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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718820/a-transcriptomic-survey-of-ion-channel-based-conotoxins-in-the-chinese-tubular-cone-snail-conus-betulinus
#1
Yu Huang, Chao Peng, Yunhai Yi, Bingmiao Gao, Qiong Shi
Conotoxins in the venom of cone snails (Conus spp.) are a mixture of active peptides that work as blockers, agonists, antagonists, or inactivators of various ion channels. Recently we reported a high-throughput method to identify 215 conotoxin transcripts from the Chinese tubular cone snail, C. betulinus. Here, based on the previous datasets of four transcriptomes from three venom ducts and one venom bulb, we explored ion channel-based conotoxins and predicted their related ion channel receptors. Homologous analysis was also performed for the most abundant ion channel protein, voltage-gated potassium (Kv; with Kv1...
July 18, 2017: Marine Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712915/comparative-analyses-and-implications-for-antivenom-serotherapy-of-four-moroccan-scorpion-buthus-occitanus-venoms-subspecies-tunetanus-paris-malhommei-and-mardochei
#2
Bruna Luiza Emerich, Maria Elena De Lima, Marie-France Martin-Eauclaire, Pierre E Bougis
Temporary passive immunity such as serotherapy against venoms requires the full knowledge of all venom's components. Here, four venoms from Moroccan common yellow scorpions belonging to Buthus occitanus, subspecies tunetanus, paris, malhommei, and mardochei, all collected in four different restricted areas, were analysed in deep. They were fractionated by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) and their molecular masse profile determined by off-line MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry. Characterisation of their main components was achieved by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) using specific antisera against the major lethal scorpion toxins identified so far, i...
July 13, 2017: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711685/misunderstandings-and-controversies-about-the-insulin-secreting-properties-of-antidiabetic-sulfonylureas
#3
REVIEW
Jean-Claude Henquin
After 60 years of use in the treatment of type 2 diabetes, hypoglycemic sulfonylureas remain a recommended option in current therapeutic charts. Their binding to sulfonylurea receptor-1, the regulatory subunit of ATP-sensitive potassium channels in the plasma membrane of pancreatic β-cells, leads to closure of the channels, membrane depolarization and influx of Ca(2+) through voltage-gated calcium channels. The resulting increase in cytosolic Ca(2+) triggers exocytosis of insulin granules. Sulfonylureas and glucose thus produce the same triggering signal but, unlike sulfonylureas, glucose does so via acceleration of β-cell metabolism...
July 12, 2017: Biochimie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711494/development-of-membrane-ion-channels-during-neural-differentiation-from-human-embryonic-stem-cells
#4
Sara Mirsadeghi, Ebrahim Shahbazi, Katayoun Hemmesi, Shiva Nemati, Hossein Baharvand, Javad Mirnajafi-Zadeh, Sahar Kiani
OBJECTIVE: For human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) to differentiate into neurons, enormous changes has to occur leading to trigger action potential and neurotransmitter release. We attempt to determine the changes in expression of voltage gated channels (VGCs) and their electrophysiological properties during neural differentiation. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The relative expressions of α-subunit of voltage gated potassium, sodium and calcium channels were characterized by qRT-PCR technique...
July 12, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710456/genomic-insights-into-the-virulence-and-salt-tolerance-of-staphylococcus-equorum
#5
Do-Won Jeong, Sojeong Heo, Sangryeol Ryu, Jochen Blom, Jong-Hoon Lee
To shed light on the genetic background behind the virulence and salt tolerance of Staphylococcus equorum, we performed comparative genome analysis of six S. equorum strains. Data on four previously published genome sequences were obtained from the NCBI database, while those on strain KM1031 displaying resistance to multiple antibiotics and strain C2014 causing haemolysis were determined in this study. Examination of the pan-genome of five of the six S. equorum strains showed that the conserved core genome retained the genes for general physiological processes and survival of the species...
