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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637099/aggregation-and-phosphorylation-of-%C3%AE-synuclein-with-proteinase-k-resistance-in-focal-%C3%AE-synucleinopathy-predominantly-localized-to-the-cardiac-sympathetic-nervous-system
#1
Nei Fukasawa, Takahiro Fukuda, Masato Nagaoka, Tohru Harada, Hiroyuki Takahashi, Masahiro Ikegami
Aggregates of α-synuclein, a major component of Lewy bodies (LBs) and Lewy neurites (LNs), are distributed throughout the nervous system, including the central nervous system (CNS), sympathetic ganglia, enteric nervous system (ENS), cardiac and pelvic plexuses, submandibular gland, adrenal medulla and skin, in incidental Lewy body disease (ILBD), Parkinson's disease (PD), dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB), and pure autonomic failure (PAF) [1-3]. Here we report focal α-synucleinopathy predominantly localized to the cardiac sympathetic nervous system (SNS)...
June 21, 2017: Neuropathology and Applied Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637068/traumatic-suprascapular-nerve-injury-at-the-notch-a-reason-for-the-posterior-approach-in-brachial-plexus-reconstruction
#2
Marc A Seifman, Scott Ferris
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 21, 2017: Journal of Reconstructive Microsurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636961/myeloid-cells-in-the-central-nervous-system
#3
REVIEW
Jasmin Herz, Anthony J Filiano, Ashtyn Smith, Nir Yogev, Jonathan Kipnis
The central nervous system (CNS) and its meningeal coverings accommodate a diverse myeloid compartment that includes parenchymal microglia and perivascular macrophages, as well as choroid plexus and meningeal macrophages, dendritic cells, and granulocytes. These myeloid populations enjoy an intimate relationship with the CNS, where they play an essential role in both health and disease. Although the importance of these cells is clearly recognized, their exact function in the CNS continues to be explored. Here, we review the subsets of myeloid cells that inhabit the parenchyma, meninges, and choroid plexus and discuss their roles in CNS homeostasis...
June 20, 2017: Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636639/predictive-value-of-serum-transthyretin-for-outcome-in-acute-ischemic-stroke
#4
Wojciech Ambrosius, Slawomir Michalak, Radosław Kazmierski, Natalia Andrzejewska, Wojciech Kozubski
INTRODUCTION: The impact of choroid plexus with its blood-cerebrospinal fluid barrier in the ischemic stroke pathology is poorly explored. Transthyretin (TTR) is a protein synthesized in liver and just in choroid plexus. OBJECTIVES: The current study was designed to assess the prognostic value of serum TTR for functional outcome (at the time of hospital discharge) and long-term (one-year) overall mortality in ischemic stroke patients. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We conducted a prospective observational study...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634350/a-subset-of-cerebrovascular-pericytes-originates-from-mature-macrophages-in-the-very-early-phase-of-vascular-development-in-cns
#5
Seiji Yamamoto, Masashi Muramatsu, Erika Azuma, Masashi Ikutani, Yoshinori Nagai, Hiroshi Sagara, Bon-Nyeo Koo, Satomi Kita, Erin O'Donnell, Tsuyoshi Osawa, Hiroyuki Takahashi, Ken-Ichi Takano, Mitsuko Dohmoto, Michiya Sugimori, Isao Usui, Yasuhide Watanabe, Noboru Hatakeyama, Takahiro Iwamoto, Issei Komuro, Kiyoshi Takatsu, Kazuyuki Tobe, Shumpei Niida, Naoyuki Matsuda, Masabumi Shibuya, Masakiyo Sasahara
Pericytes are believed to originate from either mesenchymal or neural crest cells. It has recently been reported that pericytes play important roles in the central nervous system (CNS) by regulating blood-brain barrier homeostasis and blood flow at the capillary level. However, the origin of CNS microvascular pericytes and the mechanism of their recruitment remain unknown. Here, we show a new source of cerebrovascular pericytes during neurogenesis. In the CNS of embryonic day 10.5 mouse embryos, CD31(+)F4/80(+) hematopoietic lineage cells were observed in the avascular region around the dorsal midline of the developing midbrain...
