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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527411/trends-in-reports-of-driving-following-illicit-drug-consumption-among-regular-drug-users-in-australia-2007-2013-has-random-roadside-drug-testing-had-a-deterrent-effect
#1
Danielle Horyniak, Paul Dietze, Simon Lenton, Rosa Alati, Raimondo Bruno, Allison Matthews, Courtney Breen, Lucy Burns
INTRODUCTION: Driving following illicit drug consumption ('drug-driving') is a potential road safety risk. Roadside drug testing (RDT) is conducted across Australia with the dual aims of prosecuting drivers with drugs in their system and deterring drug-driving. We examined trends over time in self-reported past six-month drug-driving among sentinel samples of regular drug users and assessed the impact of experiences of RDT on drug-driving among these participants. METHODS: Data from 1913 people who inject drugs (PWID) and 3140 regular psychostimulant users (RPU) who were first-time participants in a series of repeat cross-sectional sentinel studies conducted in Australian capital cities from 2007 to 2013 and reported driving in the past six months were analysed...
May 17, 2017: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521721/the-importance-of-military-conscripts-for-surveillance-of-human-immunodeficiency-virus-infection-and-risk-behavior-in-thailand
#2
Aladdin Shadyab, Kenrad Nelson, Ram Rangsin
BACKGROUND: The epidemic of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection in Thailand began in 1988 among injection drug users (IDUs) in Bangkok. It soon spread to other populations, especially female sex workers (FSWs) and men attending STD clinics. Routine serologic surveillance for HIV began among military conscripts in 1991. The HIV seroprevalence data from military conscripts provided national surveillance data, since the entire population of 21 year old men were conscripted for 2 years' service in the military by a random process during which 10% of men were selected...
May 17, 2017: Current HIV Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511107/frequent-emergency-department-presentations-among-people-who-inject-drugs-a-record-linkage-study
#3
Dhanya Nambiar, Mark Stoové, Paul Dietze
BACKGROUND: People who inject drugs (PWID) have been described as frequent users of health services such as emergency departments (EDs), however few studies have described demographic factors, patterns of substance use and previous health service use associated with frequent use of EDs in this population. METHODS: Using a combination of self-reported data from a cohort of PWID and administrative ED data obtained through record linkage, we identified longitudinal factors associated with the use of ED services...
May 13, 2017: International Journal on Drug Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28499432/development-and-evaluation-of-a-community-based-buprenorphine-treatment-intervention
#4
Aaron D Fox, Nancy L Sohler, Taeko Frost, Carolina Lopez, Chinazo O Cunningham
BACKGROUND: The majority of Americans with opioid use disorder remain out of treatment. Operating in 33 states, Washington DC, and Puerto Rico, harm reduction agencies, which provide sterile syringes and other health services to people who inject drugs, are a key venue to reach out-of-treatment opioid users. Aiming to link out-of-treatment individuals with opioid use disorder to buprenorphine treatment, we developed a community-based buprenorphine treatment (CBBT) intervention in collaboration with New York City harm reduction agencies...
May 12, 2017: Harm Reduction Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28496960/erratum-willingness-to-receive-treatment-for-hepatitis-c-among-injecting-drug-users-on-methadone-program-implications-for-education-and-treatment
#5
(no author information available yet)
[This corrects the article on p. 90 in vol. 2.].
July 2016: Addiction & Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28496955/estimating-the-size-and-age-gender-distribution-of-women-s-active-social-networks
#6
Maryam Zamanian, Mohammad Reza Baneshi, Ali Akbar Haghdoost, Tayebeh Mokhtari-Sorkhani, Fatemeh Amiri, Farzaneh Zolala
BACKGROUND: Network Scale-up (NSU) method is an indirect method for the estimation of hidden behaviors. In NSU, respondents are asked about the number of members they know from a subpopulation of interest (e.g., injecting drug user) and assume that the prevalence of risky behavior in the networks of a random sample of respondents is similar to that of the population. However, first, we need to identify the total number of people each respondent knows [the social network size (C)]; Moreover, certain risky behaviors happen in particular age and gender groups...
