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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422145/compromised-external-validity-federally-produced-cannabis-does-not-reflect-legal-markets
#1
Daniela Vergara, L Cinnamon Bidwell, Reggie Gaudino, Anthony Torres, Gary Du, Travis C Ruthenburg, Kymron deCesare, Donald P Land, Kent E Hutchison, Nolan C Kane
As the most widely used illicit drug worldwide, and as a source of numerous under-studied pharmacologically-active compounds, a precise understanding of variability in psychological and physiological effects of Cannabis varieties is essential. The National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA) is designated as the sole legal producer of Cannabis for use in US research studies. We sought to compare the chemical profiles of Cannabis varieties that are available to consumers in states that have state-legalized use versus what is available to researchers interested in studying the plant and its effects...
April 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419252/sensitive-determination-of-cannabinoids-in-whole-blood-by-lc-ms-ms-after-rapid-removal-of-phospholipids-by-filtration
#2
Lambert K Sørensen, Jørgen B Hasselstrøm
Direct analysis of Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and other cannabinoids in crude acetonitrile extracts of whole blood by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry using pneumatically assisted electrospray ionization (LC-ESI-MS-MS) was subjected to pronounced ion suppression from co-eluting phospholipids (PLs). The interferences were mainly caused by the lysophosphatidylcholine and lysophosphatidylethanolamine classes of PLs. The PLs were easily removed from crude extracts by filtration through a sorbent with Lewis acid properties, which typically increased the THC and cannabinol (CBN) signal intensities by a factor of 5...
April 17, 2017: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28372838/development-and-validation-of-a-liquid-chromatography-tandem-mass-spectrometry-method-for-the-determination-of-cannabinoids-and-phase-i-and-ii-metabolites-in-meconium
#3
Pablo Prego-Meleiro, Elena Lendoiro, Marta Concheiro, Angelines Cruz, Manuel López-Rivadulla, Ana de Castro
A liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MSMS) method was developed and fully validated for the determination of Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), 11-hydroxyTHC (OHTHC), 11-nor-9-carboxyTHC (THCCOOH), 8-β-11-dihydroxyTHC (diOHTHC), cannabinol, cannabidiol, and THC and THCCOOH glucuronides in 0.25±0.02g meconium. Samples were homogenized in methanol and subjected to cation exchange solid-phase extraction. Chromatographic separation was performed on a Kinetex C18 column (50 mm×2.1mm, 2.6μm) at 35°C, with a gradient of 0...
March 25, 2017: Journal of Chromatography. A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28240418/analysis-of-drugs-of-abuse-in-cerumen-correlation-of-postmortem-analysis-results-with-those-for-blood-urine-and-hair
#4
Sylvia I Meier, Sarah C Koelzer, Manfred Schubert-Zsilavecz, Stefan W Toennes
The evaluation of drug and alcohol abuse is a major subject of forensic toxicology. Assessment of drug abstinence currently requires the analysis of urine or hair. In the present study cerumen, a mixture of sebum and sweat, was tested as an alternative. Postmortem samples (blood, urine, hair and cerumen from 38 corpses) were analyzed using liquid chromatography and gas chromatography, each coupled to mass spectrometry (LC-MS, GC-MS). The results were compared. In all cases of recent drug use (i.e. detection of opiates, amphetamine and derivatives, cocaine, methadone and diazepam or their metabolites in blood) the corresponding cerumen was positive...
February 27, 2017: Drug Testing and Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207408/evaluation-of-cannabinoids-concentration-and-stability-in-standardized-preparations-of-cannabis-tea-and-cannabis-oil-by-ultra-high-performance-liquid-chromatography-tandem-mass-spectrometry
#5
Roberta Pacifici, Emilia Marchei, Francesco Salvatore, Luca Guandalini, Francesco Paolo Busardò, Simona Pichini
BACKGROUND: Cannabis has been used since ancient times to relieve neuropathic pain, to lower intraocular pressure, to increase appetite and finally to decrease nausea and vomiting. The combination of the psychoactive cannabis alkaloid Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) with the non-psychotropic alkaloids cannabidiol (CBD) and cannabinol (CBN) demonstrated a higher activity than THC alone. The Italian National Institute of Health sought to establish conditions and indications on how to correctly use nationally produced cannabis to guarantee therapeutic continuity in individuals treated with medical cannabis...
