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Injection drug user

Sandra Nordmann, Thomas Nefau, Joëlle Micallef, Catherine Duplessy, Jean-Christophe Catusse, Elisabeth Frauger
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to analyze the residual content of used syringes. METHODS: Used syringes were collected in March 2014 at 9 sites in Marseille (automatic injection kit dispensers, streets, drug-user risk reduction centers [Centres d'accueil et d'accompagnement à la réduction de risques pour usagers de drogues [CAARUD]). Several substances (n=28) were investigated using liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry method. RESULTS: On average, 2±1 substances in each syringe were found among 254 syringes analyzed...
October 19, 2016: Thérapie
Ashly E Jordan, David C Perlman
BACKGROUND: Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is hyperendemic among people who inject drugs; nonsterile drug injection is the principle risk for HCV acquisition. Due to gaps in the HCV care continuum, there have been recommendations in the United States emphasizing age-rather than risk-based testing strategies. The central research focus of this project is to explore the meanings and implications of the shift in emphasis from risk-based to age-based HCV testing with regard to people who use drugs...
October 21, 2016: Substance Use & Misuse
Natalya M Gashnikova, Darya P Zyryanova, Ekaterina M Astakhova, Vladimir V Ivlev, Maria P Gashnikova, Natalya V Moskaleva, Sergey S Aikin, Tatyana N Bulatova, Sergey V Pustylnikov, Evgeny F Bocharov, Aleksey V Totmenin
Kemerovo Oblast (KO) has had the highest rate of HIV spread in Russia since 2011. The aim of this work was to study the genetic variation of HIV-1 in Kemerovo Oblast. Blood was sampled from a total of 91 HIV-positive antiretroviral-therapy-naïve individuals in 2013 (38) and 2015 (53). HIV-1 subtypes, pol gene drug resistance mutations, and viral tropism were analyzed. In 2013-2015, the prevalence of HIV-1 subtype A decreased in KO from 60.5 to 7.5 %. The samples collected in 2015 from the patients with newly diagnosed HIV demonstrate the current dominance of HIV-1 CRF63_02A1 (71...
October 19, 2016: Archives of Virology
Rosalind L Coleman, Susie McLean
INTRODUCTION: The offer of pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) is recommended as an additional option for HIV prevention for people at substantial risk of HIV infection as part of combination HIV prevention approaches. Implementing this depends on integrating PrEP in public health programmes that address risky practices with evidence-based interventions, and that operate in an enabling legal and policy environment for the delivery of health services to those at higher risk of HIV infection...
2016: Journal of the International AIDS Society
Frances M Cowan, Sinead Delany-Moretlwe, Eduard J Sanders, Nelly R Mugo, Fernand A Guedou, Michel Alary, Luc Behanzin, Owen Mugurungi, Linda-Gail Bekker
INTRODUCTION: Of the two million new HIV infections in adults in 2014, 70% occurred in sub-Saharan Africa. Several African countries have already approved guidelines for pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) for individuals at substantial risk of HIV as part of combination HIV prevention but key questions remain about how to identify and deliver PrEP to those at greatest need. Throughout the continent, individuals in sero-discordant relationships, and members of key populations (sex workers, men who have sex with men (MSM), transgender women and injection drug users) are likely to benefit from the availability of PrEP...
2016: Journal of the International AIDS Society
Zhonglan Wu, Lijia Cui, Weiming Zhao, Dongzhi Yang, Hui Chen, Ruiqing Wang, Xuemin Wang, Linqi Zhang, Tianhua He
BACKGROUND: Current prevalence and genotype distribution of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection remain unknown in Ningxia, northwest China. METHODS: From June to December 2013, 13,022 individuals were screened in Ningxia HIV/AIDS Sentinel Surveillance System, with their demographic features collected and serum samples tested for HCV antibody. Sero-positive drug users were further subjected to sequencing of NS5B and Core regions of HCV. RESULTS: The anti-HCV prevalence was 0...
October 18, 2016: Virology Journal
Ibrahim Ali Kabbash, Ehab A Abo Ali, Mostafa Mahmoud Elgendy, Mostafa Mohamed Abdrabo, Helal Mohamed Salem, Mohammed Ramadan Gouda, Yousef Saleh Elbasiony, Nader Elboshy, Mohammed Hamed
HIV/AIDS-related stigma and discrimination among health care professionals is one of the most important factors of this disease expansion. This study aimed to assess the stigmatized attitude among health care providers toward people living with HIV (PLHIV) at Tanta University Hospitals. The study is a cross-sectional survey. Data was gathered from randomly selected 310 health care workers at Tanta University Hospital using a structured questionnaire. Among studied participants, only 24.0 % had previous contact with HIV patients during work and 21...
