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Janis C Weeks, William M Roberts, Kristin J Robinson, Melissa Keaney, Jon J Vermeire, Joseph F Urban, Shawn R Lockery, John M Hawdon
The screening of candidate compounds and natural products for anthelmintic activity is important for discovering new drugs against human and animal parasites. We previously validated in Caenorhabditis elegans a microfluidic device ('chip') that records non-invasively the tiny electrophysiological signals generated by rhythmic contraction (pumping) of the worm's pharynx. These electropharyngeograms (EPGs) are recorded simultaneously from multiple worms per chip, providing a medium-throughput readout of muscular and neural activity that is especially useful for compounds targeting neurotransmitter receptors and ion channels...
September 15, 2016: International Journal for Parasitology, Drugs and Drug Resistance
Marion A David, Stéphane Orlowski, Roger K Prichard, Shaima Hashem, François André, Anne Lespine
Macrocyclic lactones (ML) are important anthelmintics used in animals and humans against parasite nematodes, but their therapeutic success is compromised by the spread of ML resistance. Some ABC transporters, such as p-glycoproteins (Pgps), are selected and overexpressed in ML-resistant nematodes, supporting a role for some drug efflux proteins in ML resistance. However, the role of such proteins in ML transport remains to be clarified at the molecular level. Recently, Caenorhabditis elegans Pgp-1 (Cel-Pgp-1) has been crystallized, and its drug-modulated ATPase function characterized in vitro revealed Cel-Pgp-1 as a multidrug transporter...
September 15, 2016: International Journal for Parasitology, Drugs and Drug Resistance
Fabrício de Oliveira Ferreira, Caio Rodrigues-Silva, Susanne Rath
Avermectins and milbemycin are widely used as veterinary drugs and as agricultural pesticides, and their residues have been detected in soil. This study reports a simple and high-throughput method for determining ivermectin (IVER), abamectin (ABA), doramectin (DORA), eprinomectin (EPRI), and moxidectin (MOXI) residues in soils, employing an on-line solid-phase extraction technique coupled with ultra-high performance liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry (SPE-UHPLC-MS/MS). The method was validated and applied for the determination of ABA in soils from an orange plantation treated with this pesticide...
October 11, 2016: Journal of Chromatography. A
Miwa Higashiarakawa, Tetsuo Hirata, Teruhisa Tanaka, Gretchen Parrott, Tetsu Kinjo, Hidekatsu Naka, Akira Hokama, Jiro Fujita
Infections with parasites, such as Strongyloides stercoralis, typically cause elevated levels of serum immunoglobulin E (IgE) and eosinophils; however, co-infection with human T cell lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) can cause lower levels of serum IgE during S. stercoralis infection. We conducted this study to determine whether serum IgE levels and eosinophil counts could also be related to other patient characteristics or symptoms. Between 1991 and 2014, we measured and compared the symptoms of 237 patients and evaluated serum IgE levels and eosinophil counts of 199 patients who were infected with S...
October 12, 2016: Parasitology International
Atsushi Miyajima, Takashi Hirota, Mari Tashiro, Wataru Noguchi, Yayoi Kawano, Takehisa Hanawa, Akira Kigure, Taichi Anata, Yosuke Yamamoto, Nae Yuasa, Machi Koshino, Yumi Shiraishi, Kaoru Yuzawa, Keita Akagi, Takashi Yoshimasu, Kuniko Makigami, Masayo Komoda
As a novel administration method of ivermectin (IVM) for scabies treatment, we proposed a "whole-body bathing method (WBBM)". In this method, the patients would bathe themselves in a bathing fluid containing IVM at an effective concentration. Previously, we demonstrated that WBBM could deliver IVM to the skin but not to the plasma in rats. In the present study, to assess the clinical validity of the method an arm bathing examination (first trial) and a whole-body bathing examination (second trial) were conducted in healthy volunteers...
October 15, 2016: Journal of Dermatology
Zhifeng Xu, Qiong Wu, Qiang Xu, Lin He
The carmine spider mite, Tetranychus cinnabarinus (Boisduval), is one of the most important pests in the agricultural industry. Avermectins, as efficient acaricides, have been extensively used in the mite control. The targets for avermectins in mammals, nematodes and insects had already been identified as γ-amino butyric acid and glutamate chloride channels. However, the targets for avermectins in mites are still not clear. Here we report the cloning of five full-length glutamate chloride channel genes (TcGluCls) and three γ-amino butyric acid chloride channel genes (TcGABACls) and their expression levels in different developmental stages in T...
