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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29790839/how-to-monitor-the-breathing-of-laboratory-rodents-a-review-of-the-current-methods
#1
Julien Grimaud, Venkatesh N Murthy
Accurately measuring respiration in laboratory rodents is essential for many fields of research, including olfactory neuroscience, social behavior, learning and memory, and respiratory physiology. However, choosing the right technique to monitor respiration can be tricky, given the many criteria to take into account: reliability, precision, and invasiveness, to name a few. This review aims to assist experimenters in choosing the technique that will best fit their needs, by surveying the available tools, discussing their strengths and weaknesses, and offering suggestions for future improvements...
May 23, 2018: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29784537/artificial-intelligence-a-joint-narrative-on-potential-use-in-pediatric-stem-and-immune-cell-therapies-and-regenerative-medicine
#2
REVIEW
Irena Sniecinski, Jerard Seghatchian
Artificial Intelligence (AI) reflects the intelligence exhibited by machines and software. It is a highly desirable academic field of many current fields of studies. Leading AI researchers describe the field as "the study and design of intelligent agents". McCarthy invented this term in 1955 and defined it as "the science and engineering of making intelligent machines". The central goals of AI research are reasoning, knowledge, planning, learning, natural language processing (communication), perception and the ability to move and manipulate objects...
May 9, 2018: Transfusion and Apheresis Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781776/empathy-present-and-future
#3
Judith Hall, Rachel Schwartz
The empathy concept has central significance for social and personality psychology, and in many other domains including neuroscience, clinical/abnormal psychology, and the health professions. However, the current diversity in conceptual and operational definitions, and the promiscuous use of the term "empathy," threaten the ability of researchers to advance the field. The present article provides a quantitative review and conceptual analysis of empathy definitions and usages by examining 393 studies published between 2001 and 2013, and 96 studies published in 2017...
May 21, 2018: Journal of Social Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29766913/telemedicine-and-neurosciences
#4
Krishnan Ganapathy
It is well documented that there is an acute shortage of neurologists and neurosurgeons in India and globally. Despite all efforts, it will be impossible to make available neurospecialists in all suburban and rural areas. Simultaneously, there has been an exponential increase in the growth and development of Information and Communication Technology (ICT). Plummeting costs and unbelievable sophistication in the availability of user-friendly mobile video conferencing devices is making distance meaningless. Geography has become History! Worldwide, the ultraconservative health care industry, in particular, the medical community, has been uniformly slow to adopt and embrace the use of ICT to extend their clinical reach...
May 2018: Neurology India
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29762862/stress-and-the-psyche-brain-immune-network-in-psychiatric-diseases-based-on-psychoneuroendocrineimmunology-a-concise-review
#5
REVIEW
Anna Giulia Bottaccioli, Francesco Bottaccioli, Andrea Minelli
In the last decades, psychoneuroendocrineimmunology research has made relevant contributions to the fields of neuroscience, psychobiology, epigenetics, molecular biology, and clinical research by studying the effect of stress on human health and highlighting the close interrelations between psyche, brain, and bodily systems. It is now well recognized that chronic stress can alter the physiological cross-talk between brain and biological systems, leading to long-lasting maladaptive effects (allostatic overload) on the nervous, immune, endocrine, and metabolic systems, which compromises stress resiliency and health...
May 15, 2018: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29758954/the-use-of-transcranial-magnetic-stimulation-to-evaluate-cortical-excitability-of-lower-limb-musculature-challenges-and-opportunities
#6
Trisha M Kesar, James W Stinear, Steven L Wolf
Neuroplasticity is a fundamental yet relatively unexplored process that can impact rehabilitation of lower extremity (LE) movements. Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) has gained widespread application as a non-invasive brain stimulation technique for evaluating neuroplasticity of the corticospinal pathway. However, a majority of TMS studies have been performed on hand muscles, with a paucity of TMS investigations focused on LE muscles. This perspective review paper proposes that there are unique methodological challenges associated with using TMS to evaluate corticospinal excitability of lower limb muscles...
May 5, 2018: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29757600/dark-classics-in-chemical-neuroscience-morphine
#7
Andrea L Devereaux, Susan L Mercer, Christopher W Cunningham
As the major psychoactive agent in opium and direct precursor for heroin, morphine is a historically critical molecule in chemical neuroscience. A structurally complex phenanthrene alkaloid produced by Papaver somniferum, morphine has fascinated chemists seeking to disentangle pharmacologically beneficial analgesic effects from addiction, tolerance, and dependence liabilities. In this review, we will detail the history of morphine, from the first extraction and isolation by Sertürner in 1804 to the illicit use of morphine and proliferation of opioid use and abuse disorders currently ravaging the United States...
