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Stephan Allgeier, Karsten Winter, Georg Bretthauer, Rudolf F Guthoff, Sabine Peschel, Klaus-Martin Reichert, Oliver Stachs, Bernd Köhler
: Purpose/Aim of the study: A recently proposed technique enables the generation of continuously increasing mosaic images of the corneal sub-basal nerve plexus (SNP) using in vivo corneal confocal microscopy (CCM). The aim of the present study was to investigate the progression of the corneal nerve fiber length (CNFL) measured in the growing mosaic images with regard to their increasing area. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Five large datasets from three healthy volunteers were examined using the proposed CCM technique...
October 21, 2016: Current Eye Research
Ulrich Keppler, Mohammed R Moussavian, Pascal Jeanmonod, Moritz J Strowitzki, Mathias Wagner, Claudia Scheuer, Michael D Menger, Maximilian von Heesen
BACKGROUND Ischemic type biliary lesions (ITBL) is a troublesome complication after liver transplantation. Little is known about its pathogenesis and there is particularly little data about morphological alterations. Prolonged warm and cold ischemia time and reduced hepatic arterial perfusion are risk factors leading to ITBL. There are only a few animal models described in literature. Therefore, we examined the effects of 3 h of hepatic artery ischemia-reperfusion (3 h I/R) and hepatic arterial ligation (HAL), both combined with ligation of the peribiliary plexus (PBP)...
October 21, 2016: Annals of Transplantation: Quarterly of the Polish Transplantation Society
Bernhard Reuss, Abdul R Asif, Abdullah Almamy, Christian Schwerk, Horst Schroten, Hiroshi Ishikawa, Charis Drummer, Rüdiger Behr
Prenatal maternal infections with Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG) correlate with an increased lifetime probability for the offspring to develop psychosis. We could previously demonstrate that in human choroid plexus papilloma cells, anti-NG antibodies (α-NG) bind to mitochondrial proteins HSP60 and ATPB, and interfere with cellular energy metabolism. To assess the in vivo relevance for this, especially during prenatal neural development, we investigated here interactions of NG-specific antisera (α-NG1, α-NG2) with brain, choroid plexus and other non-neural tissues in pre- and perinatal samples of the nonhuman primate (NHP) Callithrix jacchus (CJ), a NHP model for preclinical research...
October 17, 2016: Brain Research
Jayanth Sridhar, Abtin Shahlaee, Wen-Shi Shieh, Ehsan Rahimy
PURPOSE: To report a single case of paracentral acute middle maculopathy in association with retinal artery occlusion in the setting of ipsilateral facial cosmetic filler injection. METHODS: Case report. PATIENT: A 35-year-old woman presenting with sudden vision loss to finger count vision immediately after left nasal fat pad cosmetic filler injection. RESULTS: Dilated funduscopic examination revealed a swollen optic disc with multiple branch arterial occlusions with visible embolic material...
October 19, 2016: Retinal Cases & Brief Reports
S Zuarez-Easton, N Zafran, G Garmi, J Hasanein, S Edelstein, R Salim
OBJECTIVE: Obstetric brachial plexus palsy (OBPP) at birth, is a serious neurologic injury that may lead to a long lasting disability. We aimed to examine the occurrence and risk factors associated with disability lasting >1 year. STUDY DESIGN: A retrospective cohort study conducted between 1993 and 2012 included individuals with diagnosis of OBPP at birth. Affected individual's motor function was evaluated by a direct physical exam based on a muscle grading system of the limb, shoulder, elbow and hand...
October 20, 2016: Journal of Perinatology: Official Journal of the California Perinatal Association
Faramarz Mosaffa, Seyed Amir Mohajerani, Reza Aminnejad, Ali Solhpour, Shideh Dabir, Gholam Reza Mohseni
BACKGROUND: Preemptive analgesia is the blocking of pain perception afferent pathways before noxious painful stimuli. Clonidine is an alpha agonist drug that is partially selective for α-2 adrenoreceptors. Clonidine is used as anti-anxiety medication and an, analgesic, and it prolongs the duration of the block in the brachial plexus block. OBJECTIVES: To compare the effect of preemptive clonidine with midazolam on intraoperative sedation, duration of block, and postoperative pain scores...
