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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28651316/a-permeation-controlled-formaldehyde-reference-source-for-application-in-environmental-test-chambers
#1
Tunga Salthammer, Ruth Giesen, Tobias Schripp
In a wide range of indoor air pollutants, formaldehyde is one of the most-used and best-known substances. In order to protect human health, many countries have established threshold values for the release of formaldehyde from miscellaneous products and revise them constantly. Compliance with these regulations is usually assessed by emission test chamber measurements or derived methods. To control and improve the mechanisms of an emission test chamber, a reliable reference source with sample mimicking emission properties is required but not available so far...
June 15, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28651217/modeling-in-sewer-transformations-at-catchment-scale-implications-on-drug-consumption-estimates-in-wastewater-based-epidemiology
#2
Ann-Kathrin McCall, Rocco Palmitessa, Frank Blumensaat, Eberhard Morgenroth, Christoph Ort
To which extent illicit drugs are transformed during in-sewer transport, depends on a number of factors: i) substance-specific transformation rates, ii) environmental conditions, iii) point of discharge (location of drug user) and iv) sewer network properties, primarily hydraulic residence time (HRT) and the ratio of biofilm contact area to wastewater volume (A/Veq). Assessing associated uncertainties typically requires numerous simulations. Therefore, we propose a new two-step modeling framework: 1) Quantify hydrodynamic conditions...
May 20, 2017: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28651153/the-role-of-marijuana-use-disorder-in-predicting-emergency-department-and-inpatient-encounters-a-retrospective-cohort-study
#3
Cynthia I Campbell, Amber L Bahorik, Andrea H Kline-Simon, Derek D Satre
BACKGROUND: Marijuana use disorder (MUD) is the most common illegal drug use disorder and its prevalence is increasing. It is associated with psychiatric and medical problems, but little is known about its impact on emergency department (ED) and inpatient utilization rates. DESIGN: In a retrospective cohort design, we used electronic health record (EHR) data to identify patients with MUD (n=2752) and demographically matched patients without MUD (n=2752) in 2010...
June 10, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28651152/methylphenidate-disintegration-from-oral-formulations-for-intravenous-use-by-experienced-substance-users
#4
G D Bjarnadottir, M Johannsson, A Magnusson, B O Rafnar, E Sigurdsson, S Steingrimsson, V Asgrimsson, I Snorradottir, H Bragadottir, H M Haraldsson
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Methylphenidate (MPH) is a prescription stimulant used to treat attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. MPH is currently the preferred substance among most intravenous (i.v.) substance users in Iceland. Four types of MPH preparations were available in Iceland at the time of study: Immediate-release (IR), sustained-release (SR), osmotic controlled-release oral delivery (OROS) tablet and osmotic-controlled release (OCR). MPH OROS has previously been rated the least desirable by i...
June 13, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28651151/assessment-methods-and-schedules-for-collecting-daily-process-data-on-substance-use-related-health-behaviors-a-randomized-control-study
#5
Anne Buu, Lynn S Massey, Maureen A Walton, James A Cranford, Marc A Zimmerman, Rebecca M Cunningham
BACKGROUND: Interactive voice response (IVR) and short message service (SMS) systems have been used to collect daily process data on substance use. Yet, their relative compliance, use patterns, and user experiences are unknown. Furthermore, recent studies presented the potential of a hybrid weekly protocol requiring recall of behaviors in past week right after the weekend, in order to reduce the concerns about low compliance and measurement reactivity associated with daily data collection and also provide high quality data on the peak of use...
June 13, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28651150/cognitive-remediation-improves-executive-functions-self-regulation-and-quality-of-life-in-residents-of-a-substance-use-disorder-therapeutic-community
#6
Ely M Marceau, Jamie Berry, Joanne Lunn, Peter J Kelly, Nadia Solowij
BACKGROUND: Executive dysfunction is common in substance use disorder (SUD) populations and hinders treatment. We previously found that 50% of residents in SUD therapeutic communities had been hospitalized for head injuries; this was a significant determinant of cognitive impairment. The current study aimed to establish whether cognitive remediation improves executive functions (EFs) and self-regulation in an ecologically valid sample of female residents attending SUD therapeutic community treatment, including those with past head injuries and psychiatric comorbidities...
June 16, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28650780/i-am-a-pediatric-dentist-why-is-substance-abuse-among-my-patients-my-concern
#7
H Barry Waldman, Steven P Perlman
The rapidly evolving demographic base of our communities intensifies the need for an awareness which in the past seemed beyond the traditional concerns of pediatric dentists; in this case, substance abuse by teenagers. A review was carried out regarding evolving demographics, the proportion of teenagers involved with substance abuse, the rationale for the use of varying elicit substances and the associated symptoms. A series of options for action are considered given the potential for pediatric dentists to be involved in the care of teenagers using elicit substances...