October 18, 2016: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Andrew Kestler, Jane Buxton, Gray Meckling, Amanda Giesler, Michelle Lee, Kirsten Fuller, Hong Quian, Dalya Marks, Frank Scheuermeyer
STUDY OBJECTIVE: Although the World Health Organization recommends take-home naloxone to address the increasing global burden of opioid-related deaths, few emergency departments (EDs) offer a take-home naloxone program. We seek to determine the take-home naloxone acceptance rate among ED patients at high risk of opioid overdose and to examine factors associated with acceptance. METHODS: At a single urban ED, consecutive eligible patients at risk of opioid overdose were invited to complete a survey about opioid use, overdose experience, and take-home naloxone awareness, and then offered take-home naloxone...
October 10, 2016: Annals of Emergency Medicine
Meng-Hsuan Hsieh, Shu-Chi Wang, Ming-Yen Hsieh, Chung-Feng Huang, Ming-Lun Yeh, Jeng-Fu Yang, Ko Chang, Wei-Ru Lin, Chun-Yu Lin, Tun-Chieh Chen, Jee-Fu Huang, Chia-Yen Dai, Jih-Jin Tsai, Wan-Long Chuang, Ming-Lung Yu
In Taiwan, injecting drug use has been the main route of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) transmission since 2005, with hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis D virus (HDV) also having similar transmission routes. This has now become an important public health issue. The aim of this study is to explore the conditions of HDV infections between injecting drug users (IDUs) with and without HIV infection in Southern Taiwan. In this study, 87 IDUs were enrolled, including 27 anti-HDV seronegative IDUs and 60 anti-HDV seropositive IDUs, and the results of their liver function tests, CD4 cell counts, and anti-HIV and HIV RNA levels were analyzed...
October 2016: Kaohsiung Journal of Medical Sciences
Eleni Papachristou, Aikaterini Tsagkovits, Assimina Zavitsanou, Angelos Hatzakis, Dimitrios Paraskevis
BACKGROUND: Most of the HCV transmission the recent years in Greece was among IDUs. Our aim was to estimate the prevalence of HCV genotypes and to investigate the patterns of HCV dispersal among IDUs in Athens using current state of the art molecular epidemiology methods. METHODS: HCV sequences were determined from 238 HIV-negative IDUs collected on the basis of the "ARISTOTLE" prevention program carried out in Athens between 2012 and 2013. Phylogenetic trees were inferred on HCV sequences isolated from IDUs in Athens for the most prevalent HCV clades (subtypes 1a and 3a)...
October 6, 2016: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
Aladdin Shadyab, Kenrad E Nelson, Ram Rangsin
The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) epidemic in Thailand was first recognized in 1988 among injection drug users (IDUs) in Bangkok. Soon thereafter, HIV infections were reported among female sex workers (FSWs) and men attending sexually transmitted disease (STD) clinics. Routine serological surveillance for HIV began in 1991 among young men who were conscripted annually into the Royal Thai Army (RTA). The data from these populations provided a national population-based sample to determine sexual behaviors and HIV prevalence among sexually active young men...
October 6, 2016: Current HIV Research
Andréia P Andrade, Suzy D B Pacheco, Fabricio Q Silva, Luiz M L Pinheiro, Jairo A A Castro, Carlos E M Amaral, Renata B Hermes, Benedikt Fischer, João R R Pinho, José Alexandre R Lemos, Aldemir B Oliveira-Filho
South America is considered to have a low prevalence of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection, although areas with a relatively high prevalence have been identified in northern Brazil. Few epidemiological studies of populations at risk of HBV infection are available for this region. Given this, in the present study, we investigated the prevalence of HBV and the factors associated with infection among illicit drug users (DUs) in the Marajó Archipelago, northern Brazil. In this cross-sectional study, we collected samples and epidemiological information from DUs in 11 municipalities of the Marajó Archipelago...
October 7, 2016: Archives of Virology
Eva Charlotte Toth, Jette Tegner, Sigurd Lauridsen, Nanna Kappel
BACKGROUND: Drug consumption rooms (DCRs) have been implemented worldwide as a harm-reducing strategy. In 2012, Denmark passed legislation allowing establishment of DCRs. The aim of this study was to identify characteristics and gain knowledge of the way service users use the DCRs including bridge building to specialized health care. Associations between nationality, opioid substitution treatment (OST), drug intake method, and response to staff advice on harm-reducing education was investigated, as well as service user's reasons for using the DCRs, and their perceptions of safety and trust in the DCRs...