October 13, 2016: Toxicological Sciences: An Official Journal of the Society of Toxicology
J H Kim, D S Kim, Y K Yoon, J W Sohn, M J Kim
BACKGROUND: Donor-derived Strongyloides stercoralis infection in solid organ transplant (SOT) recipients is uncommon. Immunosuppressed SOT recipients are at risk of developing severe forms of strongyloidiasis infection through transmission from an infected donor allograft. METHODS: PubMed was searched for English-written articles published up to April 2015. Articles that reported cases of donor-derived strongyloidiasis infection in SOT recipients were reviewed for a pooled analysis...
September 2016: Transplantation Proceedings
Fatemeh Arabkhazaeli, Seyed Ahmad Madani, Samare Ghavami
Mortalities in a flock of canaries ( Serinus canaria ) with respiratory acariasis, pododermatitis caused by Staphylococcus aureus , and macrorhabdosis were investigated by postmortem examination. After a thorough parasitologic study, the tracheal mites were identified as Ptilonyssus morofskyi. Cleaning and disinfection of cages and perches, ivermectin application on the cervical skin of individual birds, enrofloxacin medication, and drinking water acidification with vinegar were used to control mortality. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of the occurrence of Ptilonyssus species in captive passerine birds...
September 2016: Journal of Avian Medicine and Surgery
Charlotte Bernigaud, Fang Fang, Katja Fischer, Anne Lespine, Ludwig Serge Aho, Dominique Dreau, Andrew Kelly, Jean-François Sutra, Francis Moreau, Thomas Lilin, Françoise Botterel, Jacques Guillot, Olivier Chosidow
BACKGROUND: Scabies is one of the commonest dermatological conditions globally; however it is a largely underexplored and truly neglected infectious disease. Foremost, improvement in the management of this public health burden is imperative. Current treatments with topical agents and/or oral ivermectin (IVM) are insufficient and drug resistance is emerging. Moxidectin (MOX), with more advantageous pharmacological profiles may be a promising alternative. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Using a porcine scabies model, 12 pigs were randomly assigned to receive orally either MOX (0...
October 2016: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Nasira Khatoon, Aly Khan, M Arshad Azmi, Adnan Khan, S Shahid Shaukat
Scabies a skin disease caused by mite Sarcoptes scabiei is common in Pakistan and spreads mostly where there is frequent skin to skin contact. In the present study children belonging to four age groups 0-3 years, 4-6 years, 7-9 years and 10-12 years attending Baqai Institute and Hospital Gadap from June-September 2013 were examined. The association between scabies of different human parts and age for boys was significant (p<0.01), while for girls it was highly significant (p<0.001). The most frequent body parts infected with scabies lesions were hands, head and feet...
September 2016: Pakistan Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
Cesar García-Hernández, Javier Arece-García, Rolando Rojo-Rubio, German David Mendoza-Martínez, Benito Albarrán-Portillo, José Fernando Vázquez-Armijo, Leonel Avendaño-Reyes, Agustín Olmedo-Juárez, Carine Marie-Magdeleine, Yoel López-Leyva
Forty-five Pelibuey sheep were experimentally infested with nematodes to evaluate the effect of three free condensed tannin (FCT) levels of Lysiloma acapulcensis on fecal egg counts (FECs), packed cell volumes (PCV), ocular mucosa colors (OMC), average daily gain (ADG), and adult nematode count. Five treatments were used: 12.5, 25.0, and 37.5 mg of FCT kg(-1) of body weight (BW); sterile water (control); and ivermectine (0.22 mg kg(-1) of BW) as chemical group. The data were processed through repeated measurement analysis...
October 7, 2016: Tropical Animal Health and Production
Guilherme Klafke, Anelise Webster, Bruno Dall Agnol, Endrigo Pradel, Jeniffer Silva, Luiz Henrique de La Canal, Marcelo Becker, Mateus Felipe Osório, Melanie Mansson, Rafael Barreto, Ramon Scheffer, Ugo Araújo Souza, Vivian Bamberg Corassini, Julsan Dos Santos, José Reck, João Ricardo Martins
Acaricide resistance is a major obstacle to the control of Rhipicephalus microplus. Historically, the indiscriminate use of chemical compounds has contributed to the selection of populations resistant to different classes of acaricides. Therefore, multiple acaricide resistance is an important threat to the chemical control of the cattle tick. To investigate the occurrence and extent of multiple resistance to acaricides in Southern Brazil we performed larval tests with cypermethrin, chlorpyriphos, amitraz, fipronil and ivermectin on 104 cattle tick field samples from different ranches in Rio Grande do Sul, between the years 2013 and 2015...
September 30, 2016: Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases
J N Vieira, F S Maia, G F Ferreira, J F Mendes, C L Gonçalves, M M Villela, D I B Pereira, P S Nascente
The fast anthelmintic resistance development has shown a limited efficiency in the control of animal's endoparasitosis and has promoted research using alternative control methods. The use of chemicals in animal anthelmintic treatment, in association with nematophagous fungi used for biological control, is a strategy that has proven to be effective in reducing the nematode population density in farm animals. This study aims to verify the in vitro susceptibility of the nematophagous fungi Arthrobotrys oligospora, Duddingtonia flagrans and Paecilomyces lilacinus against the antiparasitic drugs albendazole, thiabendazole, ivermectin, levamisole and closantel by using the Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC)...
