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valproate toxicity

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27884140/phase-ii-clinical-study-of-valproic-acid-plus-cisplatin-and-cetuximab-in-recurrent-and-or-metastatic-squamous-cell-carcinoma-of-head-and-neck-v-chance-trial
#1
Francesco Caponigro, Elena Di Gennaro, Franco Ionna, Francesco Longo, Corrado Aversa, Ettore Pavone, Maria Grazia Maglione, Massimiliano Di Marzo, Paolo Muto, Ernesta Cavalcanti, Antonella Petrillo, Fabio Sandomenico, Piera Maiolino, Roberta D'Aniello, Gerardo Botti, Rossella De Cecio, Nunzia Simona Losito, Stefania Scala, Annamaria Trotta, Andrea Ilaria Zotti, Francesca Bruzzese, Antonio Daponte, Ester Calogero, Massimo Montano, Monica Pontone, Gianfranco De Feo, Francesco Perri, Alfredo Budillon
BACKGROUND: Recurrent/metastatic squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck (SCCHN) has a poor prognosis and the combination of cisplatin and cetuximab, with or without 5-fluorouracil, is the gold standard treatment in this stage. Thus, the concomitant use of novel compounds represents a critical strategy to improve treatment results. Histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACi) enhance the activity of several anticancer drugs including cisplatin and anti-Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (anti-EGFR) compounds...
November 25, 2016: BMC Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27871720/-guidelines-for-the-prescription-of-mood-stabilizers-for-adolescents-a-literature-review
#2
G Munch, N Godart
INTRODUCTION: Adolescence is a unique phase of the human developmental process. In adolescents, psychotropic medications may have different efficacy and tolerance profiles compared to those at other stages of the lifespan. Mood stabilizers are a complex pharmacological category including lithium, some anticonvulsants, and some second generation antipsychotics. Focusing on this class of pharmacological agents, we aim to answer the following questions: in which indications and according to which modalities should mood stabilizers be prescribed during adolescence? METHODS: Information was sought from the websites of the French Haute Autorité de santé (HAS) and Agence nationale de sécurité du médicament et des produits de santé (ANSM), the American Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the British National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE)...
November 18, 2016: L'Encéphale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27692350/-epigenetics-implication-in-autism-spectrum-disorders-a-review
#3
M Hamza, S Halayem, R Mrad, S Bourgou, F Charfi, A Belhadj
BACKGROUND: The etiology of autism spectrum disorders (ASD) is complex and multifactorial, and the roles of genetic and environmental factors in its emergence have been well documented. Current research tends to indicate that these two factors act in a synergistic manner. The processes underlying this interaction are still poorly known, but epigenetic modifications could be the mediator in the gene/environment interface. The epigenetic mechanisms have been implicated in susceptibility to stress and also in the pathogenesis of psychiatric disorders including depression and schizophrenia...
September 27, 2016: L'Encéphale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27450977/successful-use-of-dose-dense-neoadjuvant-chemotherapy-and-sodium-valproate-with-minimal-toxicity-in-an-infant-with-medulloblastoma-in-extremely-poor-general-condition
#4
Ajay Gupta, Amit Kumar, Andaleeb Abrari, Rana Patir, Sandeep Vaishya
BACKGROUND: Medulloblastoma is the most common malignant brain tumor in children. Infants are in the high-risk category. Complete surgical resection is the single most important determinant of prognosis and survival in nonmetastatic disease. Infants with large primaries after incomplete resection/biopsy and poor general condition have bad prognosis. They are considered poor candidates for intensive chemotherapy involving high dose methotrexate/autologous stem cell transplantation as they are often unable to tolerate these aggressive regimens...
September 2016: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27428884/therapeutic-index-estimation-of-antiepileptic-drugs-a-systematic-literature-review-approach
#5
Rachel G Greenberg, Chiara Melloni, Huali Wu, Daniel Gonzalez, Lawrence Ku, Kevin D Hill, Christoph P Hornik, Michael Cohen-Wolkowiez, Jeffrey T Guptill
OBJECTIVES: Our study aimed to determine whether data obtained from the medical literature can be used to estimate the therapeutic index of 5 antiepileptic drugs (AEDs): carbamazepine, lamotrigine, phenobarbital, phenytoin, and valproate. METHODS: We performed a literature search using PubMed and EMBASE to collect published safety, efficacy, and therapeutic monitoring data for 5 AEDs and extracted all relevant information into a drug- and study-specific drug database...
