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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28094553/burden-of-hiv-syphilis-and-hepatitis-b-and-c-among-inmates-in-a-prison-state-system-in-mexico
#1
Pablo F Belaunzaran-Zamudio, Juan Luis Mosqueda-Gómez, Alejandro Macías-Hernández, Sonia Rodríguez-Ramírez, Juan Sierra-Madero, Chris Beyrer
We studied the prevalence of HIV, syphilis, HBV and HCV infection and associated risk behaviors in the prison state system of Guanajuato, Mexico between September 2011 and February 2012. Blood samples were drawn from adult inmates in all State prisons agreeing to participate in this cross-sectional study. Data on risk behaviors was collected using self-administered questionnaires. Prevalence of HIV, syphilis, HBV and HCV infection was 0.6% (95%CI=0.2-1.1), 0.7% (95%CI=0.4-1.0), 0.4 (95%CI=0.04-0.74) and 4.8 (95%CI=3...
January 17, 2017: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092412/population-dynamics-of-hcv-subtypes-in-injecting-drug-users-on-methadone-maintenance-treatment-in-china-associated-with-economic-and-health-reform
#2
Sheng Zhou, Eleonora Cella, Wang Zhou, Wen-Hua Kong, Man-Qing Liu, Pu-Lin Liu, Massimo Ciccozzi, Marco Salemi, Xin-Guang Chen
The extensive genetic heterogeneity of hepatitis C virus (HCV) requires in-depth understanding of the population dynamics of different viral subtypes for more effective control of epidemic outbreaks. We analyzed HCV sequences data from 125 participants in Wuhan, China. These participants were newly infected by subtype 1b (n=13), 3a (n=15), 3b (n=50), and 6a (n=39) while on methadone maintenance treatment (MMT). Bayesian phylogenies and demographic histories were inferred for these subtypes. Participants infected with HCV-1b and 3a were clustered in well-supported monophyletic clades, indicating local sub-epidemics...
January 16, 2017: Journal of Viral Hepatitis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088741/prevalence-and-correlates-of-fentanyl-contaminated-heroin-exposure-among-young-adults-who-use-prescription-opioids-non-medically
#3
Alexandria Macmadu, Jennifer J Carroll, Scott E Hadland, Traci C Green, Brandon D L Marshall
BACKGROUND: The rate of overdose deaths caused by fentanyl-contaminated heroin (FCH) use is increasing rapidly in the United States. We examined risk factors for exposure to FCH and experiences with FCH use among young adult non-medical prescription opioids (NMPO) users. METHODS: We analyzed data from the Rhode Island Young Adult Prescription Drug Study (RAPiDS), which enrolled young adults aged 18 to 29 reporting prior 30day NMPO use between January 2015 and February 2016...
January 6, 2017: Addictive Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28075146/five-near-full-length-hepatitis-c-virus-sequences-were-isolated-from-hiv-coinfected-idus-of-china
#4
Fan Li, Yi Feng, Na Ni, Jing Hu, Yuhua Ruan, Yiming Shao, Liying Ma
HIV and HCV share transmission routes including contaminated blood transfusion, sexual intercourse, and needle-sharing in injection drug users (IDUs). We obtained five near full-length genome sequences (NFLGs) of HCV isolated from five HIV-1 coinfected IDUs in Sichuan and Xinjiang province, China. By conducting reconstruction of neighbor-joining (NJ) phylogenetic tree, our results revealed that the five isolates are different genotypes (1b, 3a, 6a and 6n). The amino acid substitutions(170I) in XJN0021 related to resistant to protease inhibitors (Grazoprevir) were also identified...