July 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710444/ergodicity-breaking-on-the-neuronal-surface-emerges-from-random-switching-between-diffusive-states
#6
Aleksander Weron, Krzysztof Burnecki, Elizabeth J Akin, Laura Solé, Michał Balcerek, Michael M Tamkun, Diego Krapf
Stochastic motion on the surface of living cells is critical to promote molecular encounters that are necessary for multiple cellular processes. Often the complexity of the cell membranes leads to anomalous diffusion, which under certain conditions it is accompanied by non-ergodic dynamics. Here, we unravel two manifestations of ergodicity breaking in the dynamics of membrane proteins in the somatic surface of hippocampal neurons. Three different tagged molecules are studied on the surface of the soma: the voltage-gated potassium and sodium channels Kv1...
July 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28708947/kv10-1-potassium-channel-from-the-brain-to-the-tumors
#7
Verna Cázares-Ordoñez, Luis A Pardo
<i>KCNH1</i> gene encodes the Kv10.1 (Eag1) ion channel, a member of the EAG (ether-à-go-go) family of voltage-gated potassium channels. Recent studies have demonstrated that <i>KCHN1</i> mutations are implicated in Temple-Baraitser and Zimmermann-Laband syndromes and other forms of developmental deficits that all present with mental retardation and epilepsy, suggesting that Kv10.1 might be important for cognitive development in human. Although Kv10.1 channel is mainly expressed in the mammalian brain, its ectopic expression occurs in 70% of human cancers...
July 14, 2017: Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Biochimie et Biologie Cellulaire
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28702049/endurance-exercise-ability-in-the-horse-a-trait-with-complex-polygenic-determinism
#8
Anne Ricard, Céline Robert, Christine Blouin, Fanny Baste, Gwendoline Torquet, Caroline Morgenthaler, Julie Rivière, Nuria Mach, Xavier Mata, Laurent Schibler, Eric Barrey
Endurance horses are able to run at more than 20 km/h for 160 km (in bouts of 30-40 km). This level of performance is based on intense aerobic metabolism, effective body heat dissipation and the ability to endure painful exercise. The known heritabilities of endurance performance and exercise-related physiological traits in Arabian horses suggest that adaptation to extreme endurance exercise is influenced by genetic factors. The objective of the present genome-wide association study (GWAS) was to identify single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) related to endurance racing performance in 597 Arabian horses...
2017: Frontiers in Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701749/calcium-activated-sk-channels-control-firing-regularity-by-modulating-sodium-channel-availability-in-midbrain-dopamine-neurons
#9
Rajeshwari Iyer, Mark A Ungless, Aldo A Faisal
Dopamine neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta and ventral tegmental area regulate behaviours such as reward-related learning, and motor control. Dysfunction of these neurons is implicated in Schizophrenia, addiction to drugs, and Parkinson's disease. While some dopamine neurons fire single spikes at regular intervals, others fire irregular single spikes interspersed with bursts. Pharmacological inhibition of calcium-activated potassium (SK) channels increases the variability in their firing pattern, sometimes also increasing the number of spikes fired in bursts, indicating that SK channels play an important role in maintaining dopamine neuron firing regularity and burst firing...
July 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28698219/the-transcription-factor-c-ebp%C3%AE-in-the-dorsal-root-ganglion-contributes-to-peripheral-nerve-trauma-induced-nociceptive-hypersensitivity
#10
Zhisong Li, Yuanyuan Mao, Lingli Liang, Shaogen Wu, Jingjing Yuan, Kai Mo, Weihua Cai, Qingxiang Mao, Jing Cao, Alex Bekker, Wei Zhang, Yuan-Xiang Tao
Changes in gene transcription in the dorsal root ganglion (DRG) after nerve trauma contribute to the genesis of neuropathic pain. We report that peripheral nerve trauma caused by chronic constriction injury (CCI) increased the abundance of the transcription factor C/EBPβ (CCAAT/enhancer binding protein β) in the DRG. Blocking this increase mitigated the development and maintenance of CCI-induced mechanical, thermal, and cold pain hypersensitivities without affecting basal responses to acute pain and locomotor activity...
