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Heléne F Dorfling, Zarina Lockhat, Samantha Pretorius, Maryna Steyn, Anna C Oettlé
Although guidelines for facial approximations, including those for the eye, are in use in South Africa, limited data on African populations exist to confirm its validity. As precise placement of the eyes in facial approximations is of importance for facial recognition, this study tested established guidelines by measuring specific instrumental dimensions. Forty-nine cadavers from the Sefako Makgatho Health Sciences University and the University of Pretoria were dissected to determine the position of the canthi and the size and position of the eyeball in the orbit...
March 8, 2018: Forensic Science International
Ghaneh Fananapazir, Robert Benzl, Michael T Corwin, Ling-Xin Chen, Junichiro Sageshima, Susan L Stewart, Christoph Troppmann
Purpose To determine whether the predonation computed tomography (CT)-based volume of the future remnant kidney is predictive of postdonation renal function in living kidney donors. Materials and Methods This institutional review board-approved, retrospective, HIPAA-compliant study included 126 live kidney donors who had undergone predonation renal CT between January 2007 and December 2014 as well as 2-year postdonation measurement of estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR). The whole kidney volume and cortical volume of the future remnant kidney were measured and standardized for body surface area (BSA)...
March 20, 2018: Radiology
David Dreizin, Uttam Bodanapally, Alexis Boscak, Nikki Tirada, Ghada Issa, Jason W Nascone, Louis Bivona, Daniel Mascarenhas, Robert V O'Toole, Erika Nixon, Rong Chen, Eliot Siegel
Purpose To develop and test a computed tomography (CT)-based predictive model for major arterial injury after blunt pelvic ring disruptions that incorporates semiautomated pelvic hematoma volume quantification. Materials and Methods A multivariable logistic regression model was developed in patients with blunt pelvic ring disruptions who underwent arterial phase abdominopelvic CT before angiography from 2008 to 2013. Arterial injury at angiography requiring transarterial embolization (TAE) served as the outcome...
March 20, 2018: Radiology
Gerard K Nguyen, Vincent M Mellnick, Aldrin Kay-Yuen Yim, Amber Salter, Joseph E Ippolito
Purpose To determine if sex differences in abdominal visceral fat composition, measured by using computed tomography (CT), and tumor glucose metabolism, measured by gene expression, can help predict outcomes in patients with clear cell renal cell carcinoma (RCC). Materials and Methods This retrospective cohort study included 222 patients with clear cell RCC from The Cancer Imaging Atlas. By using CT, body fat was segmented into subcutaneous fat and visceral fat areas (VFAs) and normalized to total fat to obtain the relative VFA (rVFA) and relative subcutaneous fat area...
March 20, 2018: Radiology
Marcin Frączek, Marcin Masalski, Maciej Guziński
BACKGROUND: Paranasal computed tomography (CT) has become the investigation method of choice to confirm or exclude the diagnosis of chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) on the basis of its ability to deliver objective data regarding the presence of inflamed mucosa or polyps. OBJECTIVES: The aim of the study was to assess the reliability of CT scan findings among untreated CRS patients without the presence of polyps in a nasal endoscopy. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Among patients with clinically demonstrated CRS considered for surgery, 93 subjects who had had 2 CT scans performed at different time points in the diagnostic process were enrolled into the study...
March 19, 2018: Advances in Clinical and Experimental Medicine: Official Organ Wroclaw Medical University
Bernard G Lee, Ye Chen, Saul Rajak, Dinesh Selva
Intradiploic epidermoid cysts are uncommon in the orbital walls and typically present with chronic headaches. We present the unusual presentation of a 46-year-old man where a long-standing intradiploic mass of the orbital roof led to acute onset of pain and mechanical ptosis. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging revealed an intradiploic cystic mass within the orbital roof. The cystic mass was extirpated and histological examination confirmed the diagnosis of an epidermoid cyst. This case illustrates the potential of long-standing intradiploic epidermoid cysts in producing an acute presentation...
March 20, 2018: Orbit
Luciana Lerendegui, Luis A Gauto, Jimena S Esnaola, Julia Udaquiola, Roberto L Vagni, Pablo Lobos, Juan M Moldes Larribas, Daniel H Liberto
Diaphragmatic rupture is a relatively uncommon entity in pediatrics that can occur as a result of a high-impact trauma. Only between 25 and 50% of the cases are detected in the initial evaluation of the patient, which increases the risk of complications. This paper presents the case of an asymptomatic 8-year-old patient who was referred to our institution after a vehicular accident. A day and a half after admission, a left pulmonary hypoventilation was detected. Computed tomography scan showed intrathoracic elevation of the splenic angle of the colon and the small bowel...
