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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792883/plasma-n-glycan-signatures-associate-with-features-of-inflammatory-bowel-diseases
#1
Florent Clerc, Mislav Novokmet, Viktoria Dotz, Karli R Reiding, Noortje de Haan, Guinevere S M Kammeijer, Hans Dalebout, Marco R Bladergroen, Frano Vukovic, Erdmann Rapp, Stephan R Targan, Gildardo Barron, Natalia Manetti, Anna Latiano, Dermot P B McGovern, Vito Annese, Gordan Lauc, Manfred Wuhrer
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Biomarkers are needed for early detection of Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC) or to predict patient outcomes. Glycosylation is a common and complex post-translational modification of proteins that affects their structure and activity. We compared plasma N-glycosylation profiles between patients with CD or UC and healthy individuals (controls). METHODS: We analyzed the total plasma N-glycomes of 2635 patients with inflammatory bowel diseases and 996 controls by mass spectrometry with a linkage-specific sialic acid derivatization technique...
May 21, 2018: Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792553/mitochondrial-complex-i-defect-resulting-from-exercise-induced-lower-limb-ischemia-in-patients-with-peripheral-arterial-disease
#2
Isabelle Signolet, Pierre Abraham, Stéphanie Chupin, Myriam Ammi, Naïg Gueguen, Franck Letournel, Jean Picquet, Christophe Baufreton, Mickael Daligault, Vincent Procaccio, Pascal Reynier, Samir Henni
OBJECTIVE: This study aims to compare the structural and mitochondrial alterations between muscle segments affected by exercise-induced ischemia and segments of the same muscle without ischemia, in the same subject. METHODS: In a prospective analysis, 34 patients presenting either peripheral arterial disease or chronic coronary syndrome without any evidence of peripheral arterial disease were eligible for inclusion based on findings indicating a need for either a femoro-popliteal bypass or a saphenous harvesting for coronary bypass...
May 24, 2018: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792478/acculturation-in-the-discourse-of-immigrants-and-receiving-community-members-results-from-a-cross-national-qualitative-study
#3
Angela Fedi, Terri Mannarini, Anne Brodsky, Alessia Rochira, Sara Buckingham, Lindsay Emery, Surbhi Godsay, Jill Scheibler, Anna Miglietta, Silvia Gattino
This study explores the bidirectional and interactional process of acculturation from the perspectives of immigrants and receiving community members (RCMs). Our aim was to understand the experiences and interactions of different ethno-cultural groups and their impact on the functioning and dynamics of multicultural communities. We conducted a cross-national, cross-cultural study of acculturation processes, using interviews collected across two countries (Italy: urban regions of Torino and Lecce; U.S.: Baltimore/Washington corridor) and three distinct groups of immigrants-Moroccans and Albanians in Italy and Latin Americans in the United States-and RCMs in Italy and the United States...
May 24, 2018: American Journal of Orthopsychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792466/the-science-of-team-science-a-review-of-the-empirical-evidence-and-research-gaps-on-collaboration-in-science
#4
Kara L Hall, Amanda L Vogel, Grace C Huang, Katrina J Serrano, Elise L Rice, Sophia P Tsakraklides, Stephen M Fiore
Collaborations among researchers and across disciplinary, organizational, and cultural boundaries are vital to address increasingly complex challenges and opportunities in science and society. In addition, unprecedented technological advances create new opportunities to capitalize on a broader range of expertise and information in scientific collaborations. Yet rapid increases in the demand for scientific collaborations have outpaced changes in the factors needed to support teams in science, such as institutional structures and policies, scientific culture, and funding opportunities...
May 2018: American Psychologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792460/the-complexity-diversity-and-science-of-primary-care-teams
#5
Kevin Fiscella, Susan H McDaniel
This article examines the past, present and future of primary care and teamwork. It begins with a definition and description of primary care-its uniqueness, diversity and complexity, including the historical role of teams within primary care. The article then reviews the emergence of innovative primary care teams, including those grounded in new processes such as the Patient-Centered Medical Home and interprofessional teams that include new types of health professionals, particularly psychologists and other integrated behavioral health clinicians...