June 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632939/acute-skin-trauma-induces-hyperemia-but-superficial-papillary-nutritive-perfusion-remains-unchanged
#6
Liv Kristin Sundheim, Ane Halse Sporastøyl, Torjus Wester, Göran Salerud, Knut Kvernebo
OBJECTIVES: Superficial skin papillary capillaries with blood supply from a superficial vascular plexus and regulated by local metabolic needs, supply oxygen and nutrient for epithelial cell proliferation. A deep vascular plexus regulated by autonomous nerves serves body thermoregulation. In healthy volunteers we assessed circulatory effects of a standardised skin trauma by computer assisted video m microscopy (CAVM), diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS), and laser Doppler perfusion measurements (LDPM) to assess the measuring depth of the three techniques and to describe the acute trauma effects on nutritive and thermoregulatory perfusion...
June 20, 2017: Microcirculation: the Official Journal of the Microcirculatory Society, Inc
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631870/thalamic-deep-brain-stimulation-for-neuropathic-pain-efficacy-at-three-years-follow-up
#7
Vasco Abreu, Rui Vaz, Virgínia Rebelo, Maria José Rosas, Clara Chamadoira, Martin J Gillies, Tipu Z Aziz, Erlick A C Pereira
OBJECT: Chronic neuropathic pain is estimated to affect 3-4.5% of the worldwide population, posing a serious burden to society. Deep Brain Stimulation (DBS) is already established for movement disorders and also used to treat some "off-label" conditions. However, DBS for the treatment of chronic, drug refractory, neuropathic pain, has shown variable outcomes with few studies performed in the last decade. Thus, this procedure has consensus approval in parts of Europe but not the USA. This study prospectively evaluated the efficacy at three years of DBS for neuropathic pain...
June 20, 2017: Neuromodulation: Journal of the International Neuromodulation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631180/microvascular-changes-after-vitrectomy-with-internal-limiting-membrane-peeling-an-optical-coherence-tomography-angiography-study
#8
Leonardo Mastropasqua, Enrico Borrelli, Paolo Carpineto, Lisa Toto, Luca Di Antonio, Peter A Mattei, Rodolfo Mastropasqua
PURPOSE: To evaluate superficial capillary plexus (SCP) changes occurring after internal limiting membrane (ILM) peeling for the treatment of idiopathic epiretinal membrane (ERM). METHODS: A total of 15 eyes of 15 patients affected by idiopathic ERM (eight males and seven females; mean age 59.8 ± 9.6 years) were enrolled in the study. Patients were treated with pars plana vitrectomy followed by ERM and ILM peeling. Subjects were evaluated at baseline and at the week-1 and month-1 follow-up visits...
June 19, 2017: International Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629251/neonatal-complications-amoung-596-infants-delivered-by-vacuum-extraction-in-relation-to-characteristics-of-the-extraction
#9
Cecilia Ekéus, Karin Wrangsell, Sandra Penttinen, Katarina Åberg
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association between complicated vacuum extraction deliveries and neonatal complications. METHODS: Observational study including data on the management of 596 consecutive VE-deliveries at 6 different birth clinics in Sweden in 2013. We used logistic regression to examine the association between a complicated VE and: extracranial bleeding, severe neonatal complication (intracranial hemorrhage and/or asphyxia/low Apgar score and/or convulsions, and/or encephalopathy) and brachial plexus injury...
June 19, 2017: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628846/substance-p-and-the-neurokinin-1-receptor-expression-in-dog-ileum-with-and-without-inflammation
#10
Giulia Polidoro, Fiorella Giancola, Federico Fracassi, Marco Pietra, Giuliano Bettini, Martina Asti, Roberto Chiocchetti
In the gastrointestinal tract, the tachykinin Substance P (SP) is involved in motility, fluid and electrolyte secretion, and blood flow and regulation of immunoinflammatory response. SP exerts its biological activity on target cells by interacting mainly with the neurokinin-1 receptor (NK1R). The present study aims to quantify the percentage of SP-immunoreactive (SP-IR) enteric neurons and the density of SP-IR nerve fibers in the ileum of control dogs (CTRL-dogs; n=7) vs dogs with spontaneous ileal inflammation (INF-dogs; n=8)...