September 2016: Clinical Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27387276/photo-fenton-treatment-of-valproate-under-uvc-uva-and-simulated-solar-radiation
#6
Daniel Haranaka Funai, Florian Didier, Jaime Giménez, Santiago Esplugas, Pilar Marco, Amilcar Machulek
The abatement of valproic acid sodium salt (VA) via photo-Fenton process was investigated to evaluate the effect of irradiation type. Three different light sources have been used: UVA (black light blue lamps, BLB reactor), UVC (UVC reactor) and simulated sunlight in a Solarbox (SB). Using the highest concentrations of Fe(2+) (10mgL(-1)) and H2O2 (150mgL(-1)), 100% of VA degradation was observed in BLB and UVC devices, and 89.7% in Solarbox. Regarding mineralization, 67.4% and 76.4% of TOC conversion were achieved in BLB and UVC, respectively...
June 19, 2016: Journal of Hazardous Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27383404/a-large-case-series-of-acute-pediatric-methotrexate-ingestions-significant-clinical-effects-are-rare
#7
Matthew D Hensley, Vikhyat S Bebarta, Douglas J Borys
OBJECTIVE: Significant adverse effects after acute pediatric methotrexate (MTX) exposures have been limited to parenteral exposures. Treatment recommendations for pediatric MTX exposures do not differentiate between routes of exposure. We report the incidence of significant clinical effects and drug-specific treatments reported in a large series of acute, pediatric MTX ingestions. METHODS: Poison center records of all MTX ingestions by patients younger than 17 years during 2000 to 2005 were collected from 6 poison centers...
July 2, 2016: Pediatric Emergency Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27124675/nephrotoxicity-of-sodium-valproate-and-protective-role-of-l-cysteine-in-rats-at-biochemical-and-histological-levels
#8
Nahla S El-Shenawy, Reham Z Hamza
BACKGROUND: This study investigated whether the combination of sodium valproate (SV) with L-cysteine (LC) can decrease the SV toxicity of kidneys. SV caused alternation in oxidative/antioxidant balance. METHODS: Biochemical estimations included the determination of oxidative stress markers like thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances in kidney tissue, and enzymatic antioxidant activities such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione reductase as well as total antioxidant capacity were evaluated in renal tissues...
September 1, 2016: Journal of Basic and Clinical Physiology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27096699/coupling-genotyping-and-computational-modeling-in-prediction-of-anti-epileptic-drugs-that-cause-stevens-johnson-syndrome-and-toxic-epidermal-necrolysis-for-carrier-of-hla-b-15-02
#9
Lay Kek Teh, Manikandan Selvaraj, Zakaria Bannur, Mohd Ikhwan Mohd Ismail, Hanip Rafia, Wan Chung Law, Sapiah Sapuan, Santhi Puvanarajah, Pakeer Shaik Syed Ali, Mohd Zaki Salleh
PURPOSE: The importance of HLA-B*15:02 genotyping to avoid carbamazepine induced SJS/TEN and molecular modeling to predict the role of HLA-B*15:0 and AEDs induced SJS/TEN are investigated. METHODS: DNA was extracted from eighty-six patients. The patients were genotyped by AS-PCR. Computational modeling of the HLA-B*15:02 followed by docking studies were performed to screen 26 AEDs that may induce ADR among HLA-B*15:02 carriers. RESULTS: Odd ratio for CBZ induced SJS/TEN and HLA-B*15:02 was 609...
2016: Journal of Pharmacy & Pharmaceutical Sciences: a Publication of the Canadian Society for Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27091084/neuronal-in-vitro-activity-is-more-sensitive-to-valproate-than-intracellular-atp-considerations-on-conversion-problems-of-ic50-in-vitro-data-for-animal-replacement
#10
Matthias Nissen, Sebastian M Buehler, Marco Stubbe, Jan Gimsa
We investigated the effects of acute valproate (VPA) on mouse embryonic primary cortex cells (MEPCs). Intracellular ATP concentrations were compared with changes in the mean action potential (AP) frequencies of MEPC networks growing on microelectrode arrays. Our data implies biphasic reactions towards increasing VPA concentrations for both parameters. Intracellular ATP and mean AP frequencies increased around characteristic concentrations of 0.15 and 0.07mM to hormetic plateaus of approx. 120% and 160% of their controls, before fading around 17 and 1...