February 16, 2017: Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine: CCLM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188235/cannabis-edibles-blood-and-oral-fluid-cannabinoid-pharmacokinetics-and-evaluation-of-oral-fluid-screening-devices-for-predicting-%C3%AE-9-tetrahydrocannabinol-in-blood-and-oral-fluid-following-cannabis-brownie-administration
#6
Matthew N Newmeyer, Madeleine J Swortwood, Maria Andersson, Osama A Abulseoud, Karl B Scheidweiler, Marilyn A Huestis
BACKGROUND: Roadside oral fluid (OF) Δ(9)-tetrahydro-cannabinol (THC) detection indicates recent cannabis intake. OF and blood THC pharmacokinetic data are limited and there are no on-site OF screening performance evaluations after controlled edible cannabis. CONTENT: We reviewed OF and blood cannabinoid pharmacokinetics and performance evaluations of the Draeger DrugTest®5000 (DT5000) and Alere™ DDS®2 (DDS2) on-site OF screening devices. We also present data from a controlled oral cannabis administration session...
February 10, 2017: Clinical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28145725/synthesis-of-6h-benzo-c-chromenes-via-palladium-catalyzed-intramolecular-dehydrogenative-coupling-of-two-aryl-c-h-bonds
#7
Dong-Dong Guo, Bin Li, Da-Yu Wang, Ya-Ru Gao, Shi-Huan Guo, Gao-Fei Pan, Yong-Qiang Wang
The palladium-catalyzed intramolecular C-H/C-H coupling reaction of two simple arenes to generate 6H-benzo[c]chromenes has been reported for the first time. The approach features broad substrate scope and good tolerance of functional groups and uses molecular oxygen as the terminal oxidant. The high efficiency of the approach is verified by concise total synthesis of natural product cannabinol.
February 1, 2017: Organic Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28122324/a-study-of-cannabis-potency-in-france-over-a-25-years-period-1992-2016
#8
Laurence Dujourdy, Fabrice Besacier
Cannabis contains a unique class of compounds known as the cannabinoids. Pharmacologically, the principal psychoactive constituent is Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC). The amount of THC in conjunction with selected additional cannabinoid compounds (cannabidiol/CBD, cannabinol/CBN), determines the strength or potency of the cannabis product. Recently, reports have speculated over the change in the quality of cannabis products, from nearly a decade, specifically concerning the increase in cannabinoid content...
January 16, 2017: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28120231/molecular-pharmacology-of-phytocannabinoids
#9
Sarah E Turner, Claire M Williams, Leslie Iversen, Benjamin J Whalley
Cannabis sativa has been used for recreational, therapeutic and other uses for thousands of years. The plant contains more than 120 C21 terpenophenolic constituents named phytocannabinoids. The Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol type class of phytocannabinoids comprises the largest proportion of the phytocannabinoid content. Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol was first discovered in 1971. This led to the discovery of the endocannabinoid system in mammals, including the cannabinoid receptors CB1 and CB2. Δ(9)-Tetrahydrocannabinol exerts its well-known psychotropic effects through the CB1 receptor but this effect of Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol has limited the use of cannabis medicinally, despite the therapeutic benefits of this phytocannabinoid...
2017: Progress in the Chemistry of Organic Natural Products
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28117322/quality-control-of-traditional-cannabis-tinctures-pattern-markers-and-stability
#10
Wieland Peschel
Traditional tinctures of Cannabis sativa L. became obsolete before elucidation of the main cannabinoids and routine quality testing for medicines. In view of increasing medicinal use of cannabinoids and associated safety concerns, tinctures from a Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC)-type chemovar were studied. High-performance liquid chromatography with diode-array detection (HPLC/DAD) was used to determine THC, Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinolic acid A (THCA), cannabinol (CBN), cannabidiol (CBD), cannabidiolic acid (CBDA), cannabigerol (CBG), cannabigerolic acid (CBGA), cannflavin A/B, and total phenolics...