June 12, 2017: Research in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628623/use-of-the-deka-arm-for-amputees-with-brachial-plexus-injury-a-case-series
#11
Linda Resnik, Christopher Fantini, Gail Latlief, Samuel Phillips, Nicole Sasson, Eve Sepulveda
OBJECTIVE: Patients with upper limb amputation and brachial plexus injuries have high rates of prosthesis rejection. Study purpose is to describe experiences of subjects with transhumeral amputation and brachial plexus injury, who were fit with, and trained to use, a DEKA Arm. METHODS: This was a mixed-methods study utilizing qualitative (e.g. interview, survey) and quantitative data (e.g. self-report and performance measures). Subject 1, a current prosthesis user, had a shoulder arthrodesis...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627963/the-natural-history-of-recovery-of-elbow-flexion-after-obstetric-brachial-plexus-injury-managed-without-nerve-repair
#12
T E J Hems, T Savaridas, D A Sherlock
In this study, we report the outcome for spontaneous recovery of elbow flexion in obstetric brachial plexus injury managed without nerve reconstruction. Excluding those with transient paralysis, our records revealed 152 children with obstetric brachial plexus injury born before our unit routinely offered brachial plexus reconstruction. Five had had nerve repairs. Of the remainder, only one patient had insufficient flexion to reach their mouth. Elbow flexion started to recover clinically at a mean age of 4 months for Narakas Group 1, 6 months for Group 2, 8 months for Group 3 and 12 months for Group 4...
June 1, 2017: Journal of Hand Surgery, European Volume
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626999/presence-of-time-dependent-diffusion-in-the-brachial-plexus
#13
Zaid B Mahbub, Andrew M Peters, Penny A Gowland
PURPOSE: This work describes the development of a method to measure the variation of apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) with diffusion time (Δ) in the brachial plexus, as a potential method of probing microstructure. METHODS: Diffusion-weighted MRI with body signal suppression was used to highlight the nerves from surrounding tissues, and sequence parameters were optimized for sensitivity to change with diffusion time. A porous media-restricted diffusion model based on the Latour-Mitra equation was fitted to the diffusion time-dependent ADC data from the brachial plexus nerves and cord...
June 19, 2017: Magnetic Resonance in Medicine: Official Journal of the Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625083/spinal-cord-ischemia-after-endoscopic-ultrasound-guided-celiac-plexus-neurolysis-case-report-and-review-of-the-literature
#14
Ibrahim Hakkı Köker, Ayşe Aralaşmak, Nurcan Ünver, Talip Asil, Hakan Şentürk
INTRODUCTION: Endosonography guided celiac plexus neurolysis is efficacious in the management of severe pain due to advanced pancreatic cancer. Although endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) guided celiac neurolysis (CN) is mostly a safer procedure than the percutaneous posterior approach, severe complications such as paraplegia have been reported. CASE REPORT: We describe a patient with advanced adenocarcinoma of the pancreas and severe pain who developed irreversible paraplegia after EUS guided CN...
June 18, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624567/results-of-operative-treatment-of-brachial-plexus-injury-resulting-from-shoulder-dislocation-a-study-with-a-long-term-follow-up
#15
Olga Gutkowska, Jacek Martynkiewicz, Sylwia Mizia, Michał Bąk, Jerzy Gosk
BACKGROUND: Injury to the infraclavicular brachial plexus is an uncommon but serious complication of shoulder dislocation. This work aims to determine the effectiveness of operative treatment in patients with this type of injury. METHODS: Thirty-three patients (26 males,7 females; mean age 45 years 3 months) treated operatively for brachial plexus injury resulting from shoulder dislocation between the years 2000-2013 were included in this retrospective case series...