April 1, 2018: Archivos Argentinos de Pediatría
Alma V Huidobro-Chávez, Gianmarco D Vigo Pareja, Carlos Pachas-Peña, Karina Patiño-Calla
The Langerhans cell histiocytosis is a rare disease characterized by the clonal proliferation of CD1a + myeloid dendritic cells associated with a significant inflammatory component. The localized form of the disease is called eosinophilic granuloma. Bone involvement is common; in children, lytic lesions are most frequently found in the cranial dome being rare in the orbit. We present an 18-month-old infant who consulted due to periorbital edema and proptosis of the right eye, with two months of evolution. The computed tomography and the magnetic resonance imaging showed a maxillary sinus tumor mass of expansive growth and erosion of the roof of the orbit...
April 1, 2018: Archivos Argentinos de Pediatría
Dimitrios Papadopoulos, Panagiotis Misthos, Maria Chorti, Vlasios Skopas, Alexandra Nakou, Napoleon Karagianidis, Achilleas Lioulias, Vasiliki Filaditaki
Pulmonary hypoplasia (PH) is a developmental anomaly of the lung parenchyma, characterized by a decrease in the number and size of airways, alveoli and vessels. We present a case of a 31-year-old patient with a history of chronic productive cough and frequent respiratory infections, who was referred for investigation of abnormal chest x-ray. The combination of chest computed tomography (CT) and bronchoscopy set the diagnosis of left pulmonary hypoplasia and the patient was treated surgically with a left pneumonectomy...
January 29, 2018: Monaldi Archives for Chest Disease, Archivio Monaldi Per le Malattie del Torace
Song Luo, Lijuan Yang, Yanfei Luo
Susceptibility-weighted imaging (SWI) is a non-invasive technique that can reveal venous structures and iron in the brain. This retrospective study evaluated SWI, relative to other imaging techniques, for determining cerebral infarct size and early-stage clinical prognosis in patients with acute ischemic stroke. Within 3 days after onset, 22 patients with acute ischemic stroke underwent SWI, diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI), perfusion-weighted imaging (PWI), fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR), and magnetic resonance angiography (MRA)...
March 20, 2018: Neurological Sciences
Shinya Fujie, Hiroyuki Matsubayashi, Hirotoshi Ishiwatari, Hiromasa Hazama, Takaaki Ito, Keiko Sasaki, Hiroyuki Ono
A 70-year-old man was referred to our hospital with exacerbation of diabetes. His blood tests showed elevated levels of serum IgG4 and HbA1c. Computed tomography of the pancreatic body demonstrated a weakly enhanced mass, 2 cm in size, with indistinct borders. Magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography revealed a narrowing of the main pancreatic duct (MPD) at the pancreatic body, a markedly dilated upstream duct, and a slightly dilated downstream duct. Endoscopic ultrasonography demonstrated an iso-hypoechoic heterogeneous mass, protruding and spreading in the pancreatic duct...
March 2018: Journal of Gastrointestinal and Liver Diseases: JGLD
Mohammad Sadegh Masoudi, Marziye Rasafian, Zahra Naghmehsanj, Fariborz Ghaffarpasand
Ventriculoperitoneal (VP) shunting is mostly used in the treatment of hydrocephalus and many complications have been reported with this method. Abdominal Pseudocyst (APC) are relatively uncommon but important complications in patients with VP shunts. We herein report the case of a 9-year-old boy with VP shunt who presented with abdominal distension, abdominal pain, malaise, and decrease of appetite. Abdominal pelvic computed tomography confirmed a diagnosis of APC. Laparotomy was done and VP shunt was placed into the other side of peritoneal cavity again...
July 2017: African Journal of Paediatric Surgery: AJPS
De-An Qin, Jie-Fu Song, Li-Ping Song, Gui-Sheng Feng
Background Pain management for multiple bone metastases is complex and often requires multidisciplinary treatment. We herein describe patient-centered multidisciplinary pain management for metastatic cancer. CASE PRESENTATION: A 61-year-old woman with multiple bone metastases of uterine cervical cancer developed intractable low back pain. After external beam radiotherapy failed, we performed lumbar spinal intralesional curettage, pedicle screw fixation, and nerve decompression. However, the neuralgia persisted...
