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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28454045/canadian-harm-reduction-policies-a-comparative-content-analysis-of-provincial-and-territorial-documents-2000-2015
#1
REVIEW
T Cameron Wild, Bernie Pauly, Lynne Belle-Isle, Walter Cavalieri, Richard Elliott, Carol Strike, Kenneth Tupper, Andrew Hathaway, Colleen Dell, Donald MacPherson, Caitlin Sinclair, Kamagaju Karekezi, Benjamin Tan, Elaine Hyshka
BACKGROUND: Access to harm reduction interventions among substance users across Canada is highly variable, and largely within the policy jurisdiction of the provinces and territories. This study systematically described variation in policy frameworks guiding harm reduction services among Canadian provinces and territories as part of the first national multimethod case study of harm reduction policy. METHODS: Systematic and purposive searches identified publicly-accessible policy texts guiding planning and organization of one or more of seven targeted harm reduction services: needle distribution, naloxone, supervised injection/consumption, low-threshold opioid substitution (or maintenance) treatment, buprenorphine/naloxone (suboxone), drug checking, and safer inhalation kits...
April 25, 2017: International Journal on Drug Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28454044/unintended-impacts-of-regulatory-changes-to-british-columbia-methadone-maintenance-program-on-addiction-and-hiv-related-outcomes-an-interrupted-time-series-analysis
#2
M Eugenia Socías, Evan Wood, Ryan McNeil, Thomas Kerr, Huiru Dong, Jean Shoveller, Julio Montaner, M-J Milloy
BACKGROUND: In February 2014, several regulatory reforms were introduced to the methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) program in British Columbia, Canada, including a switch to a ten-times more concentrated methadone formulation and restrictions in pharmacy delivery services. We evaluated possible unintended effects of these changes on illicit drug use patterns and HIV treatment outcomes among HIV-positive opioid users. METHODS: Data was drawn from ACCESS, a prospective community-recruited cohort of HIV-positive people who use illicit drugs in Vancouver, Canada...
April 25, 2017: International Journal on Drug Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436333/epidemiology-of-hepatitis-c-infection-in-pakistan-current-estimate-and-major-risk-factors
#3
Aiman Arshad, Usman Ali Ashfaq
In Pakistan, hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a major healthcare problem, with acute and chronic infections responsible for liver damage, cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma. Under the Human Development Index of the United Nations, Pakistan is ranked 134th of 174 countries due to its poor educational and health standards. This study was designed to study HCV and its genotype prevalence in different cities and provinces of Pakistan and describe the major routes of HCV transmission. Literature searches were performed in PubMed, Mendeley, and Google Scholar...
2017: Critical Reviews in Eukaryotic Gene Expression
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430013/barriers-to-access-to-sterile-syringes-as-perceived-by-pharmacists-and-injecting-drug-users-implications-for-harm-reduction-in-lebanon
#4
Ali Ghaddar, Karine Nassar, Ghadier Elsoury
BACKGROUND: Access to sterile syringes to injecting drug users (IDU) reduces sharing behavior and prevents the transmission of HIV. OBJECTIVES: To describe the barriers to access to sterile syringes for IDUs in Lebanon from the perspectives of pharmacists and IDUs. METHODS: in this qualitative study conducted in Lebanon, data were collected from 72 syringe purchase tests at pharmacies, 64 interviewees with pharmacists and 2 focus groups with injecting drug users...
April 21, 2017: Substance Use & Misuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420917/coping-strategies-mental-health-and-hiv-status-predictors-of-suicidal-behaviour-among-pwids
#5
Bushra Akram, Mubeen Ilyas
OBJECTIVE: To understand suicidal behaviour among people who inject drugs. METHODS: This correlational, cross-sectional study was conducted in two Pakistani cities of Gujrat and Jhelum from October 2015 to March 2016, and comprised male injecting-drug users aged18-60 years. Multistage systematic random sampling method was used. Urdu-translated versions of the brief cope inventory, mental health status scale and suicidal behaviour questionnaire (revised) were administered...