July 11, 2017: Science Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28695745/treating-autoimmune-disorders-with-venom-derived-peptides
#11
Bingzheng Shen, Zhijian Cao, Wenxin Li, Jean-Marc Sabatier, Yingliang Wu
The effective treatment of autoimmune diseases remains a challenge. Voltage-gated potassium Kv1.3 channels, which are expressed in lymphocytes, are a new therapeutic target for treating autoimmune disease. Consequently, Kv1.3 channel-inhibiting venom-derived peptides are a prospective resource for new drug discovery and clinical application. Area covered: Preclinical and clinical studies have produced a wealth of information on Kv1.3 channel-inhibiting venom-derived peptides, especially from venomous scorpions and sea anemones...
July 11, 2017: Expert Opinion on Biological Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28693898/nanosecond-pulsed-electric-fields-depolarize-transmembrane-potential-via-voltage-gated-k-ca-2-and-trpm8-channels-in-u87-glioblastoma-cells
#12
Ryan C Burke, Sylvia M Bardet, Lynn Carr, Sergii Romanenko, Delia Arnaud-Cormos, Philippe Leveque, Rodney P O'Connor
Nanosecond pulsed electric fields (nsPEFs) have a variety of applications in the biomedical and biotechnology industries. Cancer treatment has been at the forefront of investigations thus far as nsPEFs permeabilize cellular and intracellular membranes leading to apoptosis and necrosis. nsPEFs may also influence ion channel gating and have the potential to modulate cell physiology without poration of the membrane. This phenomenon was explored using live cell imaging and a sensitive fluorescent probe of transmembrane voltage in the human glioblastoma cell line, U87 MG, known to express a number of voltage-gated ion channels...
July 7, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28693282/identification-of-hub-genes-and-pathways-associated-with-bladder-cancer-based-on-co-expression-network-analysis
#13
Dong-Qing Zhang, Chang-Kuo Zhou, Shou-Zhen Chen, Yue Yang, Ben-Kang Shi
The aim of the present study was to identify hub genes and signaling pathways associated with bladder cancer (BC) utilizing centrality analysis and pathway enrichment analysis. The differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were screened from the ArrayExpress database between normal subjects and BC patients. Co-expression networks of BC were constructed using differentially co-expressed genes and links, and hub genes were investigated by degree centrality analysis of co-expression networks in BC. The enriched signaling pathways were investigated by Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes database analysis based on the DEGs...
July 2017: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28693035/k2p2-1-trek-1-activator-complexes-reveal-a-cryptic-selectivity-filter-binding-site
#14
Marco Lolicato, Cristina Arrigoni, Takahiro Mori, Yoko Sekioka, Clifford Bryant, Kimberly A Clark, Daniel L Minor
Polymodal thermo- and mechanosensitive two-pore domain potassium (K2P) channels of the TREK subfamily generate 'leak' currents that regulate neuronal excitability, respond to lipids, temperature and mechanical stretch, and influence pain, temperature perception and anaesthetic responses. These dimeric voltage-gated ion channel (VGIC) superfamily members have a unique topology comprising two pore-forming regions per subunit. In contrast to other potassium channels, K2P channels use a selectivity filter 'C-type' gate as the principal gating site...
July 10, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28689025/venom-derived-peptide-inhibitors-of-voltage-gated-potassium-channels
#15
REVIEW
Raymond S Norton, K George Chandy
Voltage-gated potassium channels play a key role in human physiology and pathology. Reflecting their importance, numerous channelopathies have been characterised that arise from mutations in these channels or from autoimmune attack on the channels. Voltage-gated potassium channels are also the target of a broad range of peptide toxins from venomous organisms, including sea anemones, scorpions, spiders, snakes and cone snails; many of these peptides bind to the channels with high potency and selectivity. In this review we describe the various classes of peptide toxins that block these channels and illustrate the broad range of three-dimensional structures that support channel blockade...
