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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143683/the-progression-of-heartworm-associated-respiratory-disease-hard-in-spf-cats-18%C3%A2-months-after-dirofilaria-immitis-infection
#1
A Ray Dillon, Bryon L Blagburn, Michael Tillson, William Brawner, Betsy Welles, Calvin Johnson, Russell Cattley, Pat Rynders, Sharron Barney
BACKGROUND: Heartworm-associated respiratory disease (HARD) in cats is induced by the arrival and death of immature adult Dirofilaria immitis in the pulmonary system and is indistinguishable from mature adult heartworm infection. METHODS: A controlled, blind research study investigated the long-term (18 months post infection, PI) consequences of the inflammatory response associated with the death of immature adult heartworms in cats. Three groups of cats, 10 per group, were infected with 100 third-stage (L3) larvae by subcutaneous injection...
November 9, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143661/heartworm-associated-respiratory-disease-hard-induced-by-immature-adult-dirofilaria-immitis-in-cats
#2
A Ray Dillon, Byron L Blagburn, Michael Tillson, William Brawner, Betsy Welles, Calvin Johnson, Russell Cattley, Pat Rynders, Sharron Barney
BACKGROUND: A controlled, blind research study was conducted to define the initial inflammatory response and lung damage associated with the death of immature adult Dirofilaria immitis in cats as compared with cats developing adult heartworm infections and cats on preventive medication. METHODS: Three groups of cats were utilized, 10 per group. All cats were infected with 100 third-stage (L3) larvae by subcutaneous injection. Group A cats were treated topically with selamectin (Revolution®; Zoetis) per label directions at 28 days post infection (PI) and once monthly for 8 months...
November 9, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143659/effect-of-heartworm-disease-and-heartworm-associated-respiratory-disease-hard-on-the-right-ventricle-of-cats
#3
Randolph L Winter, A Ray Dillon, Russell C Cattley, Byron L Blagburn, D Michael Tillson, Calvin M Johnson, William R Brawner, Elizabeth G Welles, Sharon Barney
BACKGROUND: Dirofilaria immitis infection occurs in dogs and cats, both of which species are clinically affected by mature adult infections. Cats are uniquely affected by immature-adult infections with an inflammatory pulmonary disease called Heartworm-Associated Respiratory Disease (HARD). D. immitis infection causes pulmonary parenchymal and vascular pathology in the dog and cat. Dogs develop pulmonary hypertension and cor pulmonale, whereas the development of pulmonary hypertension is rare in the cat...
November 9, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143657/clinical-benefits-of-incorporating-doxycycline-into-a-canine-heartworm-treatment-protocol
#4
C Thomas Nelson, Elizabeth S Myrick, Thomas A Nelson
BACKGROUND: The objective of heartworm treatment is to improve the clinical condition of the patient and to eliminate pre-cardiac, juvenile, and adult worm stages with minimal complications. Pulmonary thromboembolisms are an inevitable consequence of worm death and can result in severe pulmonary reactions and even death of the patient. To minimize these reactions, various treatment protocols involving melarsomine, the only adulticidal drug approved by the US Food and Drug Administrations (FDA), in conjunction with macrocyclic lactone heartworm preventives and glucocorticosteroids have been advocated...
November 9, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143656/does-evaluation-of-in-vitro-microfilarial-motility-reflect-the-resistance-status-of-dirofilaria-immitis-isolates-to-macrocyclic-lactones
#5
Mary J Maclean, Molly D Savadelis, Ruby Coates, Michael T Dzimianski, Corey Jones, Cynthia Benbow, Bobby E Storey, Ray M Kaplan, Andrew R Moorhead, Adrian J Wolstenholme
BACKGROUND: Several reports have confirmed that macrocyclic lactone-resistant isolates of Dirofilaria immitis are circulating in the United States; however, the prevalence and potential impact of drug resistance is unknown. We wished to assess computer-aided measurements of motility as a method for rapidly assessing the resistance status of parasite isolates. METHODS: Blood containing microfilariae (MF) from two clinical cases with a high suspicion of resistance was fed to mosquitoes and the resultant L3 injected into dogs that were then treated with six doses of Heartgard® Plus (ivermectin + pyrantel; Merial Limited) at 30-day intervals...
