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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29189142/interpretation-of-cannabis-findings-in-the-hair-of-very-young-children-mission-impossible
#1
Pascal Kintz, Alice Ameline, Aude Eibel, Annie Geraut, Audrey Farrugia, Laurent Berthelon, Jean-Sebastien Raul
BACKGROUND: Hair has been suggested since the middle of the 90's to be a suitable matrix to document repetitive exposure to cannabis. Because it is possible to detect ∆9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), cannabinol (CBN) and cannabidiol (CBD) in cannabis smoke, the identification of the metabolite, 11-nor-∆9-tetrahydrocannabinol carboxylic acid (THC-COOH) has been considered to allow the discrimination of active use. OBJECTIVE: Whereas the detection of drugs in a child's hair unambiguously shows drug handling in the environment of the child, it is difficult to distinguish between systemic incorporation into hair after ingestion or inhalation and external deposition into hair from smoke, dust, or contaminated surfaces...
November 29, 2017: Current Pharmaceutical Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29182999/analysis-of-cannabinoids-in-commercial-hemp-seed-oil-and-decarboxylation-kinetics-studies-of-cannabidiolic-acid-cbda
#2
Cinzia Citti, Barbara Pacchetti, Maria Angela Vandelli, Flavio Forni, Giuseppe Cannazza
Hemp seed oil from Cannabis sativa L. is a very rich natural source of important nutrients, not only polyunsaturated fatty acids and proteins, but also terpenes and cannabinoids, which contribute to the overall beneficial effects of the oil. Hence, it is important to have an analytical method for the determination of these components in commercial samples. At the same time, it is also important to assess the safety of the product in terms of amount of any psychoactive cannabinoid present therein. This work presents the development and validation of a highly sensitive, selective and rapid HPLC-UV method for the qualitative and quantitative determination of the main cannabinoids, namely cannabidiolic acid (CBDA), tetrahydrocannabinolic acid (THCA), cannabidiol (CBD), tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), cannabinol (CBN), cannabigerol (CBG) and cannabidivarin (CBDV), present in 13 commercial hemp seed oils...
November 20, 2017: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126755/-cannabis-and-lung-what-we-know-and-everything-we-don-t-know-yet
#3
REVIEW
T Urban, J Hureaux
Cannabis use increased sharply from 2010 to 2014 in France. Cannabis is often consumed with tobacco, although the use of marijuana is developing. Tobacco and cannabis smoke have many common characteristics in terms of irritants, carcinogens and carbon monoxide. They also differentiate by their dependence mechanisms, with nicotine and its receptors for tobacco and tetra-hydro-cannabinol (THC) and its specific receptors for cannabis. Chronic inhalation (700,000 daily users in France) over a long period most likely increases the relative risk of bronchial cancer...
November 7, 2017: Revue de Pneumologie Clinique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29125965/death-by-self-mutilation-after-oral-cannabis-consumption
#4
Clemence Delteil, Caroline Sastre, Marie-Dominique Piercecchi, Catherine Faget-Agius, Marc Deveaux, Pascal Kintz, Marc-Antoine Devooght, George Leonetti, Christophe Bartoli, Anne-Laure Pélissier-Alicot
Major self-mutilation (amputation, castration, self-inflicted eye injuries) is frequently associated with psychiatric disorders and/or substance abuse. A 35-year-old man presented with behavioral disturbances of sudden onset after oral cannabis consumption and major self-mutilation (attempted amputation of the right arm, self-enucleation of both eyes and impalement) which resulted in death. During the enquiry, four fragments of a substance resembling cannabis resin were seized at the victim's home. Autopsy confirmed that death was related to hemorrhage following the mutilations...
November 2, 2017: Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29099795/microwave-assisted-extraction-of-cannabinoids-in-hemp-nut-using-response-surface-methodology-optimization-and-comparative-study
#5
Chih-Wei Chang, Ching-Chi Yen, Ming-Tsang Wu, Mei-Chich Hsu, Yu-Tse Wu
Hemp nut is commonly incorporated into several food preparations; however, most countries set regulations for hemp products according to their cannabinoid content. In this study, we have developed an efficient microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) method for cannabinoids (i.e., Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol, cannabidiol, and cannabinol) in hemp nut. Optimization of the MAE procedure was conducted through single factor experiments and response surface methodology (RSM). A comparative study was also conducted to determine the differences in the extraction yields and morphology of hemp nut between MAE and reference extraction methods, namely heat reflux extraction (HRE), Soxhlet extraction (SE), supercritical fluid extraction (SFE), and ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE)...
