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Sports Medicine, Equine Sports Medicine

Michael Worboys, Elizabeth Toon
In this article we explore the different trajectories of this one drug, phenylbutazone, across two species, humans and horses in the period 1950-2000. The essay begins by following the introduction of the drug into human medicine in the early 1950s. It promised to be a less costly alternative to cortisone, one of the "wonder drugs" of the era, in the treatment of rheumatic conditions. Both drugs appeared to offer symptomatic relief rather than a cure, and did so with the risk of side effects, which with phenylbutazone were potentially so severe that it was eventually banned from human use, for all but a few diseases, in the early 1980s...
March 26, 2018: History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences
Adam T Cawley, John Keledjian
The move towards personalized medicine derived from individually focused clinical chemistry measurements has been translated by the human anti-doping movement over the past decade into developing the athlete biological passport. There is considerable potential for animal sports to adapt this model to facilitate an intelligence-based anti-doping system. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
March 7, 2017: Drug Testing and Analysis
Marie Maumus, Gautier Roussignol, Karine Toupet, Geraldine Penarier, Isabelle Bentz, Sandrine Teixeira, Didier Oustric, Mireille Jung, Olivier Lepage, Regis Steinberg, Christian Jorgensen, Danièle Noel
OBJECTIVE: Mesenchymal stem cells isolated from adipose tissue (ASC) have been shown to influence the course of osteoarthritis (OA) in different animal models and are promising in veterinary medicine for horses involved in competitive sport. The aim of this study was to characterize equine ASCs (eASCs) and investigate the role of interferon-gamma (IFNγ)-priming on their therapeutic effect in a murine model of OA, which could be relevant to equine OA. METHODS: ASC were isolated from subcutaneous fat...
2016: Frontiers in Immunology
C Schwarzwald
Heart murmurs and arrhythmias are common in horses. Assessment of their clinical relevance concerning health, performance, safety and longevity of sports horses is of highest importance. A comprehensive cardiovascular examination is crucial for diagnosis and assessment of the severity of disease. Recently, an expert panel of the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine (ACVIM) and the European College of Equine Internal Medicine (ECEIM) developed a consensus statement containing recommendations for sports horses with heart disease...
October 2016: Schweizer Archiv Für Tierheilkunde
Jihae Han, Hye Yeon Choi, Ahmed Abdal Dayem, Kyeongseok Kim, Gwangmo Yang, Jihye Won, Sun Hee Do, Jin-Hoi Kim, Kyu-Shik Jeong, Ssang-Goo Cho
Studies on adipogenesis may be important for regulating human and/or animal obesity, which causes several complications such as, type II diabetes, hypertension, and cardiovascular disease, thus giving rise to increased economic burden in many countries. Previous reports revealed that various flavonoids have anti-apoptotic, antioxidant, and cell differentiation-regulating activities with a number of physiological benefits, including protection from cardiovascular disease, cancers, and oxidative stress. As we found that the hydroxylation patterns of the flavonoid B ring are known to play a critical role in their function, we screened several flavonoids containing different numbers and positions of OH substitutions in B ring for their modulatory property on adipogenesis...
May 2017: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
V Bachmann, B von Salis, A Fürst
The goal of this study was to describe the development of equine drug testing in horses in Switzerland. This was achieved through evaluation of a film made by the Institute of Forensic Medicine at the University of Basel entitled 'Doping von Rennpferden' [Doping of Race Horses], toxicological detection, 1962', the analysis of doping test results of the Swiss Equestrian Federation and by interviewing individuals of various professions who were involved in equine drug testing at the time. The study compares early and modern methods of drug testing and highlights the changes in the attitude of equestrian athletes, horse owners and the general public toward doping in equestrian sports...
April 2016: Schweizer Archiv Für Tierheilkunde
Maria Fernanda S Reghini, Carlos Ramires Neto, Lorenzo G Segabinazzi, Maria Manoela B Castro Chaves, Camila de Paula F Dell'Aqua, Maria Clara C Bussiere, José Antonio Dell'Aqua, Frederico O Papa, Marco Antonio Alvarenga
Degenerative changes of the endometrium are directly related to age and fertility in mares. Chronic degenerative endometritis (CDE) is correlated with uterine fluid retention and reduced ability to clear uterine inflammation. Recent research in the areas of equine surgery and sports medicine has shown that platelet-rich plasma (PRP) treatment acts as an immunomodulator of the inflammatory response. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine if the uterine infusion of PRP could modulate the local inflammatory response and modify the intrauterine NO concentrations after artificial insemination (AI) in both normal mares and those with CDE...
