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Calcification AND K2

Linda E T Vissers, Geertje W Dalmeijer, Jolanda M A Boer, W M Monique Verschuren, Yvonne T van der Schouw, Joline W J Beulens
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: A high dietary intake of vitamin K1 (phylloquinone) and vitamin K2 (menaquinones) is thought to decrease cardiovascular disease risk by reducing vascular calcification. The objective of this study is to explore if there is a relationship between phylloquinone and menaquinones intake and risk of PAD. METHODS: We investigated the association between intake of phylloquinone and menaquinones with PAD in a prospective cohort with 36,629 participants...
September 2016: Atherosclerosis
Julia Khéde Dourado Villa, Marisa Alves Nogueira Diaz, Virgínia Ramos Pizziolo, Hércia Stampini Duarte Martino
Osteoporosis is a public health concern associated with an increased risk of bone fractures and vascular calcification. Vitamin K presents unique benefits on these issues, although understudied. The two main forms of vitamin K are phylloquinone (vitamin K1) and menaquinone (vitamin K2). In this study, it was especially investigated the action of vitamin K2 in bones and vessels. Vitamin K2 has shown to stimulate bone formation by promoting osteoblast differentiation and carboxylation of osteocalcin, and increasing alkaline phosphatase, insulin-like growth factor-1, growth differentiation factor-15, and stanniocalcin 2 levels...
July 20, 2016: Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition
Xiaoyu Jiang, Huiren Tao, Cuiting Qiu, Xiaolei Ma, Shan Li, Xian Guo, Anlin Lv, Huan Li
The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of vitamin K2 on aortic calcification induced by warfarin via Gas6/Axl survival pathway in rats. A calcification model was established by administering 3mg/g warfarin to rats. Rats were divided into 9 groups: control group (0W, 4W, 6W and 12W groups), 4W calcification group, 6W calcification group, 12W calcification group, 6W calcification+6W normal group and 6W calcification+6W vitamin K2 group. Alizarin red S staining measured aortic calcium depositions; alkaline phosphatase activity in serum was measured by a kit; apoptosis was evaluated by TUNEL assay; protein expression levels of Gas6, Axl, phosphorylated Akt (p-Akt), and Bcl-2 were determined by western blotting...
September 5, 2016: European Journal of Pharmacology
Katarzyna Wyskida, Agnieszka Żak-Gołąb, Jarosław Wajda, Dariusz Klein, Joanna Witkowicz, Rafał Ficek, Sylwia Rotkegel, Urszula Spiechowicz, Joanna Kocemba Dyczek, Jarosław Ciepał, Magdalena Olszanecka-Glinianowicz, Andrzej Więcek, Jerzy Chudek
PURPOSE: Functional vitamin K deficiency (both K1 and K2) is postulated to be one of the most relevant links between chronic kidney disease and vascular calcification in hemodialysis (HD) patients. Recommended dietary restrictions in HD patients superimposed on diversity of eating habits across the countries may affect the prevalence of functional vitamin K deficiency. The aim of this study was to determine the level of functional vitamin K deficiency and its relation to vitamin K1 intake in HD patients in Upper Silesia in Poland...
May 2016: International Urology and Nephrology
Rogier Caluwé, Lotte Pyfferoen, Koen De Boeck, An S De Vriese
BACKGROUND: The extent and the progression of vascular calcification (VC) are independent predictors of cardiovascular risk in the haemodialysis population. Vitamin K is essential for the activation of matrix gla protein (MGP), a powerful inhibitor of tissue calcification. Functional vitamin K deficiency may contribute to the high VC burden in haemodialysis patients. In addition, haemodialysis patients are frequently treated with vitamin K antagonists, mainly to prevent stroke in atrial fibrillation, potentially compounding the cardiovascular risk in these already vulnerable patients...
April 2016: Clinical Kidney Journal
Katarzyna Maresz
Inadequate calcium intake can lead to decreased bone mineral density, which can increase the risk of bone fractures. Supplemental calcium promotes bone mineral density and strength and can prevent osteoporosis. Recent scientific evidence, however, suggests that elevated consumption of calcium supplements may raise the risk for heart disease and can be connected with accelerated deposit of calcium in blood-vessel walls and soft tissues. In contrast, vitamin K2 is associated with the inhibition of arterial calcification and arterial stiffening...
February 2015: Integrative Medicine
Marjo H J Knapen, Lavienja A J L M Braam, Kirsten J Teunissen, Renate M L Zwijsen, Elke Theuwissen, Cees Vermeer
Population-based studies have shown an inverse association between dietary menaquinones (MK-n, vitamin K2) intake, coronary calcification and CHD risk, suggesting a potential role of vitamin K in vascular health. To date, the effects of increased menaquinone intake on (markers of) vascular health have been investigated using predominantly food supplements. Dairy products contain many essential nutrients and can serve as a good matrix for food fortification in order to support health. We were therefore interested to study the effects of a menaquinone-fortified yogurt drink (menaquinone as menaquinone-7 (MK-7); 28 µg MK-7/yogurt drink) on vitamin K status and markers of vascular health...