November 3, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29067762/study-on-the-interaction-between-cannabinol-and-dna-using-acridine-orange-as-a-fluorescence-probe
#6
Zhengshan Tian, Zechun Wang, Xinxin Han, Ning Wang, Ruiyong Wang
The interaction between cannabinol (CBN) and herring-sperm deoxyribonucleic acid was investigated by using acridine orange as a fluorescence probe in this work. UV-Vis spectroscopy, fluorescence spectroscopy, and DNA melting techniques were used. The fluorescence of DNA acridine orange was quenched by CBN. The results indicated that CBN can bind to DNA. The binding constant for the CBN and herring-sperm deoxyribonucleic acid was obtained at 3 temperatures, respectively. Results of molecular docking corroborated the experimental results obtained from spectroscopic investigations...
October 25, 2017: Journal of Molecular Recognition: JMR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28977394/development-of-a-liquid-chromatography-tandem-mass-spectrometry-method-for-the-simultaneous-determination-of-four-cannabinoids-in-umbilical-cord-tissue
#7
Fang Wu, Triniti L Scroggin, Torri D Metz, Gwendolyn A McMillin
In utero exposure to marijuana may cause various short- and long-term health problems, such as stillbirth, low birth weight and decreased cognitive function. Detection of in utero marijuana exposure with a relatively new specimen type, umbilical cord tissue, can be used to plan treatment and guide social management. In this study, a liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS-MS) assay was developed for the simultaneous identification of four cannabinoids in umbilical cord tissue, including ∆9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), 11-nor-9-carboxy-∆9--THC (THC-COOH), 11-hydroxy-∆9-THC (11-OH-THC) and cannabinol (CBN)...
September 15, 2017: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815938/optimization-of-recombinant-%C3%AE-glucuronidase-hydrolysis-and-quantification-of-eight-urinary-cannabinoids-and-metabolites-by-liquid-chromatography-tandem-mass-spectrometry
#8
Cristina Sempio, Karl B Scheidweiler, Allan J Barnes, Marilyn A Huestis
Prolonged urinary cannabinoid excretion in chronic frequent cannabis users confounds identification of recent cannabis intake that may be important in treatment, workplace, clinical, and forensic testing programs. In addition, differentiation of synthetic Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) intake from cannabis plant products might be an important interpretive issue. THC, 11-hydroxy-THC (11-OH-THC) and 11-nor-9-carboxy-THC (THCCOOH) urine concentrations were evaluated during previous controlled cannabis administration studies following tandem alkaline/E...
June 14, 2017: Drug Testing and Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736802/psychotropic-substances-in-house-dusts-a-preliminary-assessment
#9
Angelo Cecinato, Paola Romagnoli, Mattia Perilli, Catia Balducci
Psychotropic substances (PSs) are known to affect air and waters, while scarce attention has been paid to their occurrence in settled dusts although they can reach important concentrations there; moreover, no procedures have been developed for this specific purpose. In this study, a list of PSs (i.e., nicotine, cotinine, caffeine, cocaine, cannabinol, Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol, cannabidiol, amphetamine, heroin, and methadone) were characterized in dusts from Rome and Fiumicino international airport, Italy, and from Ouargla city, Algeria...
September 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640062/an-atmospheric-pressure-chemical-ionization-ms-ms-assay-using-online-extraction-for-the-analysis-of-11-cannabinoids-and-metabolites-in-human-plasma-and-urine
#10
Jelena Klawitter, Cristina Sempio, Sophie Mörlein, Erik De Bloois, Jacek Klepacki, Thomas Henthorn, Maureen A Leehey, Edward J Hoffenberg, Kelly Knupp, George S Wang, Christian Hopfer, Greg Kinney, Russell Bowler, Nicholas Foreman, Jeffrey Galinkin, Uwe Christians, Jost Klawitter
BACKGROUND: Although, especially in the United States, there has been a recent surge of legalized cannabis for either recreational or medicinal purposes, surprisingly little is known about clinical dose-response relationships, pharmacodynamic and toxicodynamic effects of cannabinoids such as Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC). Even less is known about other active cannabinoids. METHODS: To address this knowledge gap, an online extraction, high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry method for simultaneous quantification of 11 cannabinoids and metabolites including THC, 11-hydroxy-Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol, 11-nor-Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol-9-carboxylic acid, 11-nor-Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol-9-carboxylic acid glucuronide (THC-C-gluc), cannabinol, cannabidiol, cannabigerol, cannabidivarin, Δ9-tetrahydrocannabivarin (THCV), and 11-nor-9-carboxy-Δ9-tetrahydrocannabivarin (THCV-COOH) was developed and validated in human urine and plasma...