November 9, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143634/efficacy-of-oral-moxidectin-against-susceptible-and-resistant-isolates-of-dirofilaria-immitis-in-dogs
#6
Tom L McTier, Robert H Six, Aleah Pullins, Sara Chapin, John W McCall, Douglas Rugg, Steven J Maeder, Debra J Woods
BACKGROUND: Monthly topical and sustained-release injectable formulations of moxidectin are currently marketed; however, an oral formulation, while approved at a dose of 3 μg/kg, is not currently marketed in the United States. Although resistance of heartworms to all macrocyclic lactone (ML) heartworm preventives (ivermectin, milbemycin, selamectin and moxidectin) has been demonstrated, to date no data have been reported on the effectiveness of oral moxidectin against recent isolates of Dirofilaria immitis...
November 9, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141764/potential-role-for-flubendazole-in-limiting-filariasis-transmission-observations-of-microfilarial-sensitivity
#7
Maeghan O'Neill, Jelil Abdel Njouendou, Michael Dzimianski, Erica Burkman, Patrick Chouna Ndongmo, Jonas A Kengne-Ouafo, Samuel Wanji, Andrew Moorhead, Charles D Mackenzie, Timothy G Geary
Flubendazole (FLBZ) is a potent and efficacious macrofilaricide after parenteral administration. Studies in animal models and one trial in patients infected with Onchocerca volvulus revealed that FLBZ elicits minimal effects on microfilariae (mf). Severe complications after ivermectin (IVM) treatment of patients with high Loa loa microfilaraemia are of great concern. We examined the potential of FLBZ to rapidly kill L. loa mf, the phenomenon proposed to underlie the complications. Mf of L. loa were exposed to FLBZ, its reduced metabolite, albendazole, or IVM in vitro...
October 30, 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140240/case-report-strongyloides-stercoralis-hyperinfection-in-a-patient-with-chronic-lymphocytic-leukemia
#8
Richelle Guerrero-Wooley, Ernesto Aranda-Aguirre, Wencheng Li, Aimee Wilkin, Elizabeth Palavecino
Strongyloides stercoralis is an intestinal nematode that can cause disseminated infection in an immunocompromised host. It is most commonly acquired in developing countries. It was previously a common infection in many parts of the United States, particularly in the Appalachian region, but is rarely identified currently. Here, we describe a patient born and raised in Appalachia, with no history of travel outside the United States, who presented with chronic lymphocytic leukemia and S. stercoralis hyperinfection characterized by acute respiratory failure, altered mental status, and extended-spectrum-beta-lactamase Klebsiella pneumoniae bacteremia...
November 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140233/case-report-a-case-of-recurrent-strongyloides-stercoralis-colitis-in-a-patient-with-multiple-myeloma
#9
Keith Glenn, David A Lindholm, Gregory Meis, Luisa Watts, Nicholas Conger
Strongyloides stercoralis chronic infection is frequently subclinical and thus under-recognized, although its increasing prevalence in nonendemic regions has implications for immunocompromised hosts. We present a 75-year-old male with stage II multiple myeloma who presented with relapse of Strongyloides infection after initial treatment, negative surveillance testing, and subsequent resumption of chemotherapy for his multiple myeloma. The optimal regimen for secondary prophylaxis against recurrent infections is unknown...
November 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128770/ivermectin-residues-disrupt-dung-beetle-diversity-soil-properties-and-ecosystem-functioning-an-interdisciplinary-field-study
#10
José R Verdú, Jorge M Lobo, Francisco Sánchez-Piñero, Belén Gallego, Catherine Numa, Jean-Pierre Lumaret, Vieyle Cortez, Antonio J Ortiz, Mattia Tonelli, Juan P García-Teba, Ana Rey, Alexandra Rodríguez, Jorge Durán
Ivermectin is the most common endectocide used to control parasites affecting livestock. Short-term physiological and behavioural effects of ivermectin on dung beetles may have long-term consequences for beetle populations and ecosystem functioning. Long-term effects of the use of ivermectin can be estimated by comparing dung assemblages and ecosystem functions in areas with conventional ivermectin-treated livestock and environmentally similar areas in which livestock are not treated with veterinary medical products (organic farming)...