2017: Journal of Clinical Pediatric Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28650727/models-for-nearly-every-occasion-part-iv-two-box-decreasing-emission-models
#8
Gary H Ganser, Paul Hewett
New two box "well-mixed room" decreasing emission (DE) models are introduced for scenarios that involve local controls, such as some form of local exhaust or local exhaust with filtered return. In addition, these models allow for the recirculation of a filtered (or cleaned) portion of the general room ventilation. For each control device scenario, a steady state and transient near and far field model is presented. The transient equations predict the concentration at time t after the application of the substance...
June 26, 2017: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28650714/models-for-nearly-every-occasion-part-iii-one-box-decreasing-emission-models
#9
Paul Hewett, Gary H Ganser
New one box "well-mixed room" decreasing emission (DE) models are introduced that allow for local exhaust or local exhaust with filtered return, as well the recirculation of a filtered (or cleaned) portion of the general room ventilation. For each control device scenario, a steady state and transient model is presented. The transient equations predict the concentration at any time t after the application of a known mass of a volatile substance to a surface, and can be used to predict the task exposure profile, the average task exposure, as well as peak and short-term exposures...
June 26, 2017: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28650713/occupational-chemical-exposures-a-collaboration-between-the-georgia-poison-center-and-the-occupational-safety-and-health-administration
#10
Aaron W Tustin, Alison Jones, Gaylord P Lopez, Glenn R Ketcham, Michael J Hodgson
CONTEXT: In the United States, regional poison centers frequently receive calls about toxic workplace exposures. Most poison centers do not share call details routinely with governmental regulatory agencies. Worker health and safety could be enhanced if regulators such as the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) had the ability to investigate these events and prevent similar incidents. With this goal in mind, the Georgia Poison Center (GPC) began referring occupational exposures to OSHA in July 2014...
June 26, 2017: Clinical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28650677/psychosocial-risk-factors-for-perinatal-depression-among-female-adolescents-a-systematic-review
#11
Pamela Recto, Jane Dimmitt Champion
Perinatal depression is a health concern among pregnant and postpartum adolescents as it may negatively impact fetal development and result in complications such as preterm delivery, low infant birth weight, and poor maternal-infant attachment. The purpose of this systematic review is to examine psychosocial risk factors for depression among adolescents during pregnancy and postpartum. A literature search was conducted from five databases from 1995 to 2016. A total of 17 studies matched the inclusion criteria...
June 26, 2017: Issues in Mental Health Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28650668/categorization-of-psychoactive-substances-into-hard-drugs-and-soft-drugs-a-critical-review-of-terminology-used-in-current-scientific-literature
#12
Peter Janik, Michaela Kosticova, Jan Pecenak, Michal Turcek
BACKGROUND: Precise terminology and definitions are important components of scientific language. Although the terms "hard drugs" and "soft drugs" are used widely by professionals, neither the International Classification of Diseases nor the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual classify psychoactive substances into the categories "hard" and "soft." OBJECTIVES: To analyze the occurrence of the terms "hard drugs" and "soft drugs" in recent scientific literature and to establish the degree of consensus in labeling psychoactive substances as "hard" or "soft...
June 26, 2017: American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28650611/integrating-target-responsive-hydrogel-with-pressuremeter-readout-enables-simple-sensitive-user-friendly-quantitative-point-of-care-testing
#13
Dan Liu, Shasha Jia, Huimin Zhang, Yanli Ma, Zhichao Guan, Jiuxing Li, Zhi Zhu, Tianhai Ji, Chaoyong James Yang
Point-of-care testing (POCT) with the advantages of speed, simplicity, and low cost, as well as no need for instrumentation is critical for the measurement of analytes in a variety of environments lacking access to laboratory infrastructure. In the present study, a hydrogel pressure-based assay for quantitative POCT was developed by integrating a target-responsive hydrogel with pressuremeter readout. The target-responsive hydrogels were constructed with DNA grafted linear polyacrylamide and the crosslinking DNA for selective target recognition...
June 26, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28650386/corneal-nerve-morphology-and-tear-film-substance-p-in-diabetes
#14
Maria Markoulli, Jingjing You, Juno Kim, Carmen L Duong, Jonathan B Tolentino, Joshua Karras, Edward Lum
PURPOSE: This work aims to characterize the relationship between tear film neuropeptide substance P and the structural integrity of the sub-basal nerve plexus in diabetes. METHODS: Seventeen healthy control participants and nine participants with diabetes were recruited in this cross-sectional study. Total protein content and substance P concentrations were determined in the flush tears of participants. Corneal nerve morphology was assessed by capturing the corneal sub-basal nerve plexus using the Heidelberg Retinal Tomograph II with the Rostock Corneal Module (Heidelberg Engineering GmbH, Heidelberg, Germany) in the central cornea...