October 2017: Therapeutic Drug Monitoring
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28570781/the-effect-of-antioxidants-on-the-long-term-stability-of-thc-and-related-cannabinoids-in-sampled-whole-blood
#11
Lambert K Sørensen, Jørgen B Hasselstrøm
The stability of cannabinoids is complex, and crucial for the assessment of impaired driving caused by cannabis. Therefore, the effect of antioxidants on the long-term stability of Δ(9) -tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), cannabinol (CBN), cannabidiol (CBD), 11-hydroxy-Δ(9) -tetrahydrocannabinol (THC-OH) and 11-nor-9-carboxy-Δ(9) -tetrahydrocannabinol (THC-COOH) in whole blood samples preserved with fluoride citrate (FC) and fluoride oxalate (FX) mixtures was investigated at different temperatures. The measured concentrations of the cannabinoids in authentic whole blood preserved solely with FC or FX mixtures decreased significantly during prolonged storage at -20°C...
June 1, 2017: Drug Testing and Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28492950/psychoactive-constituents-of-cannabis-and-their-clinical-implications-a-systematic-review
#12
Cristina Casajuana, Hugo López-Pelayo, Mª Mercedes Balcells, Joan Colom, Antoni Gual
Objective This systematic review aims to summarize current evidence on which naturally present cannabinoids contribute to cannabis psychoactivity, considering their reported concentrations and pharmacodynamics in humans. Design Following PRISMA guidelines, papers published before March 2016 in Medline, Scopus-Elsevier, Scopus, ISI-Web of Knowledge and COCHRANE, and fulfilling established a-priori selection criteria have been included. Results In 40 original papers, three naturally present cannabinoids (∆-9-Tetrahydrocannabinol, ∆-8-Tetrahydrocannabinol and Cannabinol) and one human metabolite (11-OH-THC) had clinical relevance...
July 14, 2017: Adicciones
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28455844/open-probe-fast-gc-ms-combining-ambient-sampling-ultra-fast-separation-and-in-vacuum-ionization-for-real-time-analysis
#13
Uri Keshet, Tal Alon, Alexander B Fialkov, Aviv Amirav
An Open Probe inlet was combined with a low thermal mass ultra-fast gas chromatograph (GC), in-vacuum electron eonization (EI) ion source and a mass spectrometer (MS) of GC-MS for obtaining real time analysis with separation. The Open Probe enables ambient sampling via sample vaporization in an oven that is open to room air and the ultra-fast GC provides ~30 s separation while if no separation is required it can act as a transfer line with 2-3 s sample transfer time. Sample analysis is as simple as touching the sample, pushing the sample holder into the open probe oven and getting the results in 30 s...
April 28, 2017: Journal of Mass Spectrometry: JMS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422145/compromised-external-validity-federally-produced-cannabis-does-not-reflect-legal-markets
#14
Daniela Vergara, L Cinnamon Bidwell, Reggie Gaudino, Anthony Torres, Gary Du, Travis C Ruthenburg, Kymron deCesare, Donald P Land, Kent E Hutchison, Nolan C Kane
As the most widely used illicit drug worldwide, and as a source of numerous under-studied pharmacologically-active compounds, a precise understanding of variability in psychological and physiological effects of Cannabis varieties is essential. The National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA) is designated as the sole legal producer of Cannabis for use in US research studies. We sought to compare the chemical profiles of Cannabis varieties that are available to consumers in states that have state-legalized use versus what is available to researchers interested in studying the plant and its effects...
April 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419252/sensitive-determination-of-cannabinoids-in-whole-blood-by-lc-ms-ms-after-rapid-removal-of-phospholipids-by-filtration
#15
Lambert K Sørensen, Jørgen B Hasselstrøm
Direct analysis of Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and other cannabinoids in crude acetonitrile extracts of whole blood by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry using pneumatically assisted electrospray ionization (LC-ESI-MS-MS) was subjected to pronounced ion suppression from co-eluting phospholipids (PLs). The interferences were mainly caused by the lysophosphatidylcholine and lysophosphatidylethanolamine classes of PLs. The PLs were easily removed from crude extracts by filtration through a sorbent with Lewis acid properties, which typically increased the THC and cannabinol (CBN) signal intensities by a factor of 5...