July 15, 2016: Theriogenology
L C Hardeman, B R van der Meij, W Back, J H van der Kolk, I D Wijnberg
BACKGROUND: In equine laminitis, the deep digital flexor muscle (DDFM) appears to have increased muscle force, but evidence-based confirmation is lacking. OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to test if the DDFM of laminitic equines has an increased muscle force detectable by needle electromyography interference pattern analysis (IPA). ANIMALS AND METHODS: The control group included six Royal Dutch Sport horses, three Shetland ponies and one Welsh pony [10 healthy, sound adults weighing 411 ± 217 kg (mean ± SD) and aged 10 ± 5 years]...
2016: Veterinary Quarterly
L C Hardeman, B R van der Meij, W Back, J H van der Kolk, I D Wijnberg
REASONS FOR PERFORMING STUDY: In cases of laminitis, an increased muscle force or contracture of the deep digital flexor muscle (DDFM) is suggested, but evidence-based research is lacking. OBJECTIVES: To test if the DDFM of laminitic equines shows an increased muscle force detectable by needle-EMG including Interference Pattern Analysis (IPA). STUDY DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. METHODS: Three groups consisted of Group 0 (control): 6 Royal Dutch Sport horses, 3 Shetland ponies and one Welsh pony (healthy, sound adults, mean ± s...
September 2015: Equine Veterinary Journal
April S Y Wong, Emmie N M Ho, Terence S M Wan, Kenneth K H Lam, Brian D Stewart
Bisphosphonates are used in the management of skeletal disorder in humans and horses, with tiludronic acid being the first licensed veterinary medicine in the treatment of lameness associated with degenerative joint disease. Bisphosphonates are prohibited in horseracing according to Article 6 of the International Agreement on Breeding, Racing and Wagering (published by the International Federation of Horseracing Authorities). In order to control the use of bisphosphonates in equine sports, an effective method to detect the use of bisphosphonates is required...
August 15, 2015: Journal of Chromatography. B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences
Marco Scala, Silvia Lenarduzzi, Francesco Spagnolo, Maria Trapasso, Chiara Ottonello, Anita Muraglia, Annalisa Barla, Margherita Squillario, Paolo Strada
BACKGROUND/AIM: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the safety and the clinical outcome of platelet-rich plasma for the treatment of teno-desmic injures in competition horses. PATIENTS AND METHODS: From January 2009 to December 2011, 150 sport horses suffering from teno-desmic injuries were treated with no-gelled platelet-concentrate. RESULTS: No horse showed any major adverse reaction as a result of the procedure. Full healing was obtained for 81% of the horses...
November 2014: In Vivo
Deepak Sumbria, L D Singla, Amrita Sharma, Aman Dev Moudgil, M S Bal
The detection of Trypanosoma evansi in blood is intricate, primarily in chronic stage of infection, as the parasitaemia is often low and fluctuating. The climatic conditions of the target area of Punjab (a province of India with a total of 34,000 horses and ponies used for sports and transport) are conducive for the parasite propagation. The objective of present investigation was to assess the prevalence of T. evansi in central and western Punjab by PCR and card agglutination test (CATT/T. evansi) in relation to clinico-haematobiochemical alterations and risk factors associated with latent trypanosomosis...
October 2014: Acta Tropica
A A Leroux, J Detilleux, C F Sandersen, L Borde, R M A C Houben, A Al Haidar, T Art, H Amory
BACKGROUND: Risk factors for cardiac diseases in horses have not been explored in a large population of animals. OBJECTIVES: To describe risk factors for various cardiac diseases in a hospital-based population of horses. ANIMALS: Files of 3,434 horses admitted at the Internal Medicine Department of the Liege Equine Teaching Hospital between 1994 and 2011 were reviewed and of those, 284 were categorized as having moderate-to-severe cardiac disease...