January 11, 2017: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074109/improvement-of-quality-of-life-through-glycemic-control-by-liraglutide-a-glp-1-analog-in-insulin-naive-patients-with-type-2-diabetes-mellitus-the-page1-study
#5
Hitoshi Ishii, Tetsuji Niiya, Yasuhiro Ono, Naoyuki Inaba, Hideaki Jinnouchi, Hirotaka Watada
BACKGROUND: In addition to achieving good glycemic control, diabetes care management aims to improve the quality of life (QOL) in patients. Treatment-associated difficulties and side effects frequently cause deterioration in QOL. Liraglutide, a GLP-1 receptor agonist, is a novel injection drug that promotes insulin secretion. It is a user-friendly, once-daily injection with fewer hypoglycemic events. In this study, we aimed to examine the effect of liraglutide therapy on QOL in patients...
2017: Diabetology & Metabolic Syndrome
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28058567/sexual-risk-and-transmission-behaviors-partnerships-and-settings-among-young-adult-nonmedical-opioid-users-in-new-york-city
#6
S R Friedman, P Mateu-Gelabert, K V Ruggles, E Goodbody, C Syckes, L Jessell, Jennifer Teubl, H Guarino
Nonmedical prescription opioid use has become widespread. It can lead to heroin use, drug injection and HIV infection. We describe young adult opioid users' sexual risk behavior, partnerships and settings. 464 youth aged 18-29 who reported opioid use in the past 30 days were recruited using Respondent-Driven Sampling. Eligible participants completed a computer-assisted, interviewer-administered risk questionnaire and were tested for STIs and HIV. Participants (33% female; 66% white non-Hispanic) almost all had sex in the prior 90 days; 42% reported more than one partner...
January 5, 2017: AIDS and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057195/the-persistent-problem-of-late-hiv-diagnosis-in-people-with-aids-a-population-based-study-in-italy-1999-2013
#7
M Taborelli, S Virdone, L Camoni, V Regine, A Zucchetto, L Frova, E Grande, S Boros, L Dal Maso, P De Paoli, D Serraino, B Suligoi
OBJECTIVES: Despite the wide accessibility to free human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) testing and combined antiretroviral therapy (cART), late HIV diagnosis remains common with severe consequences at individual and population level. This study aimed to describe trends of late HIV testing and to identify their determinants in the late cART era in Italy. STUDY DESIGN: We conducted a population-based, nationwide analysis of the Italian National AIDS Registry data (AIDS - acquired immune deficiency syndrome) for the years 1999-2013...
January 2017: Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28050250/bacillus-cereus-bacteraemia-comparison-between-haematologic-and-nonhaematologic-patients
#8
S Tusgul, G Prod'hom, L Senn, R Meuli, P-Y Bochud, S G Giulieri
Bacillus cereus bacteraemia can be severe, especially among patients with haematologic malignancy. We retrospectively reviewed first episodes of true B. cereus bacteraemia (more than one positive bottle plus signs of infection) at our institution between 1997 and 2013 with the aim to compare haematologic versus nonhaematologic patients and analyse episodes with complicated outcome. Among 56 episodes of positive-blood cultures for B. cereus, 21 were considered significant. Median age was 54 years (range 23-82 years)...
January 2017: New Microbes and New Infections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28035171/the-case-of-a-needle-exchange-policy-debate-in-fresno-california
#9
Kris Clarke
Needle exchange is one of the most effective public health interventions to prevent the transmission of infectious disease by injecting drug users. Despite the preponderance of scientific evidence, US federal funding for needle exchange programmes has been banned since 1988. This prohibition has resulted in the lack of a centralised policy on needle exchange and has given birth to a patchwork of diverse practices and regulations throughout the nation. This article focuses on how various local players interpreted the meaning of needle exchange through the debate on an unauthorised site in Fresno, California...
May 2016: Crit Soc Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28031299/key-role-of-drug-shops-and-pharmacies-for-family-planning-in-urban-nigeria-and-kenya
#10
Meghan Corroon, Essete Kebede, Gean Spektor, Ilene Speizer
BACKGROUND: The Family Planning 2020 initiative aims to reach 120 million new family planning users by 2020. Drug shops and pharmacies are important private-sector sources of contraception in many contexts but are less well understood than public-sector sources, especially in urban environments. This article explores the role that drug shops and pharmacies play in the provision of contraceptive methods in selected urban areas of Nigeria and Kenya as well as factors associated with women's choice of where to obtain these methods...