June 1, 2017: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28372838/development-and-validation-of-a-liquid-chromatography-tandem-mass-spectrometry-method-for-the-determination-of-cannabinoids-and-phase-i-and-ii-metabolites-in-meconium
#16
Pablo Prego-Meleiro, Elena Lendoiro, Marta Concheiro, Angelines Cruz, Manuel López-Rivadulla, Ana de Castro
A liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MSMS) method was developed and fully validated for the determination of Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), 11-hydroxyTHC (OHTHC), 11-nor-9-carboxyTHC (THCCOOH), 8-β-11-dihydroxyTHC (diOHTHC), cannabinol, cannabidiol, and THC and THCCOOH glucuronides in 0.25±0.02g meconium. Samples were homogenized in methanol and subjected to cation exchange solid-phase extraction. Chromatographic separation was performed on a Kinetex C18 column (50 mm×2.1mm, 2.6μm) at 35°C, with a gradient of 0...
May 12, 2017: Journal of Chromatography. A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28240418/analysis-of-drugs-of-abuse-in-cerumen-correlation-of-postmortem-analysis-results-with-those-for-blood-urine-and-hair
#17
Sylvia I Meier, Sarah C Koelzer, Manfred Schubert-Zsilavecz, Stefan W Toennes
The evaluation of drug and alcohol abuse is a major subject of forensic toxicology. Assessment of drug abstinence currently requires the analysis of urine or hair. In the present study cerumen, a mixture of sebum and sweat, was tested as an alternative. Postmortem samples (blood, urine, hair and cerumen from 38 corpses) were analyzed using liquid chromatography and gas chromatography, each coupled to mass spectrometry (LC-MS, GC-MS). The results were compared. In all cases of recent drug use (i.e. detection of opiates, amphetamine and derivatives, cocaine, methadone and diazepam or their metabolites in blood) the corresponding cerumen was positive...
October 2017: Drug Testing and Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207408/evaluation-of-cannabinoids-concentration-and-stability-in-standardized-preparations-of-cannabis-tea-and-cannabis-oil-by-ultra-high-performance-liquid-chromatography-tandem-mass-spectrometry
#18
Roberta Pacifici, Emilia Marchei, Francesco Salvatore, Luca Guandalini, Francesco Paolo Busardò, Simona Pichini
BACKGROUND: Cannabis has been used since ancient times to relieve neuropathic pain, to lower intraocular pressure, to increase appetite and finally to decrease nausea and vomiting. The combination of the psychoactive cannabis alkaloid Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) with the non-psychotropic alkaloids cannabidiol (CBD) and cannabinol (CBN) demonstrated a higher activity than THC alone. The Italian National Institute of Health sought to establish conditions and indications on how to correctly use nationally produced cannabis to guarantee therapeutic continuity in individuals treated with medical cannabis...
August 28, 2017: Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine: CCLM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188235/cannabis-edibles-blood-and-oral-fluid-cannabinoid-pharmacokinetics-and-evaluation-of-oral-fluid-screening-devices-for-predicting-%C3%AE-9-tetrahydrocannabinol-in-blood-and-oral-fluid-following-cannabis-brownie-administration
#19
Matthew N Newmeyer, Madeleine J Swortwood, Maria Andersson, Osama A Abulseoud, Karl B Scheidweiler, Marilyn A Huestis
BACKGROUND: Roadside oral fluid (OF) Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) detection indicates recent cannabis intake. OF and blood THC pharmacokinetic data are limited and there are no on-site OF screening performance evaluations after controlled edible cannabis. CONTENT: We reviewed OF and blood cannabinoid pharmacokinetics and performance evaluations of the Draeger DrugTest(®)5000 (DT5000) and Alere™ DDS(®)2 (DDS2) on-site OF screening devices. We also present data from a controlled oral cannabis administration session...
March 2017: Clinical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28145725/synthesis-of-6h-benzo-c-chromenes-via-palladium-catalyzed-intramolecular-dehydrogenative-coupling-of-two-aryl-c-h-bonds
#20
Dong-Dong Guo, Bin Li, Da-Yu Wang, Ya-Ru Gao, Shi-Huan Guo, Gao-Fei Pan, Yong-Qiang Wang
The palladium-catalyzed intramolecular C-H/C-H coupling reaction of two simple arenes to generate 6H-benzo[c]chromenes has been reported for the first time. The approach features broad substrate scope and good tolerance of functional groups and uses molecular oxygen as the terminal oxidant. The high efficiency of the approach is verified by concise total synthesis of natural product cannabinol.
February 1, 2017: Organic Letters
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