July 2016: Addiction & Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28496952/hiv-programs-in-iran-persia-iraq-and-saudi-arabia-a-brief-review-of-current-evidence-in-west-and-southwest-asia
#7
Omid Massah, Afsaneh Moradi, Ali Farhoudian, Mahmood Amini-Lari, Hassan Joulaei, Reza Daneshmand
BACKGROUND: In Western and Southwest Asia, literature is not documented on human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) programs in Iran, Iraq and Saudi Arabia. The present study is the first brief review that describes HIV programs in these three neighboring countries. METHODS: Data regarding the evidence of HIV programs were gathered through a systematic literature searching. English publications were retrieved through searching online scientific databases. Grey literature was also searched online...
July 2016: Addiction & Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28496492/infective-endocarditis-report-from-a-main-referral-teaching-hospital-in-iran
#8
Behrooz Heydari, Iman Karimzadeh, Hossein Khalili, Esfandiar Shojaei, Abdolrasool Ebrahimi
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present preliminary study was to assess the demographic, clinical, paraclinical, microbiological, echocardiographic, and therapeutic profile as well as in-hospital outcome of patients with infective endocarditis at a referral center for various infectious diseases in Iran. METHODS: Required demographic, clinical, plausible complications and paraclinical data were collected from patients' medical charts. Echocardiographic findings were obtained by performing transthoracic and/or transesophageal echocardiography as clinically indicated...
2017: Iranian Journal of Pharmaceutical Research: IJPR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28494774/expanding-conceptualizations-of-harm-reduction-results-from-a-qualitative-community-based-participatory-research-study-with-people-who-inject-drugs
#9
L M Boucher, Z Marshall, A Martin, K Larose-Hébert, J V Flynn, C Lalonde, D Pineau, J Bigelow, T Rose, R Chase, R Boyd, M Tyndall, C Kendall
BACKGROUND: The perspectives of people who use drugs are critical in understanding why people choose to reduce harm in relation to drug use, what practices are considered or preferred in conceptualizations of harm reduction, and which environmental factors interfere with or support the use of harm reduction strategies. This study explores how people who inject drugs (PWID) think about harm reduction and considers the critical imperative of equity in health and social services delivery for this community...
May 12, 2017: Harm Reduction Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28493333/treadmill-exercise-attenuates-3-4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine-induced-memory-impairment-through-a-decrease-apoptosis-in-male-rat-hippocampus
#10
Alireza Gharebaghi, Iraj Amiri, Iraj Salehi, Siamak Shahidi, Alireza Komaki, Mehdi Mehdizadeh, Fahimeh Ghasemi Moravej, Sara Soleimani Asl
3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) leads to apoptosis in the hippocampus with consequent induction of learning and memory impairment. In this study, we have investigated the effects of treadmill exercise on memory in relation to apoptosis and oxidative stress in the hippocampi of MDMA-treated rats. Male Wistar rats received multiple intraperitoneal (IP) injections of MDMA (10 mg/kg) and exercised for one month on a treadmill (simultaneously or asynchronously with MDMA). We assessed memory function with the Morris water maze (MWM) test...
May 11, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28482846/a-preliminary-needs-assessment-of-american-indians-who-inject-drugs-in-northeastern-montana
#11
Mike Anastario, Kris FourStar, Adriann Ricker, Rebecca Dick, Monica C Skewes, Elizabeth Rink
BACKGROUND: Injection drug use has not been well documented in American Indians living in the USA. American Indian and Alaskan Natives (AI/ANs) show higher rates of substance use compared to the general population, and have historically been subject to a number of risk factors that are known to increase the likelihood of substance use. AI/ANs also experience increased risk for infectious diseases that are transmitted via injection drug use and/or sexual activity. Harm reduction approaches have been shown to be effective for decreasing risk of disease transmission in at-risk populations, and may be well suited for AI/AN injection drug users residing in rural reservation communities...
