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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29435795/illicit-drug-users-in-the-tanzanian-hinterland-population-size-estimation-through-key-informant-driven-hot-spot-mapping
#1
Joel Ndayongeje, Amani Msami, Yovin Ivo Laurent, Syangu Mwankemwa, Moza Makumbuli, Alois M Ngonyani, Jenny Tiberio, Susie Welty, Christen Said, Meghan D Morris, Willi McFarland
We mapped hot spots and estimated the numbers of people who use drugs (PWUD) and who inject drugs (PWID) in 12 regions of Tanzania. Primary (ie, current and past PWUD) and secondary (eg, police, service providers) key informants identified potential hot spots, which we visited to verify and count the number of PWUD and PWID present. Adjustments to counts and extrapolation to regional estimates were done by local experts through iterative rounds of discussion. Drug use, specifically cocaine and heroin, occurred in all regions...
February 12, 2018: AIDS and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29435466/opana-er-oxymorphone-induced-thrombotic-microangiopathy-an-atypical-presentation-in-a-patient-with-hepatitis-c
#2
Hassan Mehmood, Muzammil Khan, Asghar Marwat, Medha Joshi, Varun Malhotra
Oxymorphone is a semisynthetic extended release opiate used to treat moderate to severe chronic pain. The Food and Drug Administration approved the oral form of oxymorphone available as Opana and Opana ER (extended release) since 2006. The Food and Drug Administration and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention issued warning against intravenous use of Opana ER. We are presenting a case report of a 37-year-old female with a history of active intravenous drug abuse who presented to our hospital with acute kidney injury...
January 2018: Journal of Investigative Medicine High Impact Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29432084/the-relationship-between-drug-use-settings-roles-in-the-drug-economy-and-witnessing-a-drug-overdose-in-baltimore-maryland
#3
Carl A Latkin, Catie Edwards, Melissa A Davey-Rothwell, Cui Yang, Karin E Tobin
BACKGROUND: There has been a dramatic increase in drug overdose deaths in the US. In the current study, we examined factors associated with witnessing a drug overdose. METHODS: A sample of 450 substance users in Baltimore, Maryland, US were recruited for a behavioral intervention and were administered a survey. Multinomial logistic regression models were used to compare participants who never witnessed a drug overdose to those who witnessed one in the prior six months and those who witnessed an overdose over six months ago...
February 12, 2018: Substance Abuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29426304/rationale-design-and-methodology-of-a-trial-evaluating-three-models-of-care-for-hcv-treatment-among-injection-drug-users-on-opioid-agonist-therapy
#4
Matthew J Akiyama, Linda Agyemang, Julia H Arnsten, Moonseong Heo, Brianna L Norton, Bruce R Schackman, Benjamin P Linas, Alain H Litwin
BACKGROUND: People who inject drugs (PWID) constitute 60% of the approximately 5 million people in the U.S. infected with hepatitis C virus (HCV). Treatment of PWID is complex due to addiction, mental illness, poverty, homelessness, lack of positive social support, poor adherence-related skills, low motivation and knowledge, and poor access to and trust in the health care system. New direct-acting antiviral medications are available for HCV with high cure rates and few side effects. The life expectancy and economic benefits of new HCV treatments will not be realized unless we determine optimal models of care for the majority of HCV-infected patients...
February 9, 2018: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29415660/transmission-dynamics-for-methicilin-resistant-staphalococous-areus-with-injection-drug-user
#5
Rebekah Wagner, Folashade B Agusto
BACKGROUND: Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a bacterial pathogen resistance to antibiotics including methicillin. The resistance first emerged in 1960 in a healthcare setting only after two years of using methicillin as a viable treatment for methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus. MRSA leads to infections in different parts of the body including the skin, bloodstream, lungs, or the urinary tract. METHODS: A deterministic model for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) with injection drug users is designed...