May 2018: American Psychologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792243/understanding-the-science-of-portion-control-and-the-art-of-downsizing
#6
Marion M Hetherington, Pam Blundell-Birtill, Samantha J Caton, Joanne E Cecil, Charlotte E Evans, Barbara J Rolls, Tang Tang
Offering large portions of high-energy-dense (HED) foods increases overall intake in children and adults. This is known as the portion size effect (PSE). It is robust, reliable and enduring. Over time, the PSE may facilitate overeating and ultimately positive energy balance. Therefore, it is important to understand what drives the PSE and what might be done to counter the effects of an environment promoting large portions, especially in children. Explanations for the PSE are many and diverse, ranging from consumer error in estimating portion size to simple heuristics such as cleaning the plate or eating in accordance with consumption norms...
May 24, 2018: Proceedings of the Nutrition Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792146/use-of-bipolar-radiofrequency-catheter-ablation-in-treatment-of-cardiac-arrhythmias
#7
Filip Soucek, Zdenek Starek
Background Arrhythmia management is a complex process involving both pharmacological and non-pharmacological approaches. Radiofrequency ablation is the pillar of non-pharmacological arrhythmia treatment. Unipolar ablation is considered to be the gold standard in the treatment of the majority of arrhythmias; however, its efficacy is limited to specific cases. In particular, the creation of deep or transmural lesions to eliminate intramurally originating arrhythmias remains inadequate. Bipolar ablation is proposed as an alternative to overcome unipolar ablation boundaries...
May 23, 2018: Current Cardiology Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29791848/pre-synaptic-muscarinic-excitation-enhances-the-discrimination-of-looming-stimuli-in-a-collision-detection-neuron
#8
Ying Zhu, Richard B Dewell, Hongxia Wang, Fabrizio Gabbiani
Visual neurons that track objects on a collision course are often finely tuned to their target stimuli because this is critical for survival. The presynaptic neural networks converging on these neurons and their role in tuning them remain poorly understood. We took advantage of well-known characteristics of one such neuron in the grasshopper visual system to investigate the properties of its presynaptic input network. We find the structure more complex than hitherto realized. In addition to dynamic lateral inhibition used to filter out background motion, presynaptic circuits include normalizing inhibition and excitatory interactions mediated by muscarinic acetylcholine receptors...
May 22, 2018: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29791777/counting-on-death-quantitative-aspects-of-bcl-2-family-regulation
#9
REVIEW
Annika Hantusch, Markus Rehm, Thomas Brunner
The Bcl-2 protein family members critically regulate mitochondrial outer membrane permeabilization (MOMP), a point-of-no-return in the intrinsic and extrinsic apoptosis pathways. The common view on qualitative interaction and activation patterns of the three subclasses, the BH3-only proteins, prosurvivals and effectors, is static and currently being revolutionized by an emerging understanding of the complex dynamic equilibria that govern cellular fate. Recent experimental evidence on protein associations with the mitochondrial outer membrane, retrotranslocation to the cytosol and differential binding affinities in aqueous and membranous environments instigate the development of a revised model of Bcl-2 family interplay...
May 23, 2018: FEBS Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29791719/molecular-and-morphological-diversity-of-trebouxia-microalgae-in-sphaerothallioid-circinaria-spp-lichens
#10
Arántzazu Molins, Patricia Moya, Francisco J García-Breijo, José Reig-Armiñana, Eva Barreno
Three vagrant (Circinaria hispida, Circinaria gyrosa, Circinaria sp. 'paramerae') and one crustose (semi-vagrant, Circinaria sp.'oromediterranea') lichens growing in very continental areas in the Iberian Peninsula were selected to study the phycobiont diversity. Mycobiont identification was checked using nrITS DNA barcoding: Circinaria sp.'oromediterranea' and Circinaria sp. 'paramerae' formed a new clade. Phycobiont diversity was analyzed in 50 thalli of Circinaria spp. using nrITS DNA and LSU rDNA, with microalgae coexistence being found in all the species analyzed by Sanger sequencing...