May 8, 2017: Harm Reduction Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28480974/comorbidities-and-medications-of-patients-with-chronic-hepatitis-c-under-specialist-care-in-the-uk
#12
Benjamin Hudson, Alex J Walker, William L Irving
Designing services with the capacity and expertise to meet the needs of the chronic hepatitis C (CHC) population in the era of direct acting antivirals (DAAs), and widening access to such treatments, requires detailed understanding of the characteristics and healthcare needs of the existing patient population. In this retrospective analysis of data from the National HCV Research UK Biobank between March 2012-October 2014 the characteristics of the CHC population currently under specialist care in the UK were evaluated - with specific focus upon use of medications, adverse lifestyle choices, and comorbidities...
May 8, 2017: Journal of Medical Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28480087/rhodotorula-endogenous-endophthalmitis-a-novel-harbinger-of-the-injection-drug-epidemic-in-the-united-states
#13
Preston M Luong, Basilio Kalpakian, Lawrence J Jaeger, Timothy Lahey, Christopher B Chapman, Michael E Zegans
Endogenous endophthalmitis is a rare but feared infectious ocular complication of injection drug use (IDU). The recent opioid epidemic in the United States threatens to increase the incidence of this disease. We report the first case of endogenous endophthalmitis in the United States caused by the emerging fungal pathogen Rhodotorula in an injection drug user which led to no light perception vision (NLP). Worldwide experience with Rhodotorula endogenous endophthalmitis is limited, but existing cases suggest infection by this particular fungal genus has a grim prognosis...
2017: Case Reports in Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28479413/self-reported-bothersome-symptoms-across-different-socioepidemiological-groups-of-people-living-with-hiv-attending-french-hospitals-results-from-the-anrs-vespa2-survey
#14
Véronique Boyer, Antoine Vilotitch, Fabienne Marcellin, Baptiste Demoulin, Rosemary Dray-Spira, Bruno Spire
CONTEXT: Twenty years after the advent of combined antiretroviral therapies (cART), there is a growing need for up-to-date information about the daily experience of people living with HIV (PLWH). OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to investigate the relationship between socio-epidemiological groups and the types of bothersome symptoms reported by PLWH participating in a national survey in France. METHODS: We analyzed self-reported bothersome symptoms in a representative sample of PLWH (ANRS VESPA2 survey), most of whom were receiving ART treatment...
May 4, 2017: Journal of Pain and Symptom Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28477061/chronic-hepatitis-c-treatment-in-patients-with-drug-injection-history-findings-of-the-integrate-prospective-observational-study
#15
Geert Robaeys, Stefan Christensen, Damien Lucidarme, Amber Arain, Philip Bruggmann, Jan Kunkel, Sofia Keim, Martin Jäkel, Ralph DeMasi, Chris Liu, Isabelle Lonjon-Domanec, Graham R Foster
INTRODUCTION: People who inject drugs represent an under-treated chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV)-infected patient population. METHODS: INTEGRATE was a prospective, observational study investigating the effectiveness, safety, and adherence in routine clinical practice to telaprevir in combination with peg-interferon and ribavirin (Peg-IFN/RBV) in patients with history of injecting drug use chronically infected with genotype 1 HCV. RESULTS: A total of 46 patients were enrolled and included in the intent-to-treat (ITT) population...
May 5, 2017: Infectious Diseases and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28476275/beliefs-about-the-consequences-of-using-benzodiazepines-among-persons-with-opioid-use-disorder
#16
Michael D Stein, Bradley J Anderson, Shannon R Kenney, Genie L Bailey
BACKGROUND: Patients admitted to addiction treatment programs report high rates of concurrent opioid and benzodiazepine (BZD) use. This combination places individuals at high risk for accidental overdose and other serious consequences. However, little is known about the beliefs opioid users have about the consequences of BZD use. METHODS: We surveyed consecutive persons initiating inpatient opioid detoxification (N=476; 95.0% enrollment) and identified 245 who reported BZD use in the past 30days and/or had a positive toxicology...