February 7, 2018: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29409456/task-shifting-in-active-management-of-the-third-stage-of-labor-a-systematic-review
#6
Tessa M Raams, Joyce L Browne, Verena J M M Festen-Schrier, Kerstin Klipstein-Grobusch, Marcus J Rijken
BACKGROUND: Active management of the third stage of labor (AMTSL) describes interventions with the common goal to prevent postpartum hemorrhage (PPH). In low- and middle-income countries, implementation of AMTSL is hampered by shortage of skilled birth attendants and a high percentage of home deliveries. Task shifting of specific AMTSL components to unskilled birth attendants or self-administration could be a strategy to increase access to potentially life-saving interventions. This study was designed to evaluate the effect, acceptance and safety of task shifting of specific aspects of AMTSL to unskilled birth attendants...
February 6, 2018: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29393006/risk-behaviors-for-sexually-transmitted-infections-in-noninjecting-drug-users-a-cross-sectional-study
#7
Rafael A Guimarães, Luiz Hb Monteiro, Sheila A Teles, Inaina L Fernandes, Aurélio G Rodovalho, Graciele C Silva, Roselma Lucchese, Ivânia Vera, Andrécia C Silva, Valéria D Gregório, Priscilla M Ferreira, Mayara Ms de Almeida, Vanessa A Guimarães, Thiago A Amorim, Marise R de Souza
The objective of this study was to investigate risk behaviors for sexually transmitted infections (STIs) in noninjecting drug users (NIDUs), using STI diagnosis history as an indicator. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 323 NIDUs of two facilities for alcohol and/or drug dependence treatment in the Goiás State, Central Brazil. All participants were interviewed about risk behaviors and STI history. Multivariable analysis was performed in order to identify predictors of STIs. Adjusted prevalence ratio (APR) with confidence intervals of 95% was obtained using a Poisson regression model...
January 1, 2018: International Journal of STD & AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29389957/genotype-distribution-and-treatment-response-among-incarcerated-drug-dependent-patients-with-chronic-hepatitis-c-infection
#8
Chun-Han Cheng, Ching-Chung Lin, Huan-Lin Chen, I-Tsung Lin, Chia-Hsien Wu, Yuan-Kai Lee, Ming-Jong Bair
The prevalence of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is disproportionately high among prisoners, especially among those who are drug-dependent. However, current screening and treatment recommendations are inconsistent for this population, and appropriate care is not reliably provided. To address these problems, the present study aimed to identify unique characteristics and clinical manifestations of incarcerated patients with HCV infection. We included incarcerated patients who received treatment with pegylated-interferon combined with ribavirin at Mackay Memorial Hospital in Taitung and were serving sentences at either the Taiyuan Skill Training Institute or the Yanwan Training Institute...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29378631/socio-demographic-and-sexual-practices-associated-with-hiv-infection-in-kenyan-injection-and-non-injection-drug-users
#9
Valentine Budambula, Charles Matoka, James Ouma, Aabid A Ahmed, Michael F Otieno, Tom Were
BACKGROUND: Substance use is increasingly becoming prevalent on the African continent, fueling the spread of HIV infection. Although socio-demographic factors influence substance consumption and risk of HIV infection, the association of these factors with HIV infection is poorly understood among substance users on the African continent. The objective of the study was to assess socio-demographic and sexual practices that are associated with HIV infection among injection drug users (IDUs), non-IDUs, and non-drug users (DUs) at an urban setting of coastal Kenya...
January 30, 2018: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29369917/androgen-abuse-epidemiology
#10
Dominic Sagoe, Ståle Pallesen
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To systematically review current epidemiological literature on androgen abuse. Estimates from 32 empirical epidemiological articles were reviewed. RECENT FINDINGS: Generally, androgen abuse epidemiology and prevalence is higher in Europe, the Middle East, North America (the USA), Oceania (Australia and New Zealand), and South America (Brazil) and lower in Africa and Asia. In contrast to the general population, androgen abuse epidemiology and prevalence is higher among athletes, injection drug users, recreational sportspeople, and sexual and gender minorities...