June 2016: Anesthesiology and Pain Medicine
Claire Peghaire, Marie Lise Bats, Raj Sewduth, Sylvie Jeanningros, Beatrice Jaspard, Thierry Couffinhal, Cécile Duplàa, Pascale Dufourcq
OBJECTIVE: Vessel formation requires precise orchestration of a series of morphometric and molecular events controlled by a multitude of angiogenic factors and morphogens. Wnt/frizzled signaling is required for proper vascular formation. In this study, we investigated the role of the Fzd7 (frizzled-7) receptor in retinal vascular development and its relationship with the Wnt/β-catenin canonical pathway and Notch signaling. APPROACH AND RESULTS: Using transgenic mice, we demonstrated that Fzd7 is required for postnatal vascular formation...
October 6, 2016: Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology
Hideaki Kishimoto, Yoshitaka Matsuura, Katsuya Kawai, Shigehito Yamada, Shigehiko Suzuki
When the lesser palatine nerve (LPN) is supposed to be a branch of the trigeminal nerve and innervate sensation of the soft palate, whether the LPN contains motor fibers is unclear. In this study, we monitored the electromyogram of the levator veli palatini (LVP) muscle on stimulating the LPN during palatoplasty in 3 patients. The electromyogram of the muscles showed the myogenic potential induced by electrostimulation of the LPN. Taken together with the finding from our previous anatomical study that the motor fibers come from the facial nerve, this result supports the double innervation theory of the LVP, which posits that both the pharyngeal plexus and the facial nerve innervate it...
September 2016: Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery. Global Open
Chao Liang, Kaiyue Wang, Bin Xu, Zhi Yu
BACKGROUND: Electroacupuncture (EA) at acupoint ST 37 (Shangjuxu) has been used to alleviate gastrointestinal symptoms and improve gastrointestinal motility. However, the mechanisms by which EA affects the enteric nervous system (ENS) have scarcely been investigated. In this study, we investigated whether EA could improve ENS function. METHODS: A constipation model was established by gastric instillation of ice-cold saline daily for 14 days. The constipated mice were divided into two groups: the model group, which was not treated, and the EA group, which received EA at ST 37 at a frequency of 2-15 HZ and an amplitude of 1 mA for 15 min a day for 3 days...
October 18, 2016: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
Josef Donnerer, Ingrid Liebmann
Allyl isothiocyanate (AITC, mustard oil, 50-200 µmol/l), depending on specific dosages, inhibited the cholinergic twitch response in the longitudinal muscle-myenteric plexus (LMMP) strip of the guinea-pig ileum. AITC also induced short-lasting contractile responses, and decreases of the basal tone of the LMMP strip at low concentrations and increases at high concentrations. Hexamethonium, a blocker of nicotinic ganglionic transmission, was able to prevent the AITC-evoked inhibitory effect, an effect that was also observed with the opioid antagonist naloxone...
October 19, 2016: Pharmacology
Jennifer F Waljee
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 10, 2016: Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery
Chan Joo Lee, Yeongmin Woo, Byeong-Keuk Kim, Kyung Bong Yoon, Hae-Young Lee, Sungha Park
A 30-year-old woman was referred to our hospital due to high blood pressure, dizziness, headache and blurred vision. She had past history of preeclampsia and gestational hypertension 4 years ago but she had not taken antihypertensive medication in spite of remained hypertension after delivery. She was hospitalized for fever due to urinary tract infection and severe hypertension which was above 210/140 mmHg. Despite maximal medical treatment with telmisartan 80 mg, nifedipine 120 mg, carvedilol 50 mg, doxazocin 8 mg, chlorthalidone 50 mg, spironolactone 50 mg#2, isosorbide dinitrate 80 mg and intermittent intravenous administration of nicardipine and labetalol, her systolic blood pressure remained above 160 mmHg and repeatedly measured above 200 mmHg...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Alon Abraham, Aaron Izenberg, Dubravka Dodig, Vera Bril, Ari Breiner
INTRODUCTION: Neuralgic amyotrophy (NA) is characterized by acute or subacute onset of shoulder and arm pain, followed by muscle atrophy and weakness, and variable sensory abnormalities. Historically, the site of inflammation has been localized to the brachial plexus, although involvement of individual nerve branches has been well recognized. METHODS: We describe ultrasound (US) findings in 2 cases with clinical presentation suggestive for NA, involving individual peripheral nerves, correlating with clinical and electrophysiological findings...
June 13, 2016: Journal of Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Publication of the American Electroencephalographic Society
Aruna Nambirajan, Mehar C Sharma, Madhu Rajeshwari, Aanchal Kakkar, Vaishali Suri, Chitra Sarkar
Ependymomas are gliomas that recapitulate normal ependymal cells. The epithelial membrane antigen (EMA) shows "dot-like" and "ring-like" staining patterns, highlighting "microlumens" or intracytoplasmic rosettes, a pathognomonic ultrastructural feature. NHERF1/EBP50, an adaptor protein localized at the apical plasma membrane of human epithelia, has been found to localize to these microlumens. We aimed to analyze the staining patterns of EMA and EBP50 in ependymomas and other tumors, and thereby compare their diagnostic utility...