June 2017: Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28462622/trends-in-hiv-continuum-of-care-outcomes-over-10-years-of-follow-up-at-a-large-hiv-primary-medical-home-in-the-southeastern-united-states
#17
Michael K Ghiam, Peter Rebeiro, Megan Turner, William B Rogers, Sally Bebawy, Stephen P Raffanti, Anna Kristine Person, April C Pettit
BACKGROUND: Longitudinal studies of retention in care (RIC) and viral suppression (VS) in the southeastern United States (US), a region disproportionately affected by HIV-infection, are lacking. METHODS: HIV-infected adults with ≥1 medical visit at the Vanderbilt Comprehensive Care Clinic (Nashville, Tennessee) from 2004-2013 were included. RIC was ≥2 (a) laboratory dates [CD4+ counts or HIV-1 viral loads (VL)] or (b) provider encounters and/or laboratory dates in the year of interest, ≥90 days apart...
May 2, 2017: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28461881/impact-of-tramadol-and-morphine-abuse-on-the-activities-of-acetylcholine-esterase-na-k-atpase-and-related-parameters-in-cerebral-cortices-of-male-adult-rats
#18
Abd El-Hamid Mohamed Elwy, Ghada Tabl
OBJECTIVE: To determine the effect of the most commonly abused drugs (tramadol and morphine), on acetylcholine esterase (AChE), Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase activities and related parameters, Na(+) and K(+) as biomarkers of neurotoxicity. METHODS: Tramadol - as a weak μ opioid receptor agonist- and morphine - as opiate analgesic drugs, were chosen for the present study. Four series of experimental animals were conducted for either tramadol or morphine: control series; repeated single equal doses (therapeutic dose) series; cumulative increasing doses series and delay (withdrawal) series (96 hours withdrawal period after last administration), at time period intervals 7, 14 and 21 days...
March 2017: Electronic Physician
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28458170/down-in-the-valley-trajectories-of-injection-initiation-among-young-injectors-in-california-s-central-valley
#19
Jennifer L Syvertsen, Catherine E Paquette, Robin A Pollini
BACKGROUND: Injection drug use initiation represents a critical point of public health intervention, as injection increases risk for blood borne infections including Hepatitis C and HIV. In this paper, we explore pathways to injection initiation among youth (≤30) in the rural context of California's Central Valley, where rates of injection drug use are among the highest in the nation. METHODS: We draw on semi-structured qualitative interviews with 20 young injectors to examine drug use histories, including the factors that participants associated with their transition to injection drug use...
April 27, 2017: International Journal on Drug Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28454045/canadian-harm-reduction-policies-a-comparative-content-analysis-of-provincial-and-territorial-documents-2000-2015
#20
REVIEW
T Cameron Wild, Bernie Pauly, Lynne Belle-Isle, Walter Cavalieri, Richard Elliott, Carol Strike, Kenneth Tupper, Andrew Hathaway, Colleen Dell, Donald MacPherson, Caitlin Sinclair, Kamagaju Karekezi, Benjamin Tan, Elaine Hyshka
BACKGROUND: Access to harm reduction interventions among substance users across Canada is highly variable, and largely within the policy jurisdiction of the provinces and territories. This study systematically described variation in policy frameworks guiding harm reduction services among Canadian provinces and territories as part of the first national multimethod case study of harm reduction policy. METHODS: Systematic and purposive searches identified publicly-accessible policy texts guiding planning and organization of one or more of seven targeted harm reduction services: needle distribution, naloxone, supervised injection/consumption, low-threshold opioid substitution (or maintenance) treatment, buprenorphine/naloxone (suboxone), drug checking, and safer inhalation kits...
April 25, 2017: International Journal on Drug Policy
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