June 2016: Bio Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27029219/unexplained-spikes-in-lamotrigine-serum-concentration-nonlinear-elimination
#11
P Ramey, M R Osborn, K M Lowen, R C Reed, B Abou-Khalil
OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to evaluate possible nonlinear lamotrigine (LTG) pharmacokinetics at elevated concentration. LTG is reported to have linear kinetics, so that elimination rate is linearly proportional to blood concentration and a change in dose is accompanied by a proportionate change in serum concentration. We encountered patients in whom LTG serum concentration increased dramatically in response to minor or no change in LTG dose. We studied this phenomenon in patients with LTG toxicity in one clinic...
March 31, 2016: Acta Neurologica Scandinavica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26979444/tonic-seizure-status-epilepticus-triggered-by-valproate-in-a-child-with-doose-syndrome
#12
Alberto Grande-Martín, José Manuel Pardal-Fernández, María Carmen Carrascosa-Romero, Carlos De Cabo
Antiepileptic drugs may occasionally increase seizure frequency or eliciting de novo seizure occurrence; the underlying mechanism of these effects is not known. The potential adverse effects of valproic acid in myoclonic astatic epilepsy have been noted by experienced clinicians in various different regions of the world, but this important observation has not been sufficiently reported. We present the case of tonic status epilepticus in an 8-year-old boy with Doose syndrome related to valproic acid. Valproic acid, such as others antiepileptic drugs, is liable to produce paradoxical effects such as the atypical seizures we report...
June 2016: Neuropediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26933940/stiripentol-and-vigabatrin-current-roles-in-the-treatment-of-epilepsy
#13
Catherine Chiron
INTRODUCTION: Stiripentol and vigabatrin are the two anticonvulsant drugs currently approved in severe infantile-onset epilepsies, respectively Dravet syndrome and infantile spasms. AREAS COVERED: For both, the indication was discovered by chance thanks to an exploratory study. Both demonstrated indisputable efficacy through randomized-controlled trials. Stiripentol as adjunctive therapy to clobazam and valproate performed better than placebo, and vigabatrin as first-line monotherapy better than the reference steroid therapy in spasms due to tuberous sclerosis...
June 2016: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26782158/annual-research-review-the-role-of-the-environment-in-the-developmental-psychopathology-of-autism-spectrum-condition
#14
REVIEW
William Mandy, Meng-Chuan Lai
BACKGROUND: Although autism spectrum condition (ASC) is strongly genetic in origin, accumulating evidence points to the critical roles of various environmental influences on its emergence and subsequent developmental course. METHODS: A developmental psychopathology framework was used to synthesise literature on environmental factors associated with the onset and course of ASC (based on a systematic search of the literature using PubMed, PsychInfo and Google Scholar databases)...
March 2016: Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26622254/favorable-results-after-conservative-management-of-316-valproate-intoxicated-patients
#15
Shahin Shadnia, Hasan Amiri, Hossein Hassanian-Moghaddam, Mahdi Rezai, Zohreh Vasei, Nillofar Ghodrati, Nasim Zamani
BACKGROUND: Valproic acid (VPA) is an effective antiepileptic drug widely used worldwide. Despite several studies indicating the usefulness of intravenous L-carnitine in the treatment of VPA poisoning, this drug is not readily available in Iran. The aim of this study was to determine whether supportive care without antidote would result in acceptable outcomes in VPA poisoned patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In an observational, retrospective, single-center case series, all patients >12-year-old with VPA overdose who had referred to a tertiary center between 2009 and 2013 were consecutively enrolled...