November 9, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128241/-diagnosis-and-treatment-of-scabies-by-general-practitioners-a-survey-of-practices-in-france
#11
A R Schmidt-Guerre, B Aranda-Hulin, M Maumy-Bertrand, F Aubin
BACKGROUND: Although there is evidence suggesting an epidemiologic increase of scabies in France, few studies have assessed medical practice in terms of diagnosis and treatment. OBJECTIVES: To describe the management of scabies by general practitioners (GPs). PATIENTS AND METHODS: A questionnaire was addressed to the 524 GPs of the Doubs department in France regarding the management of cases of scabies diagnosed between January and June 2015...
November 8, 2017: Annales de Dermatologie et de Vénéréologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29121562/p-glycoproteins-play-a-role-in-ivermectin-resistance-in-cyathostomins
#12
L E Peachey, G L Pinchbeck, J B Matthews, F A Burden, A Lespine, G von Samson-Himmelstjerna, J Krücken, J E Hodgkinson
Anthelmintic resistance is a global problem that threatens sustainable control of the equine gastrointestinal cyathostomins (Phylum Nematoda; Superfamily Strongyloidea). Of the three novel anthelmintic classes that have reached the veterinary market in the last decade, none are currently licenced in horses, hence current control regimens focus on prolonging the useful lifespan of licenced anthelmintics. This approach would be facilitated by knowledge of the resistance mechanisms to the most widely used anthelmintics, the macrocyclic lactones (ML)...
October 25, 2017: International Journal for Parasitology, Drugs and Drug Resistance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29117480/mass-administration-of-ivermectin-in-areas-where-loa-loa-is-endemic
#13
Frank O Richards
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 8, 2017: New England Journal of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29116890/a-test-and-not-treat-strategy-for-onchocerciasis-in-loa-loa-endemic-areas
#14
Joseph Kamgno, Sébastien D Pion, Cédric B Chesnais, Matthew H Bakalar, Michael V D'Ambrosio, Charles D Mackenzie, Hugues C Nana-Djeunga, Raceline Gounoue-Kamkumo, Guy-Roger Njitchouang, Philippe Nwane, Jules B Tchatchueng-Mbouga, Samuel Wanji, Wilma A Stolk, Daniel A Fletcher, Amy D Klion, Thomas B Nutman, Michel Boussinesq
Background Implementation of an ivermectin-based community treatment strategy for the elimination of onchocerciasis or lymphatic filariasis has been delayed in Central Africa because of the occurrence of serious adverse events, including death, in persons with high levels of circulating Loa loa microfilariae. The LoaScope, a field-friendly diagnostic tool to quantify L. loa microfilariae in peripheral blood, enables rapid, point-of-care identification of persons at risk for serious adverse events. Methods A test-and-not-treat strategy was used in the approach to ivermectin treatment in the Okola health district in Cameroon, where the distribution of ivermectin was halted in 1999 after the occurrence of fatal events related to L...
November 8, 2017: New England Journal of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29114149/cat-fur-mite-lynxacarus-radovskyi-in-india
#15
C Jayanthy, B Nagarajan, Bhaskaran Ravi Latha
A Persian cat with the complaint of lustreless dry coat, salt and pepper appearance was brought to the dermatology unit of Madras Veterinary College, Chennai. Microscopical examination of the tape impression and hair coat brushings revealed Lynxacarus radovskyi mites with eggs adhering to the hair shaft. The cat was treated with Ivermectin @ 300 µg/kg body weight subcutaneously once a week for 5 weeks after getting owner's consent. The cat was free from the parasites 5 weeks post treatment. Fomite and close contact might aid the spread of infestation...
