Read by QxMD icon Read

Occupational health

W Grainger Hunt, J David Wiens, Peter R Law, Mark R Fuller, Teresa L Hunt, Daniel E Driscoll, Ronald E Jackman
Raptors are exposed to a wide variety of human-related mortality agents, and yet population-level effects are rarely quantified. Doing so requires modeling vital rates in the context of species life-history, behavior, and population dynamics theory. In this paper, we explore the details of such an analysis by focusing on the demography of a resident, tree-nesting population of golden eagles (Aquila chrysaetos) in the vicinity of an extensive (142 km2) windfarm in California. During 1994-2000, we tracked the fates of >250 radio-marked individuals of four life-stages and conducted five annual surveys of territory occupancy and reproduction...
2017: PloS One
John D Boice
A critically important gap in knowledge surrounds the health consequences of exposure to radiation received gradually over time. Much is known about the health effects of brief high-dose exposures, such as from the atomic bombings in Japan, but the concerns today focus on the frequent low-dose exposures received by members of the public, workers, and, as addressed in this paper, astronauts. Additional guidance is needed by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) for planning long-term missions where the rate of radiation exposure is gradual over years and the cumulative amounts high...
April 2017: Health Physics
Martha S Linet, Cari M Kitahara, Estelle Ntowe, Ruth A Kleinerman, Ethel S Gilbert, Neal Naito, Rebecca S Lipner, Donald L Miller, Amy Berrington de Gonzalez
Purpose To compare total and cause-specific mortality rates between physicians likely to have performed fluoroscopy-guided interventional (FGI) procedures (referred to as FGI MDs) and psychiatrists to determine if any differences are consistent with known radiation risks. Materials and Methods Mortality risks were compared in nationwide cohorts of 45 634 FGI MDs and 64 401 psychiatrists. Cause of death was ascertained from the National Death Index. Poisson regression was used to estimate relative risks (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for FGI MDs versus psychiatrists, with adjustment (via stratification) for year of birth and attained age...
February 23, 2017: Radiology
Lisa Schmidt, John Sjöström, Ann-Beth Antonsson
BACKGROUND: Swedish employers are required to use external resources such as Occupational Health Services (OHS providers) if their own knowledge of occupational health and safety is insufficient. Some large employers have their own in-house OHS units but it is more common to engage the services of an external provider. However, no studies have been carried out from a critical perspective regarding how ownership of the OHS provider is related to a successful collaboration with client companies...
February 20, 2017: Work: a Journal of Prevention, Assessment, and Rehabilitation
S N Parent, R Ehrlich, V Baxter, N Kannemeyer, A Yassi
SETTING: Health care workers (HCWs) in South Africa have a risk of acquiring tuberculosis (TB) that is twice that of the general population. Nonetheless, adherence to infection control and TB disclosure requirements remain problematic. OBJECTIVE: To gain insight into the feasibility of an educational participatory theatre intervention to reduce the risk of occupational TB. DESIGN: An intervention using participatory theatre was developed progressively over six consecutive sessions with different groups of HCWs, totalling 83 participants...
February 1, 2017: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
Rigoberto Zepeda-Arce, Aurora Elizabeth Rojas-García, Alma Benitez-Trinidad, José Francisco Herrera-Moreno, Irma Martha Medina-Díaz, Briscia S Barrón-Vivanco, Germán Pier Villegas, Isabel Hernández-Ochoa, María de Jesús Sólis Heredia, Yael Y Bernal-Hernández
The indiscriminate use of pesticides in agriculture and public health campaigns has been associated with an increase of oxidative stress and DNA damage, resulting in health outcomes. Some defense mechanisms against free radical-induced oxidative damage include the antioxidant enzyme systems. The aim of this study was to determine the levels of malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione reductase (GR), and the relationship of antioxidant enzyme levels with DNA damage among sprayers (workers) occupationally exposed to pesticides...
February 24, 2017: Environmental Toxicology
Dalis E Collins Jon D Reuter Howard G Rush And Jason S Villano
Viral vector research presents unique occupational health and safety challenges to institutions due to the rapid development ofboth in vivo and in vitro gene-editing technologies. Risks to human and animal health make it incumbent on institutions to appropriately evaluate viral vector usage in research on the basis of available information and governmental regulations and guidelines.Here we review the factors related to risk assessment regarding viral vector usage in animals and the relevant regulatory documents associated with this research, and we highlight the most commonly used viral vectors in research today...