May 23, 2018: Journal of Phycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29791710/postoperative-pain-and-analgesia-is-there-a-genetic-basis-to-the-opioid-crisis
#11
Randa K Elmallah, Prem N Ramkumar, Anton Khlopas, Rathika R Ramkumar, Morad Chughtai, Nipun Sodhi, Assem A Sultan, Michael A Mont
BACKGROUND: Multiple factors have been implicated in determining why certain patients have increased postoperative pain, with the potential to develop chronic pain. The purpose of this study was to: 1) identify and describe genes that affect postoperative pain perception and control; 2) address modifiable risk factors that result in epigenetic altered responses to pain; and 3) characterize differences in pain sensitivity and thresholds between opioid-naïve and opioid-dependent patients...
June 1, 2018: Surgical Technology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29791610/what-do-cochrane-systematic-reviews-say-about-cardiac-arrest-management
#12
Rafael Leite Pacheco, Juliana Trevizo, Caio Augusto de Souza, Gabriel Alves, Bruno Sakaya, Luciana Thiago, Aécio Flávio Teixeira de Góis, Rachel Riera
CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Cardiac arrest is associated with high morbidity and mortality and imposes a significant burden on the healthcare system. Management of cardiac arrest patients is complex and involves approaches with multiple interventions. Here, we aimed to summarize the available evidence regarding the interventions used in cardiac arrest cases. DESIGN AND SETTING: Review of systematic reviews (SRs), conducted in the Discipline of Evidence-Based Medicine, Escola Paulista de Medicina, Universidade Federal de São Paulo...
March 2018: São Paulo Medical Journal, Revista Paulista de Medicina
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29791570/osteoradionecrosis-of-the-jaws-case-series-treated-with-adjuvant-low-level-laser-therapy-and-antimicrobial-photodynamic-therapy
#13
Guilherme Henrique Ribeiro, Mariana Comparotto Minamisako, Inês Beatriz da Silva Rath, Aira Maria Bonfim Santos, Alyne Simões, Keila Cristina Rausch Pereira, Liliane Janete Grando
BACKGROUND: Osteoradionecrosis of the jaw (ORNJ) is the most severe and complex sequel of head and neck radiotherapy (RT) because of the bone involved, it may cause pain, paresthesia, foul odor, fistulae with suppuration, need for extra oral communication and pathological fracture. We treated twenty lesions of ORNJ using low-level laser therapy (LLLT) and antimicrobial photodynamic therapy (aPDT). The objective of this study was to stimulate the affected area to homeostasis and to promote the healing of the oral mucosa...
2018: Journal of Applied Oral Science: Revista FOB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29790942/exposing-the-science-in-citizen-science-fitness-to-purpose-and-intentional-design
#14
Julia K Parrish, Hillary Burgess, Jake F Weltzin, Lucy Fortson, Andrea Wiggins, Brooke Simmons
Citizen science is a growing phenomenon. With millions of people involved and billions of in-kind dollars contributed annually, this broad extent, fine grain approach to data collection should be garnering enthusiastic support in the mainstream science and higher education communities. However, many academic researchers demonstrate distinct biases against the use of citizen science as a source of rigorous information. To engage the public in scientific research, and the research community in the practice of citizen science, a mutual understanding is needed of accepted quality standards in science, and the corresponding specifics of project design and implementation when working with a broad public base...
May 21, 2018: Integrative and Comparative Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29790879/exploring-matrix-effects-and-quantifying-organic-additives-in-hydraulic-fracturing-associated-fluids-using-liquid-chromatography-electrospray-ionization-mass-spectrometry
#15
Marika Nell, Damian E Helbling
Hydraulic fracturing (HF) operations utilize millions of gallons of water amended with chemical additives including biocides, corrosion inhibitors, and surfactants. Fluids injected into the subsurface return to the surface as wastewaters, which contain a complex mixture of additives, transformation products, and geogenic chemical constituents. Quantitative analytical methods are needed to evaluate wastewater disposal alternatives or to conduct adequate exposure assessments. However, our narrow understanding of how matrix effects change the ionization efficiency of target analytes limits the quantitative analysis of polar to semi-polar HF additives by means of liquid chromatography electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS)...