July 2015: Journal of Research in Medical Sciences: the Official Journal of Isfahan University of Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26571806/-effects-of-histone-deacetylase-inhibitor-sodium-valproate-on-the-physical-and-behavioral-development-of-129sv-mice
#16
O V Burenkova, E A Aleksandrova, I Yu Zarayskaya
Sodium valproate is a widely used antiepileptic drug at high dosage levels, but it has been shown to produce a variety of toxic side-effects when used during perinatal period. These effects include increased risk of congenital anomalies and autism. For this reason, valproate is commonly employed in animal model of autism. Sodium valproate has multiple molecular targets including histone deacetylases. Therefore valproate can be utilized as a tool for the modulation of epigenetic modifications of the genome via inhibition of histone deacetylases...
April 2015: Patologicheskaia Fiziologiia i èksperimental'naia Terapiia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26543813/adverse-events-in-a-newborn-on-valproate-therapy-due-to-loss-of-function-mutations-in-cyp2c9
#17
Andrea Nagy, Tamás Bűdi, Manna Temesvári, Zsuzsa Szever, Pál Tamás Szabó, Katalin Monostory
An increased risk of valproate-induced toxicity has been reported in children, particularly in those younger than 2 years of age. Significant variations in valproate pharmacokinetics and shifts in the metabolic pathways towards CYP2C9-dependent metabolism seem to play some role in the age-related differences in the incidence of adverse events. We present the case of a premature patient with moderate hemorrhage in the subependymal region (grade II - intraventricular hemorrhage without ventricular dilatation), several myoclonic episodes in her right upper arm (series of jerks lasting milliseconds), and epileptiform abnormalities on the EEG (localized spike-and-wave in the left frontal region with preserved background activity who was treated with valproate...
2015: Epilepsy & Behavior Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26511920/psychomotor-seizure-screening-and-in-vitro-neuroprotection-assay-of-hydrazones-derived-from-2-acetyl-thiophene
#18
Bijo Mathew, Githa E Mathew, Jerad Suresh, Mohammed Jaseel, D Usman, P N Shiva Subramanyan, Kallivalappil F Safna, Jobin K Vilapurathu
BACKGROUND: Hydrazone core is a versatile structural linker for the development of various classes of antiepileptic agents. The aim of this study was to investigate the anticonvulsant activity of thiophene based hydrazones according to the antiepileptic drug development program protocol. METHODS: The maximal electroshock-induced seizure and 6 Hz "Psychomotor" seizure test models in mice were performed. Additionally, the active compounds in the screening test were subsequently subjected to the maximal electroshock-induced seizure test that allowed determination of their median effective doses and median toxic doses...
October 28, 2015: Central Nervous System Agents in Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26453408/long-term-effect-of-lithium-maintenance-therapy-on-estimated-glomerular-filtration-rate-in-patients-with-affective-disorders-a-population-based-cohort-study
#19
Stefan Clos, Petra Rauchhaus, Alison Severn, Lynda Cochrane, Peter T Donnan
BACKGROUND: For more than 40 years, the long-term effect of lithium maintenance therapy on renal function has been debated. We aimed to assess the effect of lithium maintenance therapy on estimated glomerular filtration rate (eFGR) in patients with affective disorders, and explore predictors for a decrease in eGFR. METHODS: This population-based cohort study included adult patients (18-65 years of age at baseline) in Tayside (Scotland, UK) who had recently started on lithium maintenance treatment between Jan 1, 2000, and Dec 31, 2011 (retrospectively assigned to the lithium group) or those with exposure to other first-line drugs used in the treatment of affective disorders (quetiapine, olanzapine, and semisodium valproate) during the same period (retrospectively assigned to the comparator group)...
December 2015: Lancet Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26361536/valproic-acid-induced-hyperammonemic-encephalopathy-as-a-cause-of-neurologic-deterioration-after-unruptured-aneurysm-surgery
#20
Sangkook Lee, Jinhwan Cheong, Choonghyun Kim, Jae Min Kim
Neurological deficits after brain surgery are not uncommon, and correct and prompt differential diagnosis is essential to initiate appropriate treatment. We describe a patient suffering from loss of consciousness due to hyperammonemia, following valproic acid treatment after surgery for an unruptured cerebral aneurysm. A 57-year-old female patient underwent successful aneurysmal neck clipping to correct an unruptured aneurysm. Her postoperative course was good, and she received anti-epileptic therapy (valproic acid) and a soft diet...
August 2015: Journal of Korean Neurosurgical Society
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