April 2017: JPMA. the Journal of the Pakistan Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28401523/injection-of-pharmaceuticals-designed-for-oral-use-harms-experienced-and-effective-harm-reduction-through-filtration
#6
Stuart McLean, Rahul Patel, Raimondo Bruno
Several pharmaceutical products are liable to 'abuse' or use outside their prescription, which frequently involves their injection. Examples are slow-release forms of morphine and oxycodone, and sublingual buprenorphine. During injection preparation, the drug is extracted into water, after crushing and heating the tablet if considered necessary. Since these products are designed for oral administration, they can contain excipients (ingredients other than the drug) which are poorly soluble, resulting in suspension of particles in the injection solution...
April 2, 2017: Current Topics in Behavioral Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28395249/opioid-users-with-comorbid-hepatitis-c-spent-more-time-in-agonist-therapy-a-6-year-observational-study-in-taiwan
#7
Horng-Maw Chen, Tsung-Hsueh Lu, Kun-Chia Chang, Kuan-Ying Lee, Ching-Ming Cheng
BACKGROUND: Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is highly prevalent among opioid agonist therapy (OAT) patients, but little is known about long-term OAT use among this population. METHODS: Subjects diagnosed as opioid dependence were recruited from Mar. 2006 to Jul. 2008 in a psychiatry center in southern Taiwan with the OAT censored in 2012, and their socio-demographics, drug use characteristics, and markers of blood-borne infection were assessed at entry. Correlates with HCV infection and OAT retention were analyzed by multivariate logistic regression...
March 31, 2017: Addictive Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28365240/using-electronic-health-records-to-build-an-ophthalmological-data-warehouse-and-visualize-patients-data
#8
Karsten U Kortüm, Michael Müller, Christoph Kern, Alexander Babenko, Wolfgang J Mayer, Anselm Kampik, Thomas C Kreutzer, Siegfried Priglinger, Christoph Hirneiss
PURPOSE: To develop a near real-time data warehouse (DW) in an academic ophthalmological center to gain scientific use of increasing digital data from electronic medical records (EMR) and diagnostic devices. Design; Database development METHODS: Specific macular clinic user interfaces within the institutional hospital information system were created. Orders for imaging modalities were sent by an EMR -linked picture-archiving and communications system to the respective devices. All data of 325,767 patients since 2002 were gathered in a DW running on a SQL database...
March 29, 2017: American Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28364979/factors-associated-with-condom-use-among-sexually-active-us-adults-national-survey-of-family-growth-2006-2010-and-2011-2013
#9
Muazzam Nasrullah, Emeka Oraka, Pollyanna R Chavez, Christopher H Johnson, Elizabeth DiNenno
BACKGROUND: Condom-less sex can increase the risk of acquiring or transmitting HIV. AIM: To characterize the prevalence of condom use at the most recent sex act and identify factors associated with use of a condom at the most recent sex act in adults in the United States. METHODS: Data from the cross-sectional National Survey of Family Growth from cycles 2006 through 2010 and 2011 through 2013 were analyzed for sexually active men and women 18 to 44 years old who reported having sex (vaginal, anal, or oral) with an opposite-sex partner in the past 12 months...
April 2017: Journal of Sexual Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28362063/adherence-to-antiretroviral-therapy-for-hiv-in-sub-saharan-africa-and-asia-a-comparative-analysis-of-two-regional-cohorts
#10
Rimke Bijker, Awachana Jiamsakul, Cissy Kityo, Sasisopin Kiertiburanakul, Margaret Siwale, Praphan Phanuphak, Sulaimon Akanmu, Romanee Chaiwarith, Ferdinand W Wit, Benedict Lh Sim, Tamara Sonia Boender, Rossana Ditangco, Tobias F Rinke De Wit, Annette H Sohn, Raph L Hamers
INTRODUCTION: Our understanding of how to achieve optimal long-term adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART) in settings where the burden of HIV disease is highest remains limited. We compared levels and determinants of adherence over time between HIV-positive persons receiving ART who were enrolled in a bi-regional cohort in sub-Saharan Africa and Asia. METHODS: This multicentre prospective study of adults starting first-line ART assessed patient-reported adherence at follow-up clinic visits using a 30-day visual analogue scale...