October 3, 2016: Brazilian Journal of Biology, Revista Brasleira de Biologia
James W Kazura
Onchocerciasis is one of the two filarial helminth "neglected tropical diseases" (the other being lymphatic filariasis) that has been targeted for geographically local elimination followed by global eradication. The last known areas of Onchocerca volvulus transmission in the Americas have recently been reported to be eliminated. In contrast, achieving metrics for interruption of O. volvulus transmission in Africa, thus removing the requirement for continued monitoring and mass drug administration (MDA) with ivermectin, has been more challenging...
October 3, 2016: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
B M Lee, H Jo, G Park, Y H Kim, C K Park, S J Jung, G Chung, S B Oh
Odontoblasts form dentin at the outermost surface of tooth pulp. An increasing level of evidence in recent years, along with their locational advantage, implicates odontoblasts as a secondary role as sensory or immune cells. Extracellular adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is a well-characterized signaling molecule in the neuronal and immune systems, and its potential involvement in interodontoblast communications was recently demonstrated. In an effort to elaborate the ATP-mediated signaling pathway in odontoblasts, the current study performed single-cell reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and immunofluorescent detection to investigate the expression of ATP receptors related to calcium signal in odontoblasts from incisal teeth of 8- to 10-wk-old rats, and demonstrated an in vitro response to ATP application via calcium imaging experiments...
September 30, 2016: Journal of Dental Research
Annette C Kuesel
Onchocerciasis is a parasitic, vector borne disease caused by the filarial nematode Onchocerca volvulus. More than 99% of the population at risk of infection live in Africa. Onchocerciasis control was initiated in West Africa in 1974 with vector control, later complemented by ivermectin mass drug administration and in the other African endemic countries in 1995 with annual community directed treatment with ivermectin (CDTI.) This has significantly reduced infection prevalence. Together with proof-of-concept for onchocerciasis elimination with annual CDTI from foci in Senegal and Mali, this has resulted in targeting onchocerciasis elimination in selected African countries by 2020 and in 80% of African countries by 2025...
May 19, 2016: International Journal for Parasitology, Drugs and Drug Resistance
T Westers, A Jones-Bitton, P Menzies, J Van Leeuwen, Z Poljak, A S Peregrine
In Ontario, Canada, widespread resistance to ivermectin and fenbendazole, the only readily available ovine anthelmintics, has been documented, primarily in Haemonchus sp. In other parts of the world, closantel has been used to control such infections; however, the drug was not currently licensed for use in Canada and the USA. A randomized controlled trial was conducted on six client-owned farms in Ontario in 2013 and 2014 to determine the efficacy of closantel (Flukiver(®) 5% Oral Suspension, Elanco Animal Health, 10mg/kg bodyweight) against ivermectin- and fenbendazole-resistant Haemonchus sp...
September 15, 2016: Veterinary Parasitology
Viviane S Magalhães, Yara P Cid, Thais P Ferreira, Deborah M V Medeiros, Lilian C de S O Batista, Thais R Correia, André L M Albert, Fabio B Scott
With the increasing number of pets in home the human-animal relationship is increasingly close and care about control disease growing. Ivermectin (IVM) is frequently used because its proven safety. IVM is recommended for the treatment of demodectic scabies and prevention of heartworm in dogs, but informally is extremely used to control of Ctenocephalides felis felis and Rhipicephalus sanguineus. The aim of this study is evaluate the use of IVM in dogs, by the oral route at 0.6μg/kg dose, against experimental infection of these parasites using the construction of the plasma concentration curve and efficacy study...
September 15, 2016: Veterinary Parasitology
Stefano Veraldi, Luisa Angileri, Bethsabeth Abigail Parducci, Gianluca Nazzaro
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 10, 2016: Journal of Dermatological Treatment
Ali Raza, Neil H Bagnall, Abdul Jabbar, Steven R Kopp, Andrew C Kotze
BACKGROUND: There is some evidence that ATP binding cassette (ABC) transporters play a role in resistance to anthelmintics, particularly against macrocyclic lactones. Some anthelmintics, including ivermectin (IVM), have been shown to induce transcription of multiple ABC transporters in nematodes; however, the effects of monepantel (MPL) on transcription of these transporter genes has not been studied. METHODS: Larvae of two MPL-susceptible isolates of Haemonchus contortus were exposed to MPL at two concentrations (2...
September 29, 2016: Parasites & Vectors
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