June 14, 2017: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624495/comparison-of-ultrasound-and-electrostimulation-guided-nerve-blocks-of-brachial-plexus-in-dogs
#16
Minori Akasaka, Miki Shimizu
OBJECTIVE: To compare the effectiveness of ultrasound- and electrostimulation-guided nerve blocks of the brachial plexus and to determine whether ultrasound guidance is feasible in conscious dogs. STUDY DESIGN: Blinded, crossover, experimental study. ANIMALS: Six clinically healthy adult Beagle dogs. METHODS: The nerves of the brachial plexus of the right thoracic limb were blocked under ultrasound guidance (UNB) in conscious dogs and under electrostimulation guidance (ENB) in anesthetized dogs with bupivacaine (0...
January 11, 2017: Veterinary Anaesthesia and Analgesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624267/endoscopic-robot-assisted-c7-nerve-root-retrophalangeal-transfer-from-the-contralateral-healthy-side-a-cadaver-feasibility-study
#17
C Bijon, L Chih-Sheng, D Chevallier, N Tran, F Xavier, P Liverneaux
Controlateral C7 nerve root transfer in brachial plexus palsy requires a nerve graft and large incisions. This study investigated the feasibility of transferring the right C7 to the left C7 nerve root, without a graft, via a minimally invasive retropharyngeal approach. After installation of 6 trocars of 1cm diameter in the supraclavicular space, a Da Vinci SI(®) robot was placed. After locating the right brachial plexus, the C7 root was sectioned flush with the clavicle, transferred behind the pharynx and sutured to the left C7 root severed at the foramen level...
June 14, 2017: Annales de Chirurgie Plastique et Esthétique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623105/transfer-of-the-lateral-antebrachial-cutaneous-nerve-to-the-dorsal-branch-of-the-ulnar-nerve-without-nerve-graft-in-case-of-lower-brachial-plexus-injuries-anatomical-and-feasibility-study
#18
J Pauchot, U Assouline, S Valmary-Degano, B Constantinou, L Obert, D Lepage
In the context of lower (C8-T1) brachial plexus injury, transfer of the lateral antebrachial cutaneous nerve (LABCN) to the dorsal branch of the ulnar nerve (DBUN) with an interposed sural nerve graft has been proposed to restore sensitivity on the ulnar side of the hand. The purpose of this study was to assess the feasibility of performing this transfer directly - without interposition of a nerve graft - by intraneural dissection of the DBUN. An anatomical study was performed with 20 upper limbs from adult human cadavers...
June 13, 2017: Hand Surgery and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620719/large-coverage-mr-neurography-in-cidp-diagnostic-accuracy-and-electrophysiological-correlation
#19
Moritz Kronlage, Philipp Bäumer, Kalliopi Pitarokoili, Daniel Schwarz, Véronique Schwehr, Tim Godel, Sabine Heiland, Ralf Gold, Martin Bendszus, Min-Suk Yoon
The objective of this study was to evaluate large coverage magnetic resonance neurography (MRN) in chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP). In this prospective study, 18 patients with CIDP and 18 healthy controls were examined by a standardized MRN protocol at 3 T. Lumbosacral plexus was imaged by a T2-weighted 3D sequence and peripheral nerves of the upper and lower extremity by axial T2-weighted turbo spin-echo sequences. Lesions were characterized by nerve cross-sectional area (CSA) and T2-weighted signal (nT2)...
June 15, 2017: Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28619496/injury-to-the-lumbar-plexus-and-its-branches-following-lateral-fusion-procedures-a-cadaver-study
#20
Peter Grunert, Doniel Drazin, Joe Iwanaga, Cameron Schmidt, Fernando Alonso, Marc Moisi, Jens R Chapman, Rod J Oskouian, R Shane Tubbs
INTRODUCTION: Neurological deficits from lumbar plexus nerve injuries commonly occur in patients undergoing lateral approaches. However, it is not yet clear what types of injury occur, where anatomically they are located, or what mechanism causes them. We aimed, to study (a) the topographic anatomy of lumbar plexus nerves and their injuries in human cadavers after lateral transpsoas approaches to the lumbar spine, (b) the structural morphology of those injuries, (c) the topographic anatomy of the lumbar plexus throughout the mediolateral approach corridor...
June 12, 2017: World Neurosurgery
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