March 3, 2017: Journal of the International AIDS Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28358245/changes-in-the-demographics-of-intravenous-drug-users-with-mycotic-common-femoral-artery-pseudoaneurysm-as-a-consequence-of-self-injection-does-not-influence-outcome-following-emergency-ligation
#11
Richard P Stevenson, Catriona Semple, Keith Hussey, Josh McGovern, Wesley P Stuart, David B Kingsmore
Objectives The reported annual incidence of mycotic pseudoaneurysm of the common femoral artery in intravenous drug users has been estimated at 0.03%. Over the past 5 years in Scotland, the proportion of people receiving specialist attention for heroin use over the age of 40 years has increased from 15 to 22%. Although routinely managed with arterial ligation (without reconstruction), some series have reported rates of major limb amputation of up to 10%. We sought to define whether this management strategy was still acceptable in an older population...
January 1, 2017: Vascular
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28353446/decline-and-changing-profile-of-hepatitis-delta-among-injection-drug-users-in-spain
#12
Antonio Aguilera, Rocio Trastoy, Pablo Barreiro, José Javier Costa, Carmen de Mendoza, Jose M Peña, Vicente Soriano
BACKGROUND: Roughly 15 million people worldwide have hepatitis delta, the most severe form of chronic viral hepatitis that often leads to cirrhosis and liver cancer. Injection drug users (IDUs) are the largest HDV reservoir. Their resurgence in North America and Europe may represent a new opportunity for HDV widespread. METHODS: We examined all consecutive active IDUs seen for the first time and enrolled in detoxification programs at two clinics in Spain during two periods (1993-1996 and 2011-2014, respectively)...
March 29, 2017: Antiviral Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345206/treatment-with-direct-acting-antiviral-agents-of-hepatitis-c-virus-infection-in-injecting-drug-users-a-prospective-study
#13
Lucio Boglione, Simone Mornese Pinna, Amedeo De Nicolò, Jessica Cusato, Giuseppe Cariti, Giovanni Di Perri, Antonio D'Avolio
In this prospective study, we evaluated the effectiveness and tolerability of novel therapies against hepatitis C virus (HCV) in a cohort of PWID enrolled at our centre from April 2015 to July 2016. In this analysis, a total of 174 patients were included: 11 (6.3%) were treated with pegylated-interferon (PEG-IFN) and ribavirin (RBV) containing regimens, 163 (93.7%) with IFN-free treatments. RBV has been used in 70 patients (40.2%); 59 (33.9%) patients were in opioid substitution therapy (OST) with methadone or buprenorphine...
March 26, 2017: Journal of Viral Hepatitis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344768/an-end-to-lifetime-blood-donation-ban-in-israel-for-msm-would-be-a-major-step-toward-a-science-based-policy-that-reduces-stigma
#14
EDITORIAL
Sean Cahill, Timothy Wang
In recent years, countries around the world have revised their blood donation policies regarding gay and bisexual men, and other men who have sex with men (MSM). The United States lifted the lifetime ban on MSM from donating blood in 2015, replacing it with a 1 year deferral policy allowing MSM to donate if they abstain from sex for 12 months. Other countries followed suit, while Italy and Spain have implemented deferral policies based on individual risk assessments regardless of sexual orientation. If Israel were to adopt a one year deferral policy for MSM, as recommended by Drs...
2017: Israel Journal of Health Policy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337798/latent-classes-of-polydrug-and-polyroute-use-and-associations-with-human-immunodeficiency-virus-risk-behaviours-and-overdose-among-people-who-inject-drugs-in-tijuana-baja-california-mexico
#15
Meredith C Meacham, Scott C Roesch, Steffanie A Strathdee, Suzanne Lindsay, Patricia Gonzalez-Zuniga, Tommi L Gaines
INTRODUCTION AND AIMS: Patterns of polydrug use among people who inject drugs (PWID) may be differentially associated with overdose and unique human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) risk factors. Subgroups of PWID in Tijuana, Mexico, were identified based on substances used, route of administration, frequency of use and co-injection indicators. DESIGN AND METHODS: Participants were PWID residing in Tijuana age ≥18 years sampled from 2011 to 2012 who reported injecting an illicit substance in the past month (n = 735)...
