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Paolo Caravaggi, Giada Lullini, Lisa Berti, Sandro Giannini, Alberto Leardini
BACKGROUND: Flexible flatfoot (FFF) is a common alteration of the foot diagnosed in the pediatric population causing pain and decreased quality of life. Surgical treatment via arthroereisis of the subtalar joint can be recommended when non-invasive options do not result in sufficient pain relief. While clinical outcome of subtalar joint arthroereisis is generally positive, no functional evaluation has thus far been reported following surgery. RESEARCH QUESTION: The aim of this study was to assess the effects of two arthroereisis implants for the correction of bilateral FFF on foot and lower limb biomechanics during gait...
June 11, 2018: Gait & Posture
Elizabeth A King, Philippe Favre, Amin Eldemerdash, Jeffrey E Bischoff, Mark Palmer, Jeffrey N Lawton
PURPOSE: Wear of polyethylene bearings represents a limiting factor in the long-term success of total elbow prostheses. Bearing stress is 1 factor contributing to accelerated wear. Physiological loading of total elbow prostheses and implant design influence upon bearing stresses have not been well described. This study evaluates bearing stresses in 3 commercially available implant designs under loads associated with daily living. METHODS: Motion tracking from a healthy volunteer helped establish a musculoskeletal model to simulate flexor and extensor muscle activation at 0°, 45°, and 90° of shoulder abduction with a 2...
June 13, 2018: Journal of Hand Surgery
Do Kyung Kim, Geon Park, Kamarulzaman Bin Haji M S Kadir, Liang-Tseng Kuo, Won Hah Park
Comparing to primary surgery, revision ACL reconstruction is more technically demanding and has a higher failure rate. Theoretically, rehabilitation can improve knee function after ACL reconstruction surgery. This study aimed to compare knee stability, strength, and function between primary and revision ACL reconstructed knees. 40 primary and 40 revision ACL reconstruction surgeries were included between April 2013 and May 2016. Patients with revision surgery had a higher anteroposterior translation comparing those with primary reconstruction (median laxity, 2...
June 15, 2018: Scientific Reports
Ragab K Elnaggar, Mohammed F Elbanna
BACKGROUND: Combination of medical and physical therapy protocols are increasingly recommended for cerebral palsied children. However, the clinicians frequently choose between independent or integrated treatment delivery based on little empirical evidence. AIM: To analyze the independent versus the integrated effects of Reciprocal Electrical Stimulation (RES) and Botulinum Toxin-A (BoNT-A) in terms of dynamic limits of postural stability and ankle kinematics in spastic diplegia...
June 14, 2018: European Journal of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine
Horea Gozar, Zoltan Derzsi, Alexandru Chira, Örs Nagy, Theodora Benedek
RATIONALE: In clubfoot deformity, planning of corrective treatment requires a complex understanding of the foot anatomy, as well as of the geometry and distribution of altered mechanical forces acting at the level of the deformed foot. At the same time, treatment success depends largely on the selection of the most appropriate shape and angles of the customized orthesis developed for foot correction. Therefore, a complex assessment of the intensity and distribution of the mechanical forces at this site is mandatory prior to initiation of any corrective therapy...
June 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
Neil C Chambers, Tyler W Herod, Samuel P Veres
Previous research has shown that both the mechanics and elongation mechanisms of tendon and ligament vary with strain rate during tensile loading. In this study we sought to determine if the ultrastructural damage created during tendon rupture also varies with strain rate. A bovine forelimb model was used, allowing two anatomically proximate but physiologically distinct tendons to be studies: the positional common digital extensor tendon, and the energy storing superficial digital flexor tendon. Samples from the two tendon types were ruptured at rates of either 1%/s or 10%/s...
June 14, 2018: Journal of Orthopaedic Research: Official Publication of the Orthopaedic Research Society
Musa Demirkapi, Mustafa Turgut Yildizgören, Hayal Güler, Ayşe Dicle Turhanoğlu
Objectives: This study aims to evaluate muscle performance by using isokinetic dynamometer before and at third month of anti-tumor necrosis factor-alpha treatment in ankylosing spondylitis patients. Patients and methods: Thirty ankylosing spondylitis patients (23 males, 7 females; mean age 39.3±8.6 years; range 18 to 45 years) starting on anti- tumor necrosis factor-alpha treatment and 30 healthy controls (23 males, 7 females; mean age 39.1±8.8 years; range 18 to 48 years) with similar age, body mass index, and sex were enrolled...