July 2017: Optometry and Vision Science: Official Publication of the American Academy of Optometry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28650326/to-evaluate-the-efficacy-and-safety-of-cofnovex-plus-ema-syrup
#15
Zubair Ali, Muhammad Daniyal, Muhammad Khalid Adhia, Anees Alam, Babar Sarfaraz, Abdul Sattar, Khan Usmanghani
The cough and cold are very widespread conditions and a common purpose for advice in general practice. Utmost often the sign and symptoms of cough are produced by acute viral airway infection and the course is frequently benign. But it can be converted into bacterial super-infection and can cause acute bronchitis. Herbal medicines are used to treat symptoms of the cough and cold, and among these medicines Ivy leaf is used to treat mucous discharge and irritation in throat due to the cough and cold. In addition to synthetic substances such as acetylcysteine, carbocisteins, ambroxol and bromhexine, herbal medicines contain saponins, which are used in these indications...
March 2017: Pakistan Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28650247/burden-of-alcohol-abuse-or-dependence-among-long-term-opioid-users-with-chronic-noncancer-pain
#16
Pamela B Landsman-Blumberg, Nathaniel Katz, Kavita Gajria, Anna D Coutinho, Paul P Yeung, Richard White
BACKGROUND: Substance abuse disorders among chronic noncancer pain (CNCP) patients add to the clinical challenges and economic burden of caring for such patients. Despite potential risks, some CNCP patients with a history of alcohol abuse or dependence (AAD) and pain that is refractory to nonopioid treatment options may still need opioids for pain management. However, there is a lack of data on adverse outcomes in long-term opioid users with CNCP and a history of substance abuse or AAD disorders...
July 2017: Journal of Managed Care & Specialty Pharmacy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28650230/get-real-evaluation-of-a-community-level-hiv-prevention-intervention-for-young-msm-who-engage-in-episodic-substance-use
#17
Jennifer Lauby, Lin Zhu, Mary Milnamow, Heather Batson, Lisa Bond, William Curran-Groome, Lee Carson
Young men who have sex with men (YMSM) have high rates of recreational drug use and binge drinking that are related to increases in unprotected sex and HIV risk. We describe the development of a community-level intervention focused on MSM ages 15 to 29 who identify as Black or White and who reported episodic use of alcohol and/or drugs. Intervention content included culturally-relevant role model stories and peer outreach. Outcome measures, including number of partners and a risk score indicating risk for HIV from protected or unprotected insertive or receptive anal sex, were examined over 36 months in a sample of YMSM in Philadelphia, the intervention site, and Baltimore, the comparison site...
June 2017: AIDS Education and Prevention: Official Publication of the International Society for AIDS Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28650226/correlates-of-hiv-risks-among-women-on-probation-and-parole
#18
Malitta Engstrom, Katherine M Winham, Seana Golder, George Higgins, Tanya Renn, T K Logan
This article examines HIV risks among a sample of 406 women on probation and parole with lifetime histories of victimization who were recruited from an urban community in the southern U.S. Guided by the Comprehensive Health Seeking and Coping Paradigm, we analyze the significance of sociodemographic characteristics, substance use, posttraumatic stress disorder, and social support in relationship to three sexual risks and one drug use risk using multivariable regression. Findings indicate that substance use is a significant correlate of nearly all HIV risks examined, including lifetime sexual partners and sexual partners during the past 12 months...
June 2017: AIDS Education and Prevention: Official Publication of the International Society for AIDS Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28650152/accelerated-reduction-of-bromate-in-frozen-solution
#19
Dae Wi Min, Wonyong Choi
Bromate is a common disinfection by-product formed during ozonation. Reducing bromate into bromide can remove this toxic pollutant, however, not many studies have been done for its environmental fate. In this work, we demonstrate a new transformation pathway that bromate can be efficiently reduced to bromide in frozen solution in the presence of organic reductants like humic substances (HS). The results showed that bromate in frozen solution could be removed by 30~40% in dark condition and 80~90% in irradiation condition (λ > 300 nm) in 24 h, while around 1% bromate was reduced in aqueous solution...
June 26, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28650114/the-effect-of-adhesives-on-inflammatory-immune-markers-during-renal-injury-healing
#20
José Miguel Lloris-Carsí, Carlos Barrios, Beatriz Prieto-Moure, José Miguel Lloris-Cejalvo, Dolores Cejalvo-Lapeña
Renal injury is common in abdominal trauma. Adhesives and sealants can be used to repair and preserve damaged organs. We describe the effect of three biomaterial treatments (TachoSil, GelitaSpon, and Adhflex) on injured renal tissue. Renal traumatic injuries were experimentally induced in male Wistar rats (n = 90) using a punch. Animals were divided into five groups: (1) sham noninjured (n = 3) and punch injury groups; (2) nontreated (n = 6); (3) TachoSil (n = 27); (4) GelitaSpon (n = 27); and (5) Adhflex (n = 27)...
June 26, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part B, Applied Biomaterials
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