October 7, 2016: Applied Immunohistochemistry & Molecular Morphology: AIMM
Gabrielle G Tardieu, Christian Fisahn, Marios Loukas, Marc Moisi, Jens Chapman, Rod J Oskouian, R Shane Tubbs
The epidural space contains the internal vertebral venous plexus, adipose, and other connective tissues. In the anatomical literature, there are nonspecific descriptions of varying fibrous connective tissue bands in the epidural space, mainly mentioned in the lumbar region, that tether the dural sac to the posterior longitudinal ligament, the vertebral canal, and the ligamentum flavum. These ligaments have been termed as Hofmann's ligaments. This review expands on the anatomy and function of Hofmann's ligaments, increasing the awareness of their presence and serves as an impetus for further study of their histology, innervation, and function...
September 13, 2016: Curēus
Katsuhiro Mizutani, Takenori Akiyama, Masahiro Toda, Tokunori Kanazawa, Dai Kamamoto, Kazunari Yoshida
BACKGROUND: The endoscopic transclival approach is a method for reaching the anterior side of the brainstem. In making this approach, bleeding from the basilar plexus is often observed when cutting the dura overlying the clivus; controlling such bleeding is essential. CASE DESCRIPTION: We performed a transvenous embolization of the basilar plexus before making the transclival approach. After embolization, bleeding from the basilar plexus during the operation decreased considerably...
October 14, 2016: World Neurosurgery
Jesse J Jung, Michael H Chen, Caroline R Frambach, Soraya Rofagha, Scott S Lee
PURPOSE: To compare the spectral domain and swept source optical coherence tomography angiography findings in two cases of sickle cell maculopathy. METHODS: A 53-year-old man and a 24-year-old man both with sickle cell disease (hemoglobin SS) presented with no visual complaints; Humphrey visual field testing demonstrated asymptomatic paracentral scotomas that extended nasally in the involved eyes. Clinical examination and multimodal imaging including spectral domain and swept source optical coherence tomography, and spectral domain optical coherence tomography angiography and swept source optical coherence tomography angiography (Carl Zeiss Meditec Inc, Dublin, CA) were performed...
October 5, 2016: Retinal Cases & Brief Reports
Richard F Spaide, Mihoko Suzuki, Lawrence A Yannuzzi, Alexandre Matet, Francine Behar-Cohen
PURPOSE: To evaluate multimodal imaging including volume-rendered angiographic and structural optical coherence tomography of macular telangiectasia Type 2 (MacTel2) for right-angle vein complexes, macular cavitations, and signs of deeper retinal vascular invasion. METHODS: Retrospective review of imaging performed in a community-based retinal referral center. The eyes were scanned using optical coherence tomography using split-spectrum amplitude-decorrelation techniques to derive flow information...
September 30, 2016: Retina
Merritt D Kinon, Rani Nasser, Jonathan Nakhla, Rupen Desai, Jessica R Moreno, Reza Yassari, Carlos A Bagley
Pediatric emergency physicians must have a high clinical suspicion for atlantoaxial rotatory subluxation (AARS), particularly when a child presents with neck pain and an abnormal head posture without the ability to return to a neutral position. As shown in the neurosurgical literature, timely diagnosis and swift initiation of treatment have a greater chance of treatment success for the patient. However, timely treatment is complicated because torticollis can result from a variety of maladies, including: congenital abnormalities involving the C1-C2 joint or the surrounding supporting muscles and ligaments, central nervous system abnormalities, obstetric palsies from brachial plexus injuries, clavicle fractures, head and neck surgery, and infection...
October 2016: Pediatric Emergency Care
Alon Abraham, Aaron Izenberg, Dubravka Dodig, Vera Bril, Ari Breiner
PURPOSE: Neuralgic amyotrophy is characterized by acute or subacute onset of shoulder and arm pain, followed by muscle atrophy and weakness, and variable sensory abnormalities. Historically, the site of inflammation has been localized to the brachial plexus, although the involvement of individual nerve branches has been well recognized. METHODS: We describe ultrasound findings in two cases with a clinical presentation suggestive of neuralgic amyotrophy, involving individual peripheral nerves, correlating with clinical and electrophysiological findings...
October 2016: Journal of Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Publication of the American Electroencephalographic Society
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