December 2017: Archives of Rheumatology
Kazuki Fujita, Hiroichi Miaki, Hideaki Hori, Yasutaka Kobayashi, Takao Nakagawa
BACKGROUND: Administration of botulinum neurotoxin A (BoNT-A) to the ankle plantar flexors in patients with hemiplegia reduces the strength of knee extension, which may decrease their walking ability. Studies have reported improvements in walking ability with physical therapy following BoNT-A administration. However, no previous studies have evaluated from an exercise physiology perspective the efficacy of physical therapy after BoNT-A administration for adult patients with hemiplegia...
June 11, 2018: European Journal of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine
Justin L Hodgins, David P Trofa, Steve Donohue, Mark Littlefield, Michael Schuk, Christopher S Ahmad
BACKGROUND: Despite evidence highlighting the importance of the forearm flexor muscles of elite baseball players, no studies have reported on the epidemiology of flexor strains and their associated outcomes. PURPOSE: To examine the incidence, associated injuries, and outcomes associated with forearm flexor injuries among major and minor league baseball players. STUDY DESIGN: Cohort study; Level of evidence, 3. METHODS: Injury data attributed to forearm flexor injuries among Major League Baseball (MLB) and minor league teams between 2010 and 2014 were obtained from the professional baseball Health and Injury Tracking System...
June 1, 2018: American Journal of Sports Medicine
Jacob R Sorensen, Jordan D Fuqua, Michael R Deyhle, Jacob Parmley, Caitlin Skousen, Chad Hancock, Allen C Parcell, Robert D Hyldahl
BACKGROUND: Recent studies have highlighted the JAK/STAT signaling pathway in the regulation of muscle satellite cell behavior. Herein we report preclinical studies designed to characterize the effects of a novel JAK/STAT inhibitor on plantar flexor skeletal muscle function, morphology, and satellite cell content. METHODS: The compound, SGI-1252, was administered orally (400mg/kg) in a 10% dextrose solution to wild type mice (n = 6) 3 times per week for 8 weeks...
2018: PloS One
Mustafa Mohamed Osman Elhadi, Christina Zong-Hao Ma, Wing Kai Lam, Winson Chiu-Chun Lee
BACKGROUND: Long-distance walking is a convenient way for prompting physical activity of elderly people. However, walking ability declines with aging. RESEARCH QUESTION: This study assessed if silicone insoles with heel lifts (named here the prescribed insoles) could facilitate long-distance walking of older adults. METHODS: Fifteen adults aged over 65, who did not have obvious lower-limb problems, walked on a treadmill for totally 60 min in two separate walking sessions: 1) with the prescribed insoles, and 2) with original insoles of the standardized shoes...
June 4, 2018: Gait & Posture
Anne A G Aune, Chris Bishop, Anthony N Turner, Kostas Papadopoulos, Sarah Budd, Mark Richardson, Sean J Maloney
Foam rolling and eccentric exercise interventions have been demonstrated to improve range of motion (ROM). However, these two modalities have not been directly compared. Twenty-three academy soccer players (age: 18 ± 1; height: 1.74 ± 0.08 m; body mass: 69.3 ± 7.5 kg) were randomly allocated to either a foam rolling (FR) or eccentric exercise intervention designed to improve dorsiflexion ROM. Participants performed the intervention daily for a duration of four weeks. Measurements of dorsiflexion ROM, isometric plantar flexion torque and drop jump reactive strength index were taken at baseline (pre-intervention) and at three subsequent time-points (30-min post, 24-hours post and 4-weeks post)...
June 12, 2018: Journal of Sports Sciences
Wade J Chalker, Anthony J Shield, David A Opar, Evelyne N Rathbone, Justin W L Keogh
Background: Hamstring strain injuries (HSI) are one of the most prevalent and serious injuries affecting athletes, particularly those in team ball sports or track and field. Recent evidence demonstrates that eccentric knee flexor weakness and between limb asymmetries are possible risk factors for HSIs. While eccentric hamstring resistance training, e.g. the Nordic hamstring exercise (NHE) significantly increases eccentric hamstring strength and reduces HSI risk, little research has examined whether between limb asymmetries can be reduced with training...