March 24, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335754/the-structural-and-health-policy-environment-for-delivering-integrated-hiv-and-substance-use-disorder-treatments-in-puerto-rico
#16
Jared A Leff, Diana Hernández, Paul A Teixeira, Pedro C Castellón, Daniel J Feaster, Allan E Rodriguez, Jorge L Santana-Bagur, Sandra Miranda De León, José Vargas Vidot, Lisa R Metsch, Bruce R Schackman
BACKGROUND: HIV prevalence in Puerto Rico is nearly twice that of the mainland United States, a level that was substantially fueled by injection drug use. Puerto Rico has a longstanding history of health provision by the public sector that directly affects how HIV and substance use disorder (SUD) treatment services are provided and funded. As part of pre-implementation research for a randomized trial of a community-level intervention to enhance HIV care access for substance users in San Juan, Puerto Rico, we sought to understand the structural and health policy environment for providing HIV and SUD treatments...
March 23, 2017: BMC Health Services Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329935/-a-cross-sectional-survey-of-receiving-no-methadone-maintenance-treatment-in-hiv-infected-injecting-drug-users-in-dehong-dai-and-jingpo-autonomous-prefecture-yunnan-province
#17
R H Tang, R H Ye, Y C Yang, S T Yao, J B Wang, R M Zhang, L F Luo, Z L Wu, Y C Long, M S Yin, N He, S Duan
Objective: To understand the current status of receiving no methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) and influencing factors in HIV infected injecting drug users (IDUs) in Dehong Dai and Jingpo autonomous prefectures, Yunnan province. Methods: Data of survival of IDUs with AIDS in Dehong were collected from " Chinese National Comprehensive HIV/AIDS and Care Information System" in December, 2014. Results: There were 987 IDUs who should receive MMT, the majority of them were males (94.6%, 934/987), aged 35-44 years (53...
March 10, 2017: Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue za Zhi, Zhonghua Liuxingbingxue Zazhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317200/self-limiting-non-medical-pharmaceutical-opioid-use-among-young-people-in-sydney-australia-an-exploratory-study
#18
George C Dertadian, Thomas C Dixon, Jennifer Iversen, Lisa Maher
INTRODUCTION AND AIMS: Indicators suggest an escalation in opioid use globally, with recent HIV outbreaks linked to non-medical pharmaceutical opioid (NMPO) use. Little is known about how young Australians engage in NMPO use. DESIGN AND METHODS: During 2015, we conducted qualitative interviews with young people (16-29 years) who reported oral NMPO use at least twice in the past 90 days. The study included a sample of injecting (n = 14) and oral (n = 22) users...
March 20, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298195/role-of-systemic-inflammation-scores-for-prediction-of-clinical-outcomes-in-patients-treated-with-atazanavir-not-boosted-by-ritonavir-in-the-italian-master-cohort
#19
Maria Concetta Postorino, Mattia Prosperi, Emanuele Focà, Eugenia Quiros-Roldan, Elisa Di Filippo, Franco Maggiolo, Alberto Borghetti, Nicoletta Ladisa, Massimo Di Pietro, Andrea Gori, Laura Sighinolfi, Angelo Pan, Nicola Mazzini, Carlo Torti
BACKGROUND: Atazanavir (ATV) not boosted by ritonavir (uATV) has been frequently used in the past for switching combination antiretroviral therapy (cART). However, the clinical outcomes and predictors of such strategy are unknown. METHODS: An observational study was carried out on the Italian MASTER, selecting HIV infected patients on cART switching to an uATV-containing regimen. Baseline was set as the last visit before uATV initiation. In the primary analysis, a composite clinical end-point was defined as the first occurring of any condition among: liver, cardiovascular, kidney, diabetes, non AIDS related cancer or death events...
March 15, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28292795/primary-care-management-of-opioid-use-disorders-abstinence-methadone-or-buprenorphine-naloxone
#20
REVIEW
Anita Srivastava, Meldon Kahan, Maya Nader
OBJECTIVE: To advise physicians on which treatment options to recommend for specific patient populations: abstinence-based treatment, buprenorphine-naloxone maintenance, or methadone maintenance. SOURCES OF INFORMATION: PubMed was searched and literature was reviewed on the effectiveness, safety, and side effect profiles of abstinence-based treatment, buprenorphine-naloxone treatment, and methadone treatment. Both observational and interventional studies were included...
March 2017: Canadian Family Physician Médecin de Famille Canadien
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