advanced-nanomaterials-for-biological-and-biomedical-applications
#15
REVIEW
Govindhan Maduraiveeran, Manickam Sasidharan, Vellaichamy Ganesan
Introduction of novel functional nanomaterials and analytical technologies signify a foremost possibility for the advance of electrochemical sensor and biosensor platforms/devices for a broad series of applications including biological, biomedical, biotechnological, clinical and medical diagnostics, environmental and health monitoring, and food industries. The design of sensitive and selective electrochemical biological sensor platforms are accomplished conceivably by offering new surface modifications, microfabrication techniques, and diverse nanomaterials with unique properties for in vivo and in vitro medical analysis via relating a sensibly planned electrode/solution interface...
December 22, 2017: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29287909/ethological-approach-to-social-isolation-effects-in-behavioral-studies-of-laboratory-rodents
#16
REVIEW
Hiroyuki Arakawa
The aim of the present review is to discuss how housing conditions affect behavioral performance in laboratory rodents from an ethological view. Commonly used laboratory rodents such as rats and mice, are originally captured animals that largely retain species-typical natural behaviors, while have fully adapted to a laboratory setting after long-term domestication. Laboratory settings including caging and artificial group housing are a considerable ethological factor influencing rodents' behaviors in commonly employed behavioral test paradigms, including emotional and defensive behaviors, learning and memory, and attention-related behaviors...
December 26, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29287629/neural-processes-of-vocal-social-perception-dog-human-comparative-fmri-studies
#17
REVIEW
Attila Andics, Ádám Miklósi
In this review we focus on the exciting new opportunities in comparative neuroscience to study neural processes of vocal social perception by comparing dog and human neural activity using fMRI methods. The dog is a relatively new addition to this research area; however, it has a large potential to become a standard species in such investigations. Although there has been great interest in the emergence of human language abilities, in case of fMRI methods, most research to date focused on homologue comparisons within Primates...
February 2018: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29287628/sex-differences-in-the-brain-implications-for-behavioral-and-biomedical-research
#18
REVIEW
Elena Choleris, Liisa A M Galea, Farida Sohrabji, Karyn M Frick
Biological differences between males and females are found at multiple levels. However, females have too often been under-represented in behavioral neuroscience research, which has stymied the study of potential sex differences in neurobiology and behavior. This review focuses on the study of sex differences in the neurobiology of social behavior, memory, emotions, and recovery from brain injury, with particular emphasis on the role of estrogens in regulating forebrain function. This work, presented by the authors at the 2016 meeting of the International Behavioral Neuroscience Society, emphasizes varying approaches from several mammalian species in which sex differences have not only been documented, but also become the focus of efforts to understand the mechanistic basis underlying them...
February 2018: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29284806/first-2-years-of-experience-of-residential-care-at-sakalawara-rehabilitation-services-national-institute-of-mental-health-and-neurosciences-bengaluru-india
#19
Narayana Manjunatha, Preeti Pansari Agarwal, Harihara N Shashidhara, Mohan Palakode, E Aravind Raj, Aruna Rose Mary Kapanee, Prashanthi Nattala, C Naveen Kumar, Paulomi Sudhir, Jagadisha Thirthalli, Srikala Bharath, Kasi Sekar, Mathew Varghese
Introduction: There is an unmet need for continuity-of-care is well known for those with severe mental disorders (SMDs) after acute care at hospitals in India. The "Sakalawara Rehabilitation Services (SRS)" functioned from March 2014 at "Sakalawara Community Mental Health Centre" (SCMHC) of "National Institute of Mental Health and Neurosciences," Bengaluru, India in the concepts of residential care (half-way-home) with the aim to develop a replicable model. Aim: To review the inpatient records after the initial 2 years of experience in residential care at SCMHC...
November 2017: Indian Journal of Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29283020/gaba-from-inhibition-to-cognition-emerging-concepts
#20
T Schmidt-Wilcke, E Fuchs, K Funke, A Vlachos, F Müller-Dahlhaus, N A J Puts, R E Harris, R A E Edden
Neural functioning and plasticity can be studied on different levels of organization and complexity ranging from the molecular and synaptic level to neural circuitry of whole brain networks. Across neuroscience different methods are being applied to better understand the role of various neurotransmitter systems in the evolution of perception and cognition. GABA is the main inhibitory neurotransmitter in the adult mammalian brain and, depending on the brain region, up to 25% of the total number of cortical neurons are GABAergic interneurons...
October 1, 2017: Neuroscientist: a Review Journal Bringing Neurobiology, Neurology and Psychiatry
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