October 7, 2016: Harm Reduction Journal
Jessica M Sales, Andrea Swartzendruber, Ashley L Phillips
The high prevalence of trauma and its negative impact on health and health-promoting behaviors underscore the need for multi-level interventions to address trauma and its associated sequelae to improve physical and mental well-being in both HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected populations. Growing global awareness of the intersection of trauma and HIV has resulted in development and testing of interventions to address trauma in the context of HIV treatment and HIV prevention in the USA and globally. Despite increasing recognition of the widespread nature of trauma and the importance of trauma to HIV transmission around the globe, several gaps remain...
October 4, 2016: Current HIV/AIDS Reports
M Eugenia Socías, Evan Wood, Will Small, Huiru Dong, Jean Shoveller, Thomas Kerr, Julio Montaner, M-J Milloy
BACKGROUND: Methadone maintenance therapy (MMT) is associated with improved HIV treatment outcomes among people who use drugs (PWUD). The extent to which these benefits are sustained in the context of ongoing cocaine use is unclear. We assessed differential impacts of MMT on HIV viral load (VL) suppression in relation to discrete patterns of cocaine use. METHODS: Data was drawn from ACCESS, a prospective cohort of HIV-positive PWUD in Vancouver, Canada. Generalized linear mixed-effects were used to model the independent effect of MMT on VL suppression across strata of frequency of cocaine injection and crack smoking (≥daily versus <daily), after adjustment for confounders...
September 20, 2016: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
Angel M Mayor, Eduardo J Santiago-Rodriguez, Eddy Rios-Olivares, Guillermo Tortolero-Luna, Robert F Hunter-Mellado
BACKGROUND: The study describes the cancer trends in a Puerto Rican Hispanic HIV/AIDS cohort for three different time periods as defined by the availability of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) in the Island: pre (1992-1995), early (1996-2002, and recent (2003-2009). METHODS: AIDS and non-AIDS related malignancies risk, standardized incidence rate and one year mortality was evaluated in the cohort before and after cART. RESULTS: Of the 281 malignancies found in 265 persons; 72% were in men, 38% in injecting drug users and 42...
2016: International Journal of Cancer Research
Sinisa Skocibusic, Marko Martinac, Jurica Arapovic, Svjetlana Grgic, Jadranka Nikolic, Dino Hasanagic, Milenko Bevanda, Jelena Ravlija
INTRODUCTION: Use of intravenous heroin carries a risk of serious medical conditions, including acquiring blood-borne infections. Therefore, hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection represent a threat for people who inject drugs (PWID). The objectives of this study were to determine the extent and characteristics of risk factors for acquiring HBV and HCV infection in PWID included in opiate substitution treatment in the southern part of Bosnia and Herzegovina (B&H)...
September 30, 2016: Journal of Infection in Developing Countries
Éric Tremblay, Sylvie Perreault, Marc Dorais
: Persistence to denosumab or zoledronic acid was increased compared to oral bisphosphonates. INTRODUCTION: Denosumab and zoledronic acid are alternative therapies to oral bisphosphonates. Few studies have assessed persistence of those agents. METHODS: Incident users of denosumab and zoledronic acid were identified using healthcare databases of public drug insurance plan of Quebec province, Canada. Patients initiating therapy between October 1, 2008, and June 30, 2013, and aged 50 years and over were eligible...
December 2016: Archives of Osteoporosis
Laetitia Houx, Hélène Saudreau, Philippe Galien, Christelle Pons, Marion Roquet, Ronan Garlantezec, Sylvain Brochard
OBJECTIVE: A better understanding of the perception of the rehabilitative and medical care's by persons with cerebral palsy (CP) and their families may help in providing better adherence to these cares. The main objective of this study was to assess overall satisfaction, self-perception of effectiveness and tolerance of the rehabilitative and medical cares in individuals with CP. MATERIAL AND METHODS: This was a cross-sectional questionnaire-based study. A total of 950 questionnaires were sent to French Britain children and adults with CP...
September 2016: Annals of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine
Louisa Degenhardt, Fiona Charlson, Jeff Stanaway, Sarah Larney, Lily T Alexander, Matthew Hickman, Benjamin Cowie, Wayne D Hall, John Strang, Harvey Whiteford, Theo Vos
BACKGROUND: Previous estimates of the burden of HIV, hepatitis B virus (HBV), and hepatitis C virus (HCV) among people who inject drugs have not included estimates of the burden attributable to the consequences of past injecting. We aimed to provide these estimates as part of the Global Burden of Disease (GBD) Study 2013. METHODS: We modelled the burden of HBV and HCV (including cirrhosis and liver cancer burden) and HIV at the country, regional, and global level...
September 21, 2016: Lancet Infectious Diseases
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