July 5, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28687180/a-patient-with-early-myoclonic-encephalopathy-eme-with-a-de-novo-kcnq2-mutation
#16
Karin Kojima, Kentaro Shirai, Mizuki Kobayashi, Akihiko Miyauchi, Hirotomo Saitsu, Naomichi Matsumoto, Hitoshi Osaka, Takanori Yamagata
BACKGROUND: The potassium voltage-gated channel subfamily Q member 2 (KCNQ2) gene has been reported to be associated with various types of epilepsy, including benign familial neonatal seizure (BFNS), early infantile epileptic encephalopathy (EIEE), and unclassified early onset encephalopathies. We herein report a patient with early myoclonic encephalopathy (EME) caused by a KCNQ2 mutation. CASE REPORT: A male infant started to exhibit erratic myoclonus several days after birth and apnea attacks lasting for seconds with desaturation...
July 4, 2017: Brain & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28685055/identification-of-genetic-variants-in-pharmacogenetic-genes-associated-with-type-2-diabetes-in-a-mexican-mestizo-population
#17
Nidia Samara Rodríguez-Rivera, Patricia Cuautle-Rodríguez, Fernando Castillo-Nájera, Juan Arcadio Molina-Guarneros
Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is one of the most prevalent chronic pathologies in the world. In developing countries, such as Mexico, its prevalence represents an important public health and research issue. Determining factors triggering T2DM are environmental and genetic. While diet, exercise and proper weight control are the first measures recommended to improve the quality of life and life expectancy of patients, pharmacological treatment is usually the next step. Within every population there are variations in interindividual drug response, which may be due to genetic background...
July 2017: Biomedical Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28683073/high-throughput-electrophysiological-assays-for-voltage-gated-ion-channels-using-syncropatch-768pe
#18
Tianbo Li, Gang Lu, Eugene Y Chiang, Tania Chernov-Rogan, Jane L Grogan, Jun Chen
Ion channels regulate a variety of physiological processes and represent an important class of drug target. Among the many methods of studying ion channel function, patch clamp electrophysiology is considered the gold standard by providing the ultimate precision and flexibility. However, its utility in ion channel drug discovery is impeded by low throughput. Additionally, characterization of endogenous ion channels in primary cells remains technical challenging. In recent years, many automated patch clamp (APC) platforms have been developed to overcome these challenges, albeit with varying throughput, data quality and success rate...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28680914/antiepileptic-drug-therapy-in-patients-with-autoimmune-epilepsy
#19
Anteneh M Feyissa, A Sebastian López Chiriboga, Jeffrey W Britton
OBJECTIVE: We aimed to report the pattern of usage and efficacy of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) in patients with autoimmune epilepsy (AE). METHODS: We retrospectively studied the Mayo Clinic's electronic medical record of patients with AE in which seizures were the main presenting feature. Clinical data, including demographics, seizure characteristics, type of AED and immunotherapy used, presence of neural antibody, and treatment outcomes, were reviewed. RESULTS: The medical records of 252 adult patients diagnosed with autoimmune encephalitis and paraneoplastic disorders were reviewed...
July 2017: Neurology® Neuroimmunology & Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28680318/clinical-electrophysiological-and-serological-evaluation-of-patients-with-cramp-fasciculation-syndrome
#20
Mürüvvet Poyraz, Zeliha Matur, Fikret Aysal, Erdem Tüzün, Lütfü Hanoğlu, A Emre Öge
INTRODUCTION: Cramp-fasciculation syndrome (CFS) is a rare peripheral nerve hyperexcitability syndrome. There are only a few reports on clinical and serological profile of a CFS cohort that was followed up by a single outpatient clinic. METHODS: Clinical, electrophysiological, and serological features of 6 CFS patients (5 men, 1 woman; 27-65 years old) were investigated. RESULTS: All patients presented with cramps, fasciculations, muscle pain, and autonomic symptoms, and 2 also reported numbness and burning sensation in limbs, suggestive of neuropathic pain...
June 2017: Noro Psikiyatri Arsivi
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