January 24, 2018: Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29367942/-depression-among-caregivers-of-hiv-positive-injection-drug-users-in-hanoi-2016
#11
Đào Thị Diệu Thúy, Trần Minh Hoàng, Đinh Thanh Thúy, Phạm Phương Mai, Lê Minh Giang
Most of people who inject drugs in Vietnam live in their family homes and these living have formed the burden on caring. This study aimed at exploring the characteristic of depression of caregivers of HIV - positive injection drug users and relative factors. Cross - sectional assessment data were gathered from 138 caregivers recruited from Hanoi city. About 20% of the study sample had a depressed condition from mild to extremely severe. Caregiver burden and family function were significantly associated with depression of caregivers...
April 2017: Tạp Chí Nghiên Cứu y Học
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29361804/global-mortality-burden-of-cirrhosis-and-liver-cancer-attributable-to-injection-drug-use-1990-2016-an-age-period-cohort-and-spatial-autocorrelation-analysis
#12
Jin Yang, Yunquan Zhang, Lisha Luo, Runtang Meng, Chuanhua Yu
We analyzed the temporal and spatial variations in mortality burden of cirrhosis and liver cancer attributable to injection drug use (IDU) from 1990 to 2016. Mortality data of IDU-attributable cirrhosis and IDU-attributable liver cancer on the global and national scales from 1990 to 2016 were collected from the Global Burden of Disease (GBD) studies. Age-period-cohort (APC) model analysis was used to analyze the global mortality trends of target disease, and spatial autocorrelation analysis based on Geographic Information System was applied to illustrate the clusters of the most epidemic countries...
January 22, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29353022/using-medical-examiner-case-narratives-to-improve-opioid-overdose-surveillance
#13
Emily Hurstak, Christopher Rowe, Caitlin Turner, Emily Behar, Rachel Cabugao, Nikolas P Lemos, Phillip Coffin
BACKGROUND: Current opioid overdose mortality surveillance methods do not capture the complexity of the overdose epidemic. Most rely on death certificates, which may underestimate both opioid analgesic and heroin deaths. Categorizing deaths using other characteristics from the death record including route of drug administration may provide useful information to design and evaluate overdose prevention interventions. METHODS: We reviewed California Electronic Death Reporting System records and San Francisco Office of the Chief Medical Examiner (OCME) toxicology reports and investigative case narratives for all unintentional opioid overdose deaths in San Francisco County from 2006 to 2012...
January 17, 2018: International Journal on Drug Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29345844/assessing-hepatitis-c-spontaneous-clearance-and-understanding-associated-factors-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#14
Dewi Nur Aisyah, Laura Shallcross, Alice Jane Hully, Alastair O'Brien, Andrew Hayward
New advances in the treatment of hepatitis C provide high levels of sustained viral response but their expense limits availability in publicly funded health systems. The aim of this review is to estimate the proportion of patients who will spontaneously clear HCV and to identify factors that are associated with clearance, to support better targeting of directly acting antivirals. We searched Ovid Embase, Ovid Medline and Pubmed from 1st January 1994 to 30th June 2015 for studies reporting hepatitis C spontaneous clearance and/or demographic, clinical, and behavioural factors associated with clearance...
January 18, 2018: Journal of Viral Hepatitis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29335823/-drugs-for-intravenous-induction-of-anesthesia-propofol
#15
D Bolkenius, C Dumps, E Halbeck
In a series of articles dealing with hypnotics for induction of anesthesia, this article describes the development and current value of propofol. Its significance far exceeds that of a pure induction hypnotic (sedation in diagnostic and therapeutic procedures and on the intensive care unit). Propofol is also used for sedation in diagnostic and therapeutic procedures and on the intensive care unit. In the field of induction of anesthesia, the alternatives are barely used. Some contraindications are still controversial whereas others are no longer sufficiently anchored in the users' awareness (widespread off-label use)...