May 14, 2018: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29752185/brain-penetrant-kinase-inhibitors-learning-from-kinase-neuroscience-discovery
#8
REVIEW
Yuan Shi, Mary Mader
A recent review of kinase inhibitors in clinical trials for brain cancer noted differences in the properties of these compounds relative to the mean property parameters associated with drugs marketed for CNS-associated conditions. However, many of these kinase drugs arose from opportunistic observations of brain activity, rather than design or flow schemes focused on optimizing CNS penetration. Thus, this digest examines kinase inhibitors that have been developed specifically for neurodegenerative indications such as Alzheimer's or Parkinson's disease, and considers design, flow scheme, and the physicochemical properties associated with compounds that have demonstrated brain penetrance...
May 4, 2018: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29747879/neurolaw-today-a-systematic-review-of-the-recent-law-and-neuroscience-literature
#9
REVIEW
Jennifer A Chandler, Neil Harrel, Tijana Potkonjak
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 7, 2018: International Journal of Law and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29745564/-research-progress-about-different-levels-of-cognitive-recession-using-resting-state-functional-connectivity-network-methods
#10
REVIEW
Yanan Liu, Yuanyuan Chen, Miao Sha, Hongzhi Qi, Dong Ming, Peng Zhou
Normal brain aging and a serious of neurodegenerative diseases may lead to decline in memory, attention and executive ability and poorer quality of life. The mechanism of the decline is not clear now and is still a hot issue in the fields of neuroscience and medicine. A large number of researches showed that resting state functional brain networks based functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) are sensitive and susceptive to the change of cognitive function. In this paper, the researches of brain functional connectivity based on resting fMRI in recent years were compared, and the results of subjects with different levels of cognitive decline including normal brain aging, mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and Alzheimer's disease (AD) were reviewed...
August 1, 2017: Sheng Wu Yi Xue Gong Cheng Xue za Zhi, Journal of Biomedical Engineering, Shengwu Yixue Gongchengxue Zazhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29744956/imaging-resilience-and-recovery-in-alcohol-dependence
#11
REVIEW
Katrin Charlet, Annika Rosenthal, Falk W Lohoff, Andreas Heinz, Anne Beck
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Resilience and recovery are of increasing importance in the field of alcohol dependence (AD). This paper describes how imaging studies in man can be used to assess the neurobiological correlates of resilience and, if longitudinal, of disease trajectories, progression rates and markers for recovery to inform treatment and prevention options. METHODS: Original articles on recovery and resilience in alcohol addiction and its neurobiological correlates were identified from 'PubMed' and have been analyzed and condensed within a systematic literature review...
May 9, 2018: Addiction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29742814/optogenetic-stimulation-understanding-memory-and-treating-deficits
#12
S C Barnett, B A L Perry, J C Dalrymple-Alford, L C Parr-Brownlie
Technology allowing genetically targeted cells to be modulated by light has revolutionised neuroscience in the past decade, and given rise to the field of optogenetic stimulation. For this, non-native, light activated proteins (e.g. channelrhodopsin) are expressed in a specific cell phenotype (e.g. glutamatergic neurons) in a subset of central nervous system nuclei, and short pulses of light of a narrow wavelength (e.g. blue, 473 nm) are used to modulate cell activity. Cell activity can be increased or decreased depending on which light activated protein is used...
May 9, 2018: Hippocampus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29739126/transsexualism-a-different-viewpoint-to-brain-changes
#13
REVIEW
Mohammad Reza Mohammadi, Ali Khaleghi
Transsexualism refers to a condition or belief which results in gender dysphoria in individuals and makes them insist that their biological gender is different from their psychological and experienced gender. Although the etiology of gender dysphoria (or transsexualism) is still unknown, different neuroimaging studies show that structural and functional changes of the brain result from this sexual incongruence. The question here is whether these reported changes form part of the etiology of transsexualism or themselves result from transsexualism culture, behaviors and lifestyle...
May 31, 2018: Clinical Psychopharmacology and Neuroscience: the Official Scientific Journal of the Korean College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29738987/single-cell-transcriptomics-in-neuroscience-cell-classification-and-beyond
#14
REVIEW
Bosiljka Tasic
Biology has been facing a daunting problem since the cell was understood to be the building block of metazoans: how do we study multicellular systems, when a universal approach to characterize their building blocks and classify them does not exist? Metazoan diversity has not helped: there are many model and non-model organisms, developmental and adult stages, healthy and diseased states. Here, I review the application of single cell transcriptomics to cell classification in neuroscience and its corollaries: the differentially expressed genes discovered in this process are a treasure trove for understanding cell type function and enabling specific access to those types...