April 18, 2016: Scientia Pharmaceutica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27979929/comparative-evaluation-of-drug-deposition-in-hair-samples-collected-from-different-anatomical-body-sites
#11
Manolis N Tzatzarakis, Athanasios K Alegakis, Matthaios P Kavvalakis, Elena Vakonaki, Polychronis D Stivaktakis, Katerina Kanaki, Alexander I Vardavas, Emmanouil G Barbounis, Aristidis M Tsatsakis
In this study, we focused on the validation of a method for the simultaneous detection and quantification of cannabinoids, cocaine and opiates in hair as well as on the distribution of the drugs deposition in hair collected from different anatomical body sites. The proposed analytical procedure was validated for various parameters such as selectivity, linearity, limit of quantification, precision, accuracy, matrix effect and recovery. Four hundred and eighty-one samples were collected during 2010-2015 from 231 drug abusers...
April 1, 2017: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899456/free-and-glucuronide-whole-blood-cannabinoids-pharmacokinetics-after-controlled-smoked-vaporized-and-oral-cannabis-administration-in-frequent-and-occasional-cannabis-users-identification-of-recent-cannabis-intake
#12
Matthew N Newmeyer, Madeleine J Swortwood, Allan J Barnes, Osama A Abulseoud, Karl B Scheidweiler, Marilyn A Huestis
BACKGROUND: There is increasing interest in markers of recent cannabis use because following frequent cannabis intake, Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) may be detected in blood for up to 30 days. The minor cannabinoids cannabidiol, cannabinol (CBN), and THC-glucuronide were previously detected for ≤2.1 h in frequent and occasional smokers' blood after cannabis smoking. Cannabigerol (CBG), Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabivarin (THCV), and 11-nor-9-carboxy-THCV might also be recent use markers, but their blood pharmacokinetics have not been investigated...
December 2016: Clinical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27815614/cannabinoids-assessment-in-plasma-and-urine-by-high-performance-liquid-chromatography-tandem-mass-spectrometry-after-molecularly-imprinted-polymer-microsolid-phase-extraction
#13
Juan Sánchez-González, Rocío Salgueiro-Fernández, Pamela Cabarcos, Ana María Bermejo, Pilar Bermejo-Barrera, Antonio Moreda-Piñeiro
A molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) selective for cannabinoids [Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ9-THC), 11-nor-9-carboxy-Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ9-THC-COOH), and 11-hydroxy-Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ9-THC-OH)] has been synthesized, fully characterized, and applied to the assessment of plasma and urine analysis of marijuana abuse by high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS). Δ9-THC-COOH was used as a template molecule, whereas ethylene glycol dimethacrylate (EGDMA) was used as a functional monomer, divinylbenzene (DVB) as a cross-linker, and 2,2'-azobisisobutyronitrile (AIBN) as an initiator...
November 4, 2016: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27776380/sanist-optimization-of-a-technology-for-compound-identification-based-on-the-european-union-directive-with-applications-in-forensic-pharmaceutical-and-food-analyses
#14
Simone Cristoni, Guglielmo Dusi, Paolo Brambilla, Adriana Albini, Matteo Conti, Maura Brambilla, Antonino Bruno, Francesca Digaudio, Luca Ferlin, Valeria Tazzari, Silvia Mengozzi, Simone Barera, Carlos Salier, Tommaso Trenti, Marco Cantu, Luigi Rossi Bernardi, Douglas M Noonan
Electrospray Ionization (EI) and Collision Induced Dissociation tandem mass spectrometry (CID-MS/MS) are usually employed to obtain compound identification through a mass spectra match. Different algorithms have been developed for this purpose (for example the NIST match algorithm). These approaches compare the tandem mass spectra (MS/MS) of the unknown analyte with the MS/MS spectra of known compounds inserted in a database. The compounds are usually identified on the basis of spectral match value associated with a probability of recognition...