May 23, 2018: Environmental Science. Processes & Impacts
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29790875/visible-light-induced-electropolymerization-of-suspended-hydrogel-bioscaffolds-in-a-microfluidic-chip
#16
Pan Li, Haibo Yu, Na Liu, Feifei Wang, Gwo-Bin Lee, Yuechao Wang, Lianqing Liu, Wen Jung Li
The development of microengineered hydrogels co-cultured with cells in vitro could advance in vivo bio-systems in both structural complexity and functional hierarchy, which holds great promise for applications in regenerative tissues or organs, drug discovery and screening, and bio-sensors or bio-actuators. Traditional hydrogel microfabrication technologies such as ultraviolet (UV) laser or multiphoton laser stereolithography and three-dimensional (3D) printing systems have advanced the development of 3D hydrogel micro-structures but need either expensive and complex equipment, or harsh material selection with limited photoinitiators...
May 23, 2018: Biomaterials Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29790856/surface-terminations-of-hematite-i-%C3%AE-i-fe-sub-2-sub-o-sub-3-sub-exposed-to-oxygen-hydrogen-or-water-dependence-on-the-dft-methodology
#17
Richard Baochang Wang, Anders Hellman
Hematite ($\alpha$-Fe$_2$O$_3$) is the most stable and abundant iron oxide
 in nature, and is used in many important environmental and industrial
 technologies, such as waste-water treatment, gas sensors, and
 photoelectrocatalysis. A clear understanding of
 the structure, composition, and chemistry of the hematite surface 
 is crucial for improving its function in these technologies. The (0001) 
 facet is reported to dominate under natural 
 conditions, while the specific terminations depend strongly on
 preparation conditions...
May 23, 2018: Journal of Physics. Condensed Matter: An Institute of Physics Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29790723/training-the-skull-base-surgeon-of-the-future-a-comprehensive-approach
#18
Mohammed Aref, A Samy Youssef
The tremendous advances in endoscopic skull base surgery added new a set of intricate less invasive approaches to the neurosurgical armamentarium. The new generations of neurosurgeons face the challenge of adopting the ever-changing technology and quickly learning modern surgical techniques beyond the traditional neurosurgery comfort zone. The future skull base surgeon must be well trained and knowledgeable in all surgical portals to the skull base in order to select the safest least invasive, most direct approach that offers the optimum exposure to handle a complex skull base pathology...
May 22, 2018: Journal of Neurosurgical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29790721/techniques-and-outcomes-of-secondary-endovascular-repair-for-post-dissection-taa-taaa
#19
Pablo Marques De Marino, Kyriakos Oikonomou, Eric L Verhoeven, Athanasios Katsargyris
Post-dissection aortic aneurysms (PDAA) affect 20-40% of patients with aortic dissection. Open repair remains the first line therapy of PDAA, but is still associated with high mortality and morbidity rates. Endovascular repair is increasingly being used as a less invasive treatment option. Thoracic endovascular aneurysm repair (TEVAR) covering only the proximal entry tear has proven to be insufficient in most patients with chronic PDAA and has a limited role only for PDAA with distal sealing zone in the thoracic aorta...
May 23, 2018: Journal of Cardiovascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29790719/less-is-more-as-less-as-reasonably-achievable-stenting-alaras-strategy-in-the-femoropopliteal-area
#20
Koen Deloose, Joren Callaert
BACKGROUND: Although evidence supports that the performance of drug coated balloons seems to be lesion complexity independent, it is quite clear that in long lesions, severe calcified lesions and chronic total occlusions, the bail out stent ratio is very high and that the "leaving nothing behind" strategy remains a dream in a lot of our daily cases. On the other side of the spectrum, "full metal jackets" of nitinol stents are creating even more problems. Stent fractures, intimal hyperplasia and reintervention difficulties complicate the recurrent vascular disease treatment...
May 23, 2018: Journal of Cardiovascular Surgery
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