May 5, 2018: Current Opinion in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29738986/neural-data-science-accelerating-the-experiment-analysis-theory-cycle-in-large-scale-neuroscience
#15
REVIEW
L Paninski, J P Cunningham
Modern large-scale multineuronal recording methodologies, including multielectrode arrays, calcium imaging, and optogenetic techniques, produce single-neuron resolution data of a magnitude and precision that were the realm of science fiction twenty years ago. The major bottlenecks in systems and circuit neuroscience no longer lie in simply collecting data from large neural populations, but also in understanding this data: developing novel scientific questions, with corresponding analysis techniques and experimental designs to fully harness these new capabilities and meaningfully interrogate these questions...
April 19, 2018: Current Opinion in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29738717/the-habenula-in-neurosurgery-for-depression-a-convergence-of-functional-neuroanatomy-psychiatry-and-imaging
#16
REVIEW
Georgios P Skandalakis, Christos Koutsarnakis, Aristotelis V Kalyvas, Panagiotis Skandalakis, Elizabeth O Johnson, George Stranjalis
BACKGROUND: The habenula is a small, mostly underrated structure in the pineal region. Multidisciplinary findings demonstrate an underlying complex connectivity of the habenula with the rest of the brain, subserving its major role in normal behavior and the pathophysiology of depression. These findings suggest the potential application of "habenular psychosurgery" in the treatment of mental disorders. OBJECTIVE/HYPOTHESIS: The remission of two patients with treatment-resistant major depression treated with deep brain stimulation of the habenula supported the hypothesis that the habenula is an effective target for deep brain stimulation and initiated a surge of basic science research...
May 5, 2018: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29733950/recent-advances-in-carrier-mediated-nose-to-brain-delivery-of-pharmaceutics
#17
REVIEW
Vassilis Bourganis, Olga Kammona, Aleck Alexopoulos, Costas Kiparissides
Central nervous system (CNS) disorders (e.g., multiple sclerosis, Alzheimer's disease, etc.) represent a growing public health issue, primarily due to the increased life expectancy and the aging population. The treatment of such disorders is notably elaborate and requires the delivery of therapeutics to the brain in appropriate amounts to elicit a pharmacological response. However, despite the major advances both in neuroscience and drug delivery research, the administration of drugs to the CNS still remains elusive...
May 4, 2018: European Journal of Pharmaceutics and Biopharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29729890/understanding-the-emergence-of-neuropsychiatric-disorders-with-network-neuroscience
#18
REVIEW
Danielle S Bassett, Cedric Huchuan Xia, Theodore D Satterthwaite
Major neuropsychiatric disorders such as psychosis are increasingly acknowledged to be disorders of brain connectivity. Yet tools to map, model, predict, and change connectivity are difficult to develop, largely because of the complex, dynamic, and multivariate nature of interactions between brain regions. Network neuroscience (NN) provides a theoretical framework and mathematical toolset to address these difficulties. Building on areas of mathematics such as graph theory, NN in its simplest form summarizes neuroimaging data by treating brain regions as nodes in a graph and by treating interactions or connections between nodes as edges in the graph...
April 5, 2018: Biological Psychiatry: Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuroimaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29729527/the-hippocampus-in-depth-a-sublayer-specific-perspective-of-entorhinal-hippocampal-function
#19
REVIEW
Manuel Valero, Liset Menendez de la Prida
Understanding how the brain represents events is a fundamental question in neuroscience. The entorhinal-hippocampal system is central to such representations, which are severely compromised in some neurological diseases. In spite of much progress, a comprehensive, integrated view of spatial, temporal and other aspects of episodic representation remains elusive. Here, we review recent data on the role of cell-type specific entorhinal inputs which excite deep and superficial CA1 pyramidal cells by direct and indirect pathways...
May 2, 2018: Current Opinion in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29727596/the-accessory-olfactory-system-innately-specialized-or-microcosm-of-mammalian-circuitry
#20
Timothy E Holy
In mammals, the accessory olfactory system is a distinct circuit that has received attention for its role in detecting and responding to pheromones. While the neuroscientific investigation of this system is comparatively new, recent advances and its compact size have made it an attractive model for developing an end-to-end understanding of such questions as regulation of essential behaviors, plasticity, and individual recognition. Recent discoveries have indicated a need to reevaluate our conception of this system, suggesting that (a) physical principles-rather than biological necessity-play an underappreciated role in its raison d'être and that (b) the anatomy of downstream projections is not dominated by unique specializations but instead consists of an abbreviated cortical/basal ganglia motif reminiscent of other sensorimotor systems...
May 4, 2018: Annual Review of Neuroscience
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