February 23, 2017: Comparative Medicine
Rania M El-Sallamy, Salwa A Atlam, Ibrahim Kabbash, Sanaa Abd El-Fatah, Asmaa El-Flaky
Ergonomics is the scientific study of people and their working environment. Dentistry is a profession that generally produces various musculoskeletal disorders. If ergonomic principles are applied in the field of dentistry, it helps to prevent occupational ergonomic health hazards and provides more comfort to the dentist and patient. To assess knowledge, attitudes, and practice of ergonomics during routine dental procedures among undergraduates of Faculty of Dentistry, Tanta University, cross-sectional study was conducted among dental students of Tanta University during the year 2015-2016 using a predesigned selfadministered questionnaire...
February 23, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Yingying Huang, Chuntao He, Chuang Shen, Jingjie Guo, Samavia Mubeen, Jiangang Yuan, Zhongyi Yang
Cadmium (Cd) is a highly toxic heavy metal and has spread widely in the environment in recent decades. This review summarizes current knowledge about Cd contamination of leafy vegetables, its toxicity, exposure, health risks, and approaches to reducing its toxicity in humans. Leafy vegetable consumption has been identified as a dominant exposure pathway of Cd in the human body. An overview of Cd pollution in leafy vegetables as well as the main sources of Cd is given. Notable estimated daily intakes and health risks of Cd exposure through vegetable consumption for humans are revealed in occupational exposure areas and even in some reference areas...
February 24, 2017: Food & Function
Drushca Lalloo, Evangelia Demou, Marisa Stevenson, Mairi Gaffney, Ewan Beaton Macdonald
OBJECTIVES: The competencies required of occupational physicians (OPs) and occupational health nurses (OHNs) separately have been studied in various countries but little research has made direct comparisons between these two key occupational health (OH) professional groups. The aim of this study was to compare current competency priorities between UK OPs and OHNs. METHODS: A modified Delphi study conducted among professional organisations and networks of UK OPs and OHNs...
February 23, 2017: Occupational and Environmental Medicine
Veslemøy Guise, Siri Wiig
BACKGROUND: The implementation and use of telecare requires significant changes to healthcare service organisation and delivery, including new ways of working for staff. Competency development and training for healthcare professionals is therefore required to enable necessary adaptation of clinical practice and ensure competent provision of telecare services. It is however unclear what skills healthcare staff need when providing care at a distance and there is little empirical evidence on effective training strategies for telecare practice...
February 23, 2017: BMC Health Services Research
Jennifer R Talevich, Stephen J Read, David A Walsh, Ravi Iyer, Gurveen Chopra
A major success in personality has been the development of a consensual structure of traits. However, much less progress has been made on the structure of an equally important aspect of human psychology: motives. We present an empirically and theoretically structured hierarchical taxonomy of 161 motives gleaned from a literature review from McDougall to the present and based on the cluster analysis of similarity judgments among these 161 motives, a broader sampling of motives than previous work. At the broadest level were: Meaning, Communion, and Agency...
2017: PloS One
Rafael Manzanera, José Joaquín Mira, Manel Plana, Daniel Moya, Mercedes Guilabert, Jordi Ortner
OBJECTIVES: The aim of the study was to assess the safety culture in a mutual insurance sector, searching for improvement opportunities. This sector offers health insurance for work-related injuries and occupational illnesses and represents an annual volume of patients corresponding to approximately 10% of the working population in Europe. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted to assess the safety culture in the mutual insurance sector in Spain. All physicians, nurses, and physiotherapists (N = 816) working in the organization in hospitals, outpatient clinics, and managerial settings were invited to reply to an online survey...
February 22, 2017: Journal of Patient Safety
Hisashi Eguchi, Koji Wada, David Prieto-Merino, Derek R Smith
We examined occupational and industrial differences in lung, gastric, and colorectal cancer risk among Japanese men of working age (25-64 years) using the 2010 Japanese national survey data for occupation and industry-specific death rates. Poisson regression models were used to estimate the age-adjusted incident rate ratios by lung, gastric, and colorectal cancers, with manufacturing used as the referent occupation or industry. Unemployed Japanese men and those in manufacturing had an 8-11-fold increased risk of lung, gastric and colorectal cancer...