2018: PeerJ
Yuki Sato, Toshihiro Kawase, Kouji Takano, Charles Spence, Kenji Kansaku
Understanding how we consciously experience our bodies is a fundamental issue in cognitive neuroscience. Two fundamental components of this are the sense of body ownership (the experience of the body as one's own) and the sense of agency (the feeling of control over one's bodily actions). These constructs have been used to investigate the incorporation of prostheses. To date, however, no evidence has been provided showing whether representations of ownership and agency in amputees are altered when operating a robotic prosthesis...
May 2018: Royal Society Open Science
Derek T Bernstein, Jamie J Alexander, Nancy J Petersen, Bradley S Lambert, Philip C Noble, David T Netscher
PURPOSE: To evaluate the impact of suture caliber and looped configurations on the integrity of 4-strand modified Kessler zone II flexor tendon repairs during progressive cyclic loading. METHODS: Seventy-two flexor digitorum profundus tendons from 18 fresh human cadaver hands were divided into 4 repair groups. Thirty-six matched tendons underwent repair using either a 4-0 looped or 4-0 single-stranded suture, and an additional 36 tendons underwent 3-0 looped or 3-0 single-stranded repairs...
June 8, 2018: Journal of Hand Surgery
Choon Chiet Hong, Wei Ting Lee, Diarmuid Paul Murphy, Ken Jin Tan
The present cadaveric study was designed to measure the flexor hallucis longus (FHL) tendon length and obtain anatomic data regarding the graft-to-tunnel length ratio in an interference screw fixation model for the FHL short-harvest single-incision technique to the calcaneus. Ten fresh-frozen paired cadaveric specimens were used for the FHL short-harvest technique. The length of the osseous tunnel in the calcaneus was measured. At harvesting of the FHL tendon, the length of the tendon that traverses the osseous tunnel was measured with the ankle in neutral and maximal plantarflexion from the tip of the osseous tunnel to the transected end of the tendon within the bone tunnel...
June 8, 2018: Journal of Foot and Ankle Surgery: Official Publication of the American College of Foot and Ankle Surgeons
Jana Kemnitz, Wolfgang Wirth, Felix Eckstein, Adam G Culvenor
OBJECTIVE: To determine whether loss in thigh muscle strength in women concurrent with knee osteoarthritis progression is associated with reductions of muscle anatomical cross-sectional area (ACSA) or specific-strength (i.e., isometric force÷ACSA), and to explore relationships with local adiposity. DESIGN: Female participants from the Osteoarthritis Initiative with Kellgren-Lawrence grade ≤3, thigh isometric strength measurements, and thigh magnetic resonance images at year-two (Y2) and year-four (Y4) (n=739, age 62±9 years; BMI 28...
June 8, 2018: Osteoarthritis and Cartilage
Charles H Adler, M'hamed Temkit, Debra Crews, Troy McDaniel, Jennifer Tucker, Joseph G Hentz, Christian Marquardt, Dale Abraham, John N Caviness
PURPOSE: To determine whether quantitative methods could separate golfers with a possible dystonic cause of the "yips" from those that appear to be non-dystonic. METHODS: 27 golfers completed 10 two-handed and 10 right hand only putts. Surface EMG assessed forearm muscle co-contraction and motion detectors monitored wrist and putter movements. Based on videotape review, golfers were grouped into those with yips of dystonic etiology, those with the yips non-dystonic, and those with no yips...
June 8, 2018: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
Kyung-Sun Lee, Myung-Chul Jung
INTRODUCTION: The objective of this study was to measure the effect of hand postures and object properties to nine forearm muscle activities and contribution using surface electromyography (sEMG). METHODS: Ten male university students participated in the experiment. The objects used were cylindrical and rectangular, with sizes and weights of 2, 4, 6, and 8 cm and 400, 800, 1400, and 1800 g. The experimenter told the participant to pick up the object using a particular hand posture, lift the object to approximately shoulder height, and maintain this posture for 3 s...
June 11, 2018: International Journal of Occupational Safety and Ergonomics: JOSE
Jen Rowson, Alaster Yoxall, Victor Gonzalez
The aim of this study was to characterize the muscle activation patterns which underlie the performance of two commonly used grasping patterns and compare the characteristics of such patterns during dexterity tests and activities of daily living. EMG of flexor digitorum and extensor digitorum were monitored from 6 healthy participants as they performed three tasks related to activities of daily living (picking up a coin, drinking from a cup, feeding with a spoon) and three dexterity tests (Variable Dexterity Test-Precision, Variable Dexterity Test-Cylinder, Purdue Pegboard Test)...
2018: Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology
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