2015: Journal of Nutritional Science
Emma Zaragatski, Jochen Grommes, Leon J Schurgers, Stephan Langer, Lieven Kennes, Miriam Tamm, Thomas A Koeppel, Jennifer Kranz, Tina Hackhofer, Karen Arakelyan, Michael J Jacobs, Maria Kokozidou
Arteriovenous fistula (AVF) is the common vascular access type for a hemodialysis patient. Its failure is due to neointimal hyperplasia. Vitamin K antagonists are given to lower thrombosis tendency, but have side effects that enhance arterial calcifications. Here, we investigated the effects of vitamin K antagonists and vitamin K2 (K2) treatment on neointimal hyperplasia development and calcification in rats and in arterialized human veins. AVF was generated in female rats while chronic kidney disease (CKD) was induced using an adenine-enriched diet...
March 2016: Kidney International
Louise Hartley, Christine Clar, Obadah Ghannam, Nadine Flowers, Saverio Stranges, Karen Rees
BACKGROUND: A deficiency in vitamin K has been associated with increased calcium deposition and coronary artery calcification, which may lead to cardiovascular disease. OBJECTIVES: To determine the effectiveness of vitamin K supplementation as a single nutrient supplement for the primary prevention of cardiovascular disease. SEARCH METHODS: We searched the following electronic databases: the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL, Issue 8 of 12, 2014); MEDLINE (Ovid, 1946 to September week 2 2014); EMBASE Classic + EMBASE (Ovid, 1947 to September 18 2014); Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED) and Conference Proceedings Citation Index, Science (CPCI-S) (both 1990 to 17 September 2014) on Web of Science (Thomson Reuters); Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE); Health Technology Assessment Database and Health Economics Evaluations Database (Issue 3 of 4, 2014)...
2015: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Dylan T Dahlquist, Brad P Dieter, Michael S Koehle
The purpose of this review is to examine vitamin D in the context of sport nutrition and its potential role in optimizing athletic performance. Vitamin D receptors (VDR) and vitamin D response elements (VDREs) are located in almost every tissue within the human body including skeletal muscle. The hormonally-active form of vitamin D, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D, has been shown to play critical roles in the human body and regulates over 900 gene variants. Based on the literature presented, it is plausible that vitamin D levels above the normal reference range (up to 100 nmol/L) might increase skeletal muscle function, decrease recovery time from training, increase both force and power production, and increase testosterone production, each of which could potentiate athletic performance...
2015: Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition
Ilona Kurnatowska, Piotr Grzelak, Anna Masajtis-Zagajewska, Magdalena Kaczmarska, Ludomir Stefańczyk, Cees Vermeer, Katarzyna Maresz, Michał Nowicki
INTRODUCTION: Observational studies have shown that high dietary intake of vitamin K2 is associated with reduced risk of coronary vascular disease and vascular calcification. OBJECTIVES: We assessed the effect of vitamin K2 substitution on the progression of atherosclerosis and calcification in nondialyzed patients with CKD stages 3-5. PATIENTS AND METHODS: The study included 42 nondialyzed patients with CKD. The following measurements were taken at baseline and after 270 ±12 days of supplementation with vitamin K2 at a dose of 90 μg (menaquinone, MK-7) together with 10 μg of cholecalciferol (K+D group) or 10 μg of cholecalciferol (group D): common carotid intima-media thickness (CCA-IMT), coronary artery calcification score (CACS), basic biochemical parameters, lipids, and calcification modulators: matrix Gla protein (MGP), desphosphorylated-uncarboxylated MGP (dp-ucMGP), osteoprotegerin (OPG), fetuin A, osteocalcin (OC), and fibroblast growth factor 23...
2015: Polskie Archiwum Medycyny Wewnętrznej
Harumi Okuyama, Peter H Langsjoen, Tomohito Hamazaki, Yoichi Ogushi, Rokuro Hama, Tetsuyuki Kobayashi, Hajime Uchino
In contrast to the current belief that cholesterol reduction with statins decreases atherosclerosis, we present a perspective that statins may be causative in coronary artery calcification and can function as mitochondrial toxins that impair muscle function in the heart and blood vessels through the depletion of coenzyme Q10 and 'heme A', and thereby ATP generation. Statins inhibit the synthesis of vitamin K2, the cofactor for matrix Gla-protein activation, which in turn protects arteries from calcification...
March 2015: Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology
F Parazzini
The prevention of cardiovascular and osteoporotic risk is a topic of great importance in the peri- and postmenopausal periods. This paper reviews the role of resveratrol, inositol, vitamin D and K in the prevention of cardiovascular and osteoporotic risk in peri- and post-. The phytoestrogen-like activity of resveratrol has potential clinical implications in the gynecological practice. In particular transresveratrol inhibits low-density lipoprotein oxidation, which is a recognized risk factor for cardiovascular diseases...