December 23, 2016: Global Health, Science and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28027191/intentional-intra-arterial-injection-of-heroin-a-case-report
#11
Joji Suzuki, Erin S Valenti
Intravenous injection of drugs is associated with a host of medical complications, notably soft-tissue infections. On the contrary, intra-arterial injections of drugs have also been reported, largely restricted to inadvertent injections. Here we describe a patient who engaged in repeated intra-arterial injections of heroin when she exhausted most of her venous access, and presented acutely with a radial artery occlusion requiring thrombolytic therapy. Clinicians should have a high index of suspicion for intra-arterial injection in injection drug users who present with limb pain, ischemia, and motor/sensory deficits...
December 23, 2016: Journal of Addiction Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28009018/hbv-hcv-dual-infection-impacts-viral-load-antibody-response-and-cytokine-expression-differently-from-hbv-or-hcv-single-infection
#12
Fei Chen, Jian Zhang, Bo Wen, Shan Luo, Yingbiao Lin, Wensheng Ou, Fengfan Guo, Ping Tang, Wenpei Liu, Xiaowang Qu
Hepatitis B virus/hepatitis C virus (HBV/HCV) dual infection is common among high-risk individuals. To characterize the virological and immunological features of patients with HBV/HCV dual infection, we enrolled 1,049 individuals who have been identified as injection drug users. Patients were divided into single and dual infection groups according to the serological markers. We found the average HCV RNA level was significantly lower; however, HBV viral load was significantly higher in HBV/HCV dual-infected patients (n = 42) comparing HCV single infection (n = 340) or HBV single infection (n = 136)...
December 23, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28004616/age-and-time-dependent-prevalence-and-incidence-of-hepatitis-c-virus-infection-in-drug-users-in-france-2004-2011-model-based-estimation-from-two-national-cross-sectional-serosurveys
#13
L Leon, S Kasereka, F Barin, C Larsen, L Weill-Barillet, X Pascal, S Chevaliez, J Pillonel, M Jauffret-Roustide, Y LE Strat
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is a public health issue worldwide. Injecting drug use remains the major mode of transmission in developed countries. Monitoring the HCV transmission dynamic over time is crucial, especially to assess the effect of harm reduction measures in drug users (DU). Our objective was to estimate the prevalence and incidence of HCV infection in DU in France using data from a repeated cross-sectional survey conducted in 2004 and 2011. Age- and time-dependent HCV prevalence was estimated through logistic regression models adjusted for HIV serostatus or injecting practices...
December 22, 2016: Epidemiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27983504/analysis-of-anthrax-immune-globulin-intravenous-with-antimicrobial-treatment-in-injection-drug-users-scotland-2009-2010
#14
Xizhong Cui, Leisha D Nolen, Junfeng Sun, Malcolm Booth, Lindsay Donaldson, Conrad P Quinn, Anne E Boyer, Katherine Hendricks, Sean Shadomy, Pieter Bothma, Owen Judd, Paul McConnell, William A Bower, Peter Q Eichacker
We studied anthrax immune globulin intravenous (AIG-IV) use from a 2009-2010 outbreak of Bacillus anthracis soft tissue infection in injection drug users in Scotland, UK, and we compared findings from 15 AIG-IV recipients with findings from 28 nonrecipients. Death rates did not differ significantly between recipients and nonrecipients (33% vs. 21%). However, whereas only 8 (27%) of 30 patients at low risk for death (admission sequential organ failure assessment score of 0-5) received AIG-IV, 7 (54%) of the 13 patients at high risk for death (sequential organ failure assessment score of 6-11) received treatment...