February 2018: Der Anaesthesist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325431/persons-living-with-diagnosed-hiv-in-new%C3%A2-york-city-over-50-over-50-years-old
#16
Qiang Xia, Emily Westheimer, Rebekkah S Robbins, Lucia V Torian
Using NYC HIV surveillance data, we estimated the annual median age of persons living with diagnosed HIV (PLWDH) and the proportion of PLWDH over 50 years old in NYC between 2008 and 2015, and described the characteristics, retention in care and viral suppression status among PLWDH in NYC in 2015, by age (<50 vs. ≥50 years old). The median age of PLWDH in NYC increased from 46.4 years (interquartile range [IQR]: 39.4, 53.2) in 2008 to 50.2 years (IQR: 39.8, 57.5) in 2015, and the proportion of PLWDH over 50 years old increased from 35...
January 11, 2018: AIDS Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29316523/gender-and-race-as-correlates-of-high-risk-sex-behaviors-among-injection-drug-users-at-risk-for-hiv-enrolled-in-the-hptn-037-study
#17
Mandy J Hill, Michael Holt, Brett Hanscom, Zhe Wang, Marylou Cardenas-Turanzas, Carl Latkin
BACKGROUND: Sexual contact has been shown to be a major mode of HIV transmission among people who inject drugs (PWID). This study examined gender and racial differences among PWID' sexual risk behaviors from the perspective of sexual scripts. METHODS: 696 PWID enrolled from Philadelphia on HPTN 037 were classified as engaging in high-risk sex behaviors if they reported having sex in the past 30 days and condomless sex with a non-primary partner, giving/receiving sex for money, or multiple partners...
January 4, 2018: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29313763/sexual-violence-and-the-risk-of-hiv-transmission-in-sexual-partners-of-male-injecting-drug-users-in-tien-du-district-bac-ninh-province-of-vietnam
#18
Do Thi Vinh, Ho Thi Hien, Nguyen Manh Tri, Do Khac Huynh
We conducted a cross-sectional study among 148 women who were regular sexual partners of male injecting drug users in Tien Du, Bac Ninh province, Vietnam to identify the rate of HIV infection and factors associated with HIV transmission among them. HIV infection rate among sexual partners was high, 11.5%. Sexual violence was prevalent, 63.5% among sexual partners; 94.1% (16/17) among those with HIV. We discovered an association between sexual violence and HIV infection. Sexual partners suffering from sexual violence caused by their regular sexual partners faced 9...
January 9, 2018: Health Care for Women International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29312527/global-elimination-of-hepatitis-c-virus-infection-progresses-and-the-remaining-challenges
#19
REVIEW
Reza Taherkhani, Fatemeh Farshadpour
Today, with the introduction of interferon-free direct-acting antivirals and outstanding progresses in the prevention, diagnosis and treatment of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection, the elimination of HCV infection seems more achievable. A further challenge is continued transmission of HCV infection in high-risk population specially injecting drug users (IDUs) as the major reservoir of HCV infection. Considering the fact that most of these infections remain undiagnosed, unidentified HCV-infected IDUs are potential sources for the rapid spread of HCV in the community...
November 28, 2017: World Journal of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29299210/cost-effectiveness-of-methadone-maintenance-treatment-centers-in-prevention-of-human-immunodeficiency-virus-infection
#20
Sirus Pourkhajoei, Mohsen Barouni, Alireza Noroozi, Ahmad Hajebi, Saeed Amini, Mohammad Karamouzian, Hamid Sharifi
Background: Acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) is one of the greatest social health problems in many communities in the twenty-first century. Methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) could decrease HIV infection among injection drug users (IDU). The main aim of this paper was to determine the cost-effectiveness of the governmental MMT program to prevent human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection among IDU. Methods: This analytical study was performed through a before-after assessment during a one-year period...
April 2017: Addiction & Health
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