January 1, 2018: Journal of International Medical Research
Tatiana M Lanzieri, Winnie Chung, Jessica Leung, A Chantal Caviness, Jason L Baumgardner, Peggy Blum, Stephanie R Bialek, Gail Demmler-Harrison
Objectives To compare hearing trajectories among children with symptomatic and asymptomatic congenital cytomegalovirus infection through age 18 years and to identify brain abnormalities associated with sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL) in asymptomatic case patients. Study Design Longitudinal prospective cohort study. Setting Tertiary medical center. Subjects and Methods The study included 96 case patients (4 symptomatic and 92 asymptomatic) identified through hospital-based newborn cytomegalovirus screening from 1982 to 1992 and 72 symptomatic case patients identified through referrals from 1993 to 2005...
February 1, 2018: Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery
Yoshitaka Inui, Takashi Ichihara, Masaki Uno, Masanobu Ishiguro, Kengo Ito, Katsuhiko Kato, Hajime Sakuma, Hidehiko Okazawa, Hiroshi Toyama
OBJECTIVE: Statistical image analysis of brain SPECT images has improved diagnostic accuracy for brain disorders. However, the results of statistical analysis vary depending on the institution even when they use a common normal database (NDB), due to different intrinsic spatial resolutions or correction methods. The present study aimed to evaluate the correction of spatial resolution differences between equipment and examine the differences in skull bone attenuation to construct a common NDB for use in multicenter settings...
March 19, 2018: Annals of Nuclear Medicine
Xuanang Xu, Fugen Zhou, Bo Liu
PURPOSE: Automatic approach for bladder segmentation from computed tomography (CT) images is highly desirable in clinical practice. It is a challenging task since the bladder usually suffers large variations of appearance and low soft-tissue contrast in CT images. In this study, we present a deep learning-based approach which involves a convolutional neural network (CNN) and a 3D fully connected conditional random fields recurrent neural network (CRF-RNN) to perform accurate bladder segmentation...
March 19, 2018: International Journal of Computer Assisted Radiology and Surgery
Takashi Shirakawa, Masao Yoshitatsu, Yasushi Koyama, Akira Kurata, Toru Miyoshi, Hiroki Mizoguchi, Takafumi Masai, Koichi Toda, Yoshiki Sawa
Determining the complex geometry of mitral valve prolapse is often difficult. We constructed 3D models of six prolapsed mitral valves for surgical assessment, and evaluated how accurately the models could replicate individual valve dimensions. 3D polygon data were constructed based on an original segmentation method for computed tomography images. The model's replication performance was confirmed via dimensional comparison between the actual hearts during surgery and those models. The results revealed that the prolapsed segments matched in all cases; however, torn chordae were replicated in four cases...
March 19, 2018: Journal of Artificial Organs: the Official Journal of the Japanese Society for Artificial Organs
Juan Pablo Sade, Carlos Alberto Vargas Báez, Martin Greco, Carlos Humberto Martínez, Miguel Ángel Álvarez Avitia, Carlos Palazzo, Narciso Hernández Toriz, Patricia Isabel Bernal Trujillo, Diogo Assed Bastos, Fabio Augusto Schutz, Santiago Bella, Lucas Nogueira, Neal D Shore
Prostate cancer is a significant burden and cause of mortality in Latin America. This article reviews the treatment options for patients with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC) and provides consensus recommendations to assist Latin American prostate cancer specialists with clinical decision making. A multidisciplinary expert panel from Latin America reviewed the available data and their individual experience to develop clinical consensus opinions for the use of life-prolonging agents in mCRPC, with consideration given to factors influencing patient selection and treatment monitoring...
March 19, 2018: Medical Oncology
Vina Ps Tan, Heather M Macdonald, Leigh Gabel, Heather A McKay
Physical activity is essential for optimal bone strength accrual, but we know little about interactions between physical activity, sedentary time, and bone outcomes in older adolescents. Physical activity (by accelerometer and self-report) positively predicted bone strength and the distal and midshaft tibia in 15-year-old boys and girls. Lean body mass mediated the relationship between physical activity and bone strength in adolescents. PURPOSE: To examine the influence of physical activity (PA) and sedentary time on bone strength, structure, and density in older adolescents...
March 20, 2018: Archives of Osteoporosis
Moozhan Nikpanah, Lauren Kim, S Mojdeh Mirmomen, Rolf Symons, Ioannis Papageorgiou, William A Gahl, Kevin O'Brien, Juvianee I Estrada-Veras, Ashkan A Malayeri
OBJECTIVES: To use magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and computed tomography (CT) to define abdominal involvement in Erdheim-Chester disease (ECD), and to investigate the association between these findings and the BRAFV600E mutation. METHODS: This prospective study was performed on 61 ECD patients (46 men). The MRI and CT imaging studies were reviewed independently by two experienced radiologists. The association between BRAFV600E mutation and imaging findings was analysed using Fisher's exact test, and odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals...
March 19, 2018: European Radiology
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