January 2017: Emerging Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27957460/determination-the-research-priorities-in-the-field-of-hiv-aids-in-iran-a-systematic-review-article
#15
REVIEW
Amin Doosti-Irani, Kourosh Holakouie-Naieni
BACKGROUND: HIV and AIDS have many different epidemiological, social and political aspects. The aim of this study was to determine the research priorities according to the necessary aspects of HIV and AIDS in Iran. METHODS: The national and international databases were searched to obtain the published articles regarding HIV and AIDS in Iran. All Epidemiologic studies were included in this review for assess research priorities. RESULTS: Of 3059 retrieved references, 362 studies were included...
September 2016: Iranian Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27955960/the-risk-environment-of-anabolic-androgenic-steroid-users-in-the-uk-examining-motivations-practices-and-accounts-of-use
#16
Gisella Hanley Santos, Ross Coomber
BACKGROUND: The numbers using illicit anabolic-androgenic steroids are a cause of concern for those seeking to reduce health harms. Using the 'risk environment' as a conceptual framework to better comprehend how steroid users' practices and perspectives impact on health risks, this paper examines steroid user motivations, patterns of use, and the ways in which these practices are accounted for. METHODS: As part of a wider mixed-method study into performance and image enhancing drug (PIED) use and supply in one mid-sized city in South West England, qualitative interviews were undertaken with 22 steroid users...
December 7, 2016: International Journal on Drug Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27939297/health-and-social-care-workers-perceptions-of-nps-use-in-northern-ireland
#17
Anne Campbell, Nina O Neill, Kathryn Higgins
BACKGROUND: The EU Early Warning System currently monitors more than 560 new psychoactive substances, far outweighing the total number of illicit drugs under international control. Due to the recent emergence of NPS and rapidly changing nature of the market, evidence about the way in which the emerging drugs are managed in health and social care settings is limited. METHODS: The study adopted a mixed methods design, utilising a cross sectional survey and telephone interviews to capture data from staff working in drug and alcohol related services in statutory and voluntary sectors, across the five Health and Social Care (HSC) Trust areas in Northern Ireland...
December 6, 2016: International Journal on Drug Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27930590/low-mortality-but-increasing-incidence-of-staphylococcus-aureus-endocarditis-in-people-who-inject-drugs-experience-from-a-swedish-referral-hospital
#18
Hilmir Asgeirsson, Anders Thalme, Ola Weiland
Staphylococcus aureus is a leading cause of infective endocarditis in people who inject drugs (PWID). The management of S aureus endocarditis (SAE) in PWID can be problematic. The objective of this retrospective observational study was to assess the epidemiology, clinical characteristics, and mortality of S aureus endocarditis (SAE) in PWID in Stockholm, Sweden.The Department of Infectious Diseases at the Karolinska University Hospital serves as a regional referral center for drug users with severe infections...
December 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27930328/estimating-uncertainty-in-respondent-driven-sampling-using-a-tree-bootstrap-method
#19
Aaron J Baraff, Tyler H McCormick, Adrian E Raftery
Respondent-driven sampling (RDS) is a network-based form of chain-referral sampling used to estimate attributes of populations that are difficult to access using standard survey tools. Although it has grown quickly in popularity since its introduction, the statistical properties of RDS estimates remain elusive. In particular, the sampling variability of these estimates has been shown to be much higher than previously acknowledged, and even methods designed to account for RDS result in misleadingly narrow confidence intervals...
December 20, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923769/recombination-in-hepatitis-c-virus-is-not-uncommon-among-people-who-inject-drugs-in-kolkata-india
#20
Debanjali Gupta, Kallol Saha, Aritra Biswas, Rushna Firdaus, Monika Ghosh, Provash Chandra Sadhukhan
Recombination in RNA virus is a rare event in the survival and evolution to evade host immune system. This is increasing within high risk group population (HRG) due to super infection that occurs by continuous sharing of common drug equipment by HCV infected or HIV-HCV co-infected recurrent drug users. Recombination causes impediment to vaccine development and therapeutic intervention as standard HCV treatment is still genotype specific. Blood samples of 194 people who inject drugs (PWID) were collected from an Opioid Substitution Therapy Centre in Kolkata, India...
December 5, 2016: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
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