October 24, 2016: Journal of Mass Spectrometry: JMS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27681340/determination-of-drugs-of-abuse-in-a-single-sample-of-human-teeth-by-a-gas-chromatography-mass-spectrometry-method
#15
Giovanni Ottaviani, Roberto Cameriere, Marta Cippitelli, Rino Froldi, Giovanna Tassoni, Massimiliano Zampi, Mariano Cingolani
The purpose of this study was to develop and validate a gas chromatography-mass spectrometry method to detect drugs of abuse in a single sample of tooth. Pulverized samples of dental materials were subjected to acid hydrolysis to detect opiates, cocaine and their metabolites. The residual dental materials from these analyses were subjected to basic extraction to detect cannabis products (Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol, cannabidiol and cannabinol). The method showed a good linearity between 0.05 and 2 ng/mg for all substances...
January 2017: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27665117/cocaine-and-cannabinoids-in-the-atmosphere-of-northern-europe-cities-comparison-with-southern-europe-and-wastewater-analysis
#16
Catia Balducci, David C Green, Paola Romagnoli, Mattia Perilli, Christer Johansson, Pavlos Panteliadis, Angelo Cecinato
This study reports the first investigation of atmospheric illicit drug concentrations in Northern Europe using measurements of cocaine and cannabinoids in Amsterdam, London and Stockholm. Further, these measurements were compared to those made in Rome to explore the geographical and inter-city variability. Co-located measurements of atmospheric particulate mass and PAHs were used to help describe and interpret the illicit drug measurements with respect to atmospheric dispersion. Cocaine concentrations ranged from 0...
December 2016: Environment International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27648476/detection-and-mapping-of-cannabinoids-in-single-hair-samples-through-rapid-derivatization-and-matrix-assisted-laser-desorption-ionization-mass-spectrometry
#17
Emma Beasley, Simona Francese, Tom Bassindale
The sample preparation method reported in this work has permitted for the first time the application of matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI-MS) profiling and imaging for the detection and mapping of cannabinoids in a single hair sample. MALDI-MS imaging analysis of hair samples has recently been suggested as an alternative technique to traditional methods of GC/MS and LC/MS due to simpler sample preparation, the ability to detect a narrower time frame of drug use, and a reduction in sample amount required...
October 18, 2016: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27590030/determination-of-cannabinoids-in-hemp-nuts-products-in-taiwan-by-hplc-ms-ms-coupled-with-chemometric-analysis-quality-evaluation-and-a-pilot-human-study
#18
Chih-Wei Chang, Chun-Wei Tung, Chin-Chuan Tsai, Yu-Tse Wu, Mei-Chich Hsu
Hemp nuts are mature cannabis seeds obtained after hulling and stir-frying that are commonly used in traditional Chinese medicine for treating functional constipation. In this work, we screened hemp nut products, classified them, and verified the legality of consuming them. A total of 18 products were purchased from Taiwan, China and Canada. Validated high-performance liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry methods were developed for analyzing the cannabinoid (i.e., Δ(9) -tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), cannabidiol (CBD), and cannabinol) content of the products and the concentration of urinary 11-nor-9-carboxy-THC...
September 2, 2016: Drug Testing and Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27465974/cannabis-use-surveillance-by-sweat-analysis
#19
Cristiana Gambelunghe, Nadia Fucci, Kyriaki Aroni, Mauro Bacci, Antonio Marcelli, Riccardo Rossi
BACKGROUND: Sweat testing, an alternative matrix for establishing drug abuse, offers additional benefits to the more common biological samples. The authors developed a procedure using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry to test for Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol, 11-nor-Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol-9-carboxylic acid, cannabinol (CBN), and cannabidiol (CBD) in a sweat patch. The results were compared with urine and hair sample results. METHODS: Urine, hair, and sweat samples were simultaneously collected from 12 patients who were involved, respectively, in forensic case and monitoring abuse...
October 2016: Therapeutic Drug Monitoring
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27435265/cannabinoids-inflammation-and-fibrosis
#20
REVIEW
Robert B Zurier, Sumner H Burstein
Cannabinoids apparently act on inflammation through mechanisms different from those of agents such as nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). As a class, the cannabinoids are generally free from the adverse effects associated with NSAIDs. Their clinical development thus provides a new approach to treatment of diseases characterized by acute and chronic inflammation and fibrosis. A concise survey of the anti-inflammatory actions of the phytocannabinoids Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), cannabidiol, cannabichromene, and cannabinol is presented...
November 2016: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
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