October 2014: Minerva Ginecologica
Margueritta S El Asmar, Joseph J Naoum, Elias J Arbid
Vascular calcification, a cause of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, is an actively regulated process involving vitamin K dependent proteins (VKDPs) among others. Vitamin K is an essential micronutrient, present in plants and animal fermented products that plays an important role as a cofactor for the post-translational γ-carboxylation of glutamic acid residues in a number of proteins. These VKDPs require carboxylation to become biologically active, and they have been identified as having an active role in vascular cell migration, angiogenesis and vascular calcification...
May 2014: Oman Medical Journal
Nadine Kaesler, Elke Magdeleyns, Marjolein Herfs, Thomas Schettgen, Vincent Brandenburg, Danilo Fliser, Cees Vermeer, Jürgen Floege, Georg Schlieper, Thilo Krüger
In chronic kidney disease, vitamin K-dependent proteins, including the calcification inhibitor matrix Gla protein, are largely uncarboxylated indicating that functional vitamin K deficiency may contribute to uremic vascular calcification. Since the effects of uremia on the vitamin K cycle are unknown, we investigated the influence of uremia and vitamin K supplementation on the activity of the vitamin K cycle and extraosseous calcification. Uremia was induced in rats by an adenine-supplemented diet and vitamin K1 or K2 was administered over 4 and 7 weeks...
August 2014: Kidney International
Rogier Caluwé, Stefaan Vandecasteele, Bruno Van Vlem, Cees Vermeer, An S De Vriese
BACKGROUND: Haemodialysis patients suffer from accelerated vascular calcification. The vitamin K-dependent matrix Gla protein (MGP) is one of the most powerful inhibitors of vascular calcification. Haemodialysis patients have high levels of the inactive form of MGP (desphosphorylated-uncarboxylated-MGP, dp-uc-MGP) and may benefit from pharmacological doses of vitamin K2 (menaquinone) to improve the calcification inhibitory activity of MGP. METHODS: To determine the optimal dose of menaquinone-7 (MK-7) for MGP activation, 200 chronic haemodialysis patients were recruited to randomly receive 360, 720 or 1080 µg of MK-7 thrice weekly for 8 weeks...
July 2014: Nephrology, Dialysis, Transplantation
Julien Debray, Lei Chang, Stéphanie Marquès, Stéphane Pellet-Rostaing, Do Le Duy, Saida Mebarek, René Buchet, David Magne, Florence Popowycz, Marc Lemaire
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is associated with numerous metabolic and endocrine disturbances, including abnormalities of calcium and phosphate metabolism and an inflammatory syndrome. The latter occurs early in the course of CKD and contributes to the development and progression of vascular calcification. A few therapeutic strategies are today contemplated to target vascular calcification in patients with CKD: vitamin K2, calcimimetics and phosphate binders. However, none has provided complete prevention of vascular calcification and there is an urgent need for alternate efficient treatments...
December 15, 2013: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry
R Flore, F R Ponziani, T A Di Rienzo, M A Zocco, A Flex, L Gerardino, A Lupascu, L Santoro, A Santoliquido, E Di Stasio, E Chierici, A Lanti, P Tondi, A Gasbarrini
BACKGROUND: Vascular calcification and osteoporosis share similar etiopathogenetic mechanisms. Vitamin K2 deficiency could be responsible of the so called "calcium paradox", that is the lack of calcium in the bone and its storage in the vessel wall. These events may have clinically relevant consequences, such as cardiovascular accidents, and bone fractures. AIM: To review the biological function of vitamin K2 metabolism, the main factors related to its deficiency and the consequent clinical significance...
September 2013: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
Thilo Krüger, Stephan Oelenberg, Nadine Kaesler, Leon J Schurgers, Annette M van de Sandt, Peter Boor, Georg Schlieper, Vincent M Brandenburg, Bertalan C Fekete, Verena Veulemans, Markus Ketteler, Cees Vermeer, Willi Jahnen-Dechent, Jürgen Floege, Ralf Westenfeld
OBJECTIVE: Vascular calcification is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Once thought to be a passive process, vascular calcification is now known to be actively prevented by proteins acting systemically (fetuin-A) or locally (matrix Gla protein). Warfarin is a vitamin K antagonist, widely prescribed to reduce coagulation by inhibiting vitamin K-dependent coagulation factors. Recently, it became clear that vitamin K antagonists also affect vascular calcification by inactivation of matrix Gla protein...
November 2013: Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology
Federica Boraldi, Giulia Annovi, Cees Vermeer, Leon J Schurgers, Tommaso Trenti, Roberta Tiozzo, Deanna Guerra, Daniela Quaglino
Mineralization of elastic fibers in pseudoxanthoma elasticum (PXE) has been associated with low levels of carboxylated matrix gla protein (MGP), most likely as a consequence of reduced vitamin K (vit K) availability. Unexpectedly, vit K supplementation does not exert beneficial effects on soft connective tissue mineralization in the PXE animal model. To understand the effects of vit K supplementation and in the attempt to interfere with pathways leading to the accumulation of calcium and phosphate within PXE-mineralized soft connective tissues, we have conducted in vitro studies on dermal fibroblasts isolated from control subjects and from PXE patients...
April 2013: Journal of Investigative Dermatology
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