December 2017: Journal of Parasitic Diseases: Official Organ of the Indian Society for Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29080769/efficacy-of-two-anthelmintic-treatments-spinosad-milbemycin-oxime-and-ivermectin-praziquantel-in-dogs-with-natural-toxocara-spp-infection
#16
Rafael Heredia Cardenas, Camilo Romero Núñez, Laura Miranda Contreras
Toxocara canis is one of the most important zoonotic parasites of dogs. The aim of the present study was to compare the efficacy of spinosad/milbemycin oxime and ivermectin/praziquantel in dogs naturally infected with Toxocara spp. We studied 200 dogs with a positive diagnosis of Toxocara spp. Through coproparasitoscopic analysis, two study groups of 100 dogs each were assigned: spinosad/milbemycin oxime at a dose of 30-60mg/kg and 0.75-1.0mg/kg, respectively, or ivermectin/praziquantel administered at a dose of 0...
November 30, 2017: Veterinary Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29077063/p2x4-receptor-dependent-ca-2-influx-in-model-human-monocytes-and-macrophages
#17
Janice A Layhadi, Samuel J Fountain
Monocytes and macrophages express a repertoire of cell surface P2 receptors for adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP) a damage-associated molecular pattern molecule (DAMP), which are capable of raising cytoplasmic calcium when activated. This is achieved either through direct permeation (ionotropic P2X receptors) or by mobilizing intracellular calcium stores (metabotropic P2Y receptors). Here, a side-by-side comparison to investigate the contribution of P2X4 receptor activation in ATP-evoked calcium responses in model human monocytes and macrophages was performed...
October 27, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29069080/un-gating-and-allosteric-modulation-of-a-pentameric-ligand-gated-ion-channel-captured-by-molecular-dynamics
#18
Nicolas E Martin, Siddharth Malik, Nicolas Calimet, Jean-Pierre Changeux, Marco Cecchini
Pentameric ligand-gated ion channels (pLGICs) mediate intercellular communication at synapses through the opening of an ion pore in response to the binding of a neurotransmitter. Despite the increasing availability of high-resolution structures of pLGICs, a detailed understanding of the functional isomerization from closed to open (gating) and back is currently missing. Here, we provide the first atomistic description of the transition from open to closed (un-gating) in the glutamate-gated chloride channel (GluCl) from Caenorhabditis Elegans...
October 2017: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29063617/ivermectin-and-its-target-molecules-shared-and-unique-modulation-mechanisms-of-ion-channels-and-receptors-by-ivermectin
#19
I-Shan Chen, Yoshihiro Kubo
Ivermectin (IVM) is an antiparasitic drug that is used worldwide and rescues hundreds of millions of people from onchocerciasis and lymphatic filariasis. It was discovered by Satoshi Ōmura and William C. Campbell, to whom the 2015 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine was awarded. It kills parasites by activating glutamate-gated Cl(-) channels, and it also targets several ligand-gated ion channels and receptors, including Cys-loop receptors, P2X4 receptors and fernesoid X receptors. Recently, we found that IVM also activates a novel target, the G-protein-gated inwardly rectifying K(+) channel, and also identified the structural determinant for the activation...
October 23, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29062962/heterologous-expression-of-avermectins-biosynthetic-gene-cluster-by-construction-of-a-bacterial-artificial-chromosome-library-of-the-producers
#20
Qian Deng, Li Zhou, Meizhong Luo, Zixin Deng, Changming Zhao
Avermectins, a group of polyketide natural products, are widely used as anthelmintics in agriculture. Metabolic engineering and combinatorial biosynthesis were extensively employed to improve Avermectins production and create novel Avermectin derivatives, including Ivermectin and Doramectin. It is labor intensive and time cost to genetically manipulate Avermectins producer Streptomyces avermitilis in vivo. Cloning and heterologous expression of Avermectins biosynthetic gene cluster will make it possible to tailor the cluster in vitro...
March 2017: Synthetic and Systems Biotechnology
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