November 2013: Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine
Madeleine L H Campbell
Veterinarians have a key role in providing medical care for sports horses during and between competitions, but the standard client:veterinarian relationship that exists in companion and production animal medicine is distorted by the involvement of third parties in sports medicine, resulting in distinct ethical dilemmas which warrant focused academic attention. By comparing the existing literature on human sports medicine, this article reviews the ethical dilemmas which face veterinarians treating equine athletes, and the role of regulators in contributing to or resolving those dilemmas...
September 2013: Veterinary Journal
S Renzi, S Riccò, S Dotti, L Sesso, S Grolli, M Cornali, S Carlin, M Patruno, S Cinotti, M Ferrari
The use of Mesenchymal Stromal Cells (MSCs) in orthopedic practice has recently and rapidly acquired an important role. Therapies based on the use of MSCs for the treatment of acute injuries as well as chronic inflammatory disorders are gradually becoming clinical routine. These cells have demonstrated intriguing therapeutic potentialities (i.e.: inflammation control, tissue regeneration and pathological scar prevention), that have been taken into consideration for use in both human and veterinary medicine...
August 2013: Research in Veterinary Science
M F M Costa, F A Ronchi, A Ivanow, A K Carmona, D Casarini, R F Slocombe
Exercise-induced pulmonary haemorrhage has an impact on racehorse performance. Although endoscopic diagnosis (with or without the aid of bronchoalveolar lavage) is considered to be the standard diagnostic method for this condition, the use of biomarkers that could aid in quantifying risk and severity of the condition would represent an advance in equine sport medicine. This preliminary research investigated the use of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) activity in plasma of racehorses and demonstrated that ACE activity is increased in horses with higher degrees of haemorrhage and is a promising biomarker for EIPH in racehorses...
October 2012: Research in Veterinary Science
C H B Marlow
Horse breeding in South Africa started in 1652, shortly after the 1st European settlement in the Cape. African horsesickness posed a serious problem and after a devastating outbreak of the disease in 1719, horses were largely replaced by oxen for agricultural and transport purposes but remained important from a sporting and military point of view. Examples of the latter are the export of horses for military use to India in the mid-19th century and for use in the Crimean War in 1854, reaching a zenith in the Anglo-Boer war in which an estimated 450 000 horses succumbed...
December 2010: Journal of the South African Veterinary Association
Kristina Nagy, Hoon-Ki Sung, Puzheng Zhang, Simon Laflamme, Patrick Vincent, Siamak Agha-Mohammadi, Knut Woltjen, Claudio Monetti, Iacovos Prodromos Michael, Lawrence Charles Smith, Andras Nagy
The domesticated horse represents substantial value for the related sports and recreational fields, and holds enormous potential as a model for a range of medical conditions commonly found in humans. Most notable of these are injuries to muscles, tendons, ligaments and joints. Induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells have sparked tremendous hopes for future regenerative therapies of conditions that today are not possible to cure. Equine iPS (EiPS) cells, in addition to bringing promises to the veterinary field, open up the opportunity to utilize horses for the validation of stem cell based therapies before moving into the human clinical setting...
September 2011: Stem Cell Reviews
M M Brosnahan, S A Brooks, D F Antczak
The objective of this review is to introduce equine clinicians to the rapidly evolving field of clinical genomics with a vision of improving the health and welfare of the domestic horse. For 15 years a consortium of veterinary geneticists and clinicians has worked together under the umbrella of The Horse Genome Project. This group, encompassing 22 laboratories in 12 countries, has made rapid progress, developing several iterations of linkage, physical and comparative gene maps of the horse with increasing levels of detail...
October 2010: Equine Veterinary Journal
Pierre-Louis Toutain
In racing and other equine sports, it is possible to increase artificially both the physical capability and the presence of a competitive instinct, using drugs, such as anabolic steroids and agents stimulating the central nervous system. The word doping describes this illegitimate use of drugs and the primary motivation of an equine anti-doping policy is to prevent the use of these substances. However, an anti-doping policy must not impede the use of legitimate veterinary medications and most regulatory bodies in the world now distinguish the control of illicit substances (doping control) from the control of therapeutic substances (medication control)...
2010: Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology
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