February 23, 2017: Scientific Reports
Lan Shuai, David Daley, Yu-Feng Wang, Jin-Song Zhang, Yan-Ting Kong, Xin Tan, Ning Ji
BACKGROUND: Accumulating evidence indicates that attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is associated with core deficits in executive function (EF) which predicts poorer academic and occupational functioning. This makes early intervention targeting EF impairments important to prevent long-term negative outcomes. Cognitive training is a potential ADHD treatment target. The present study aimed to explore the efficacy, feasibility, and acceptability of a cognitive training program (targeting child's multiple EF components and involving parent support in daily life), as a nonpharmacological intervention for children with ADHD...
2017: Chinese Medical Journal
Craig E Slater, Anne Cusick
BACKGROUND: Academic and professional drivers have stimulated interest in self-directed learning of students in pre-certification health professional programs. Particular attention has focussed on factors which may influence a students' readiness for self-directed learning. METHOD: A five stage structured scoping review of published literature was conducted to identify measures of self-directed learning readiness used with students in pre-certification health professional programs and those factors that have been investigated as potential determinants...
February 14, 2017: Nurse Education Today
Mozhdeh Tahghighi, Clare S Rees, Janie A Brown, Lauren J Breen, Desley Hegney
AIM: To synthesise existing research to determine if nurses who work shifts have poorer psychological functioning and resilience than nurses who do not work shifts. BACKGROUND: Research exploring the impact of shift work on the psychological functioning and resilience of nurses is limited compared with research investigating the impact of shifts on physical outcomes. DESIGN: Integrative literature review. DATA SOURCES: Relevant databases were searched from January 1995- August 2016 using the combination of keywords: nurse, shift work; rotating roster; night shift; resilient; hardiness; coping; well-being; burnout; mental health; occupational stress; compassion fatigue; compassion satisfaction; stress; anxiety; depression...
February 22, 2017: Journal of Advanced Nursing
Alessandra G Samelli, Itamar S Santos, Renata R Moreira, Camila M Rabelo, Laurie P Rolim, Isabela J Bensenõr, Paulo A Lotufo
OBJECTIVES: Although several studies have investigated the effects of diabetes on hearing loss, the relationship between these two conditions remains unclear. Some studies have suggested that diabetes may cause sensorineural hearing loss, whereas others have failed to find an association. The biggest challenge in investigating the association between diabetes and hearing loss is the presence of confounding variables and the complexity of the auditory system. Our study investigated the association between diabetes and sensorineural hearing loss...
January 1, 2017: Clinics
Jocelyn Elmes, Morten Skovdal, Kundai Nhongo, Helen Ward, Catherine Campbell, Timothy B Hallett, Constance Nyamukapa, Peter J White, Simon Gregson
Understanding the dynamic nature of sex work is important for explaining the course of HIV epidemics. While health and development interventions targeting sex workers may alter the dynamics of the sex trade in particular localities, little has been done to explore how large-scale social and structural changes, such as economic recessions-outside of the bounds of organizational intervention-may reconfigure social norms and attitudes with regards to sex work. Zimbabwe's economic collapse in 2009, following a period (2000-2009) of economic decline, within a declining HIV epidemic, provides a unique opportunity to study community perceptions of the impact of socio-economic upheaval on the sex trade...
2017: PloS One
Helena J Chapman, Bienvenido A Veras-Estévez, Jamie L Pomeranz, Eddy N Pérez-Then, Belkys Marcelino, Michael Lauzardo
INTRODUCTION Health care workers have an increased risk of infection due to occupational Mycobacterium tuberculosis exposure, including multidrug-resistant strains. Health care workers' risk of developing tuberculosis is greater than that of the general population, whether in low-, intermediate- or high-incidence countries. Adherence to infection control measures (administrative controls, environmental controls, and personal respiratory protection) is essential to reduce risk of disease transmission between suspected tuberculosis patients and health care workers, but for different reasons, both objective and subjective, adherence is low...
January 2017: MEDICC Review
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"