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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28454058/identification-and-characterization-of-process-related-substances-and-degradation-products-in-apremilast-process-optimization-and-degradation-pathway-elucidation
#1
Yuting Lu, Xiaoyue Shen, Taijun Hang, Min Song
This study aims at investigating the separation, identification and characterization of related substances in apremilast by LC-MS hyphenated techniques, as well as the synthesis optimization and the degradation pathways elucidation. Forced degradation studies were conducted under the ICH prescribed stress conditions. The chromatographic separation was achieved on XBridge C18 column (4.6mm×150mm, 3.5μm) using a mobile phase consisting of water adjusted to pH 3.0 with formic acid as solvent A and acetonitrile as solvent B in linear gradient elution program...
April 2, 2017: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28454045/canadian-harm-reduction-policies-a-comparative-content-analysis-of-provincial-and-territorial-documents-2000-2015
#2
REVIEW
T Cameron Wild, Bernie Pauly, Lynne Belle-Isle, Walter Cavalieri, Richard Elliott, Carol Strike, Kenneth Tupper, Andrew Hathaway, Colleen Dell, Donald MacPherson, Caitlin Sinclair, Kamagaju Karekezi, Benjamin Tan, Elaine Hyshka
BACKGROUND: Access to harm reduction interventions among substance users across Canada is highly variable, and largely within the policy jurisdiction of the provinces and territories. This study systematically described variation in policy frameworks guiding harm reduction services among Canadian provinces and territories as part of the first national multimethod case study of harm reduction policy. METHODS: Systematic and purposive searches identified publicly-accessible policy texts guiding planning and organization of one or more of seven targeted harm reduction services: needle distribution, naloxone, supervised injection/consumption, low-threshold opioid substitution (or maintenance) treatment, buprenorphine/naloxone (suboxone), drug checking, and safer inhalation kits...
April 25, 2017: International Journal on Drug Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28454022/quantitative-analysis-of-adsorptive-interactions-of-ionic-and-neutral-pharmaceuticals-and-other-chemicals-with-the-surface-of-escherichia-coli-cells-in-aquatic-environment
#3
Chul-Woong Cho, Jeong-Soo Park, Yufeng Zhao, Yeoung-Sang Yun
Since Escherichia coli is ubiquitous in nature and has been applied to biological, chemical, and environmental processes, molecular-level understanding of adsorptive interactions between chemicals and the bacterial surface is of great importance. To characterise the adsorption properties of the surface of E. coli cells in aquatic environment, the binding affinities (log Kd) of calibration compounds were experimentally measured, and then based on the values and numerically well-defined molecular interaction forces, i...
April 25, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28454020/toxicity-of-tio2-in-nanoparticle-or-bulk-form-to-freshwater-and-marine-microalgae-under-visible-light-and-uv-a-radiation
#4
M Sendra, I Moreno-Garrido, M P Yeste, J M Gatica, J Blasco
Use of titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2 NPs) has become a part of our daily life and the high environmental concentrations predicted to accumulate in aquatic ecosystems are cause for concern. Although TiO2 has only limited reactivity, at the nanoscale level its physico-chemical properties and toxicity are different compared with bulk material. Phytoplankton is a key trophic level in fresh and marine ecosystems, and the toxicity provoked by these nanoparticles can affect the structure and functioning of ecosystems...
April 25, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28454009/environmental-risk-assessment-of-effluents-as-a-whole-emerging-contaminant-efficiency-of-alternative-tertiary-treatments-for-wastewater-depuration
#5
B Díaz-Garduño, M G Pintado-Herrera, M Biel-Maeso, J J Rueda-Márquez, P A Lara-Martín, J A Perales, M A Manzano, C Garrido-Pérez, M L Martín-Díaz
Emerging contaminants (ECs) and regulated compounds (RCs) from three different WWTP effluents were measured in the current study. The efficiency of two tertiary treatments, Photobiotreatment (PhtBio) and Multi-Barrier Treatment (MBT), for removing contaminants was determined. Results indicated different percentages of removal depending on the treatment and the origin of the effluent. Risk Quotients (RQs) were determined for different species of algae, Daphnia, and fish. RQ results revealed diverse risk values depending on the bioindicator species...
April 10, 2017: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28453899/blood-flow-after-contraction-and-cuff-occlusion-is-reduced-in-subjects-with-muscle-soreness-after-eccentric-exercise
#6
Eduardo Souza-Silva, Steffan Wittrup Christensen, Rogerio Pessoto Hirata, Ryan Godsk Larsen, Thomas Graven-Nielsen
PURPOSE: Delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS) occur within 1-2 days after eccentric exercise but the mechanism mediating hypersensitivity is unclear. This study hypothesized that eccentric exercise reduces the blood flow response following muscle contractions and cuff occlusion, which may result in accumulated algesic substances being a part of the sensitization in DOMS. METHODS: Twelve healthy subjects (5 women) performed dorsiflexion exercise (5 sets of 10 repeated eccentric contractions) in one leg, while the contralateral leg was the control...
April 28, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28453782/sempi-a-genome-based-secondary-metabolite-prediction-and-identification-web-server
#7
Paul F Zierep, Natàlia Padilla, Dimitar G Yonchev, Kiran K Telukunta, Dennis Klementz, Stefan Günther
The secondary metabolism of bacteria, fungi and plants yields a vast number of bioactive substances. The constantly increasing amount of published genomic data provides the opportunity for an efficient identification of gene clusters by genome mining. Conversely, for many natural products with resolved structures, the encoding gene clusters have not been identified yet. Even though genome mining tools have become significantly more efficient in the identification of biosynthetic gene clusters, structural elucidation of the actual secondary metabolite is still challenging, especially due to as yet unpredictable post-modifications...
April 27, 2017: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28453538/variation-of-iron-redox-kinetics-and-its-relation-with-molecular-composition-of-standard-humic-substances-at-circumneutral-ph
#8
Ying Ping Lee, Manabu Fujii, Tetsuro Kikuchi, Koumei Terao, Chihiro Yoshimura
Oxidation and reduction kinetics of iron (Fe) and proportion of steady-state Fe(II) concentration relative to total dissolved Fe (steady-state Fe(II) fraction) were investigated in the presence of various types of standard humic substances (HS) with particular emphasis on the photochemical and thermal reduction of Fe(III) and oxidation of Fe(II) by dissolved oxygen (O2) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) at circumneutral pH (pH 7-8). Rates of Fe(III) reduction were spectrophotometrically determined by a ferrozine method under the simulated sunlight and dark conditions, whereas rates of Fe(II) oxidation were examined in air-saturated solution using luminol chemiluminescence technique...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28453525/high-mortality-among-male-hiv-infected-patients-after-prison-release-art-is-not-enough-after-incarceration-with-hiv
#9
Florence Huber, Alice Merceron, Yoann Madec, Gueda Gadio, Vincent About, Agathe Pastre, Isabelle Coupez, Antoine Adenis, Leila Adriouch, Mathieu Nacher
CONTEXT: French Guiana is a South American French territory, where HIV prevalence consistently exceeds 1% in the adult population. In the only correctional facility, HIV prevalence fluctuates at around 4%. AIMS: After describing the population of HIV-positive inmates, we aimed to evaluate mortality after release from the correctional facility, and to identify its predictive factors. RATIONALE: Outside North American settings, data on treatment outcome and vital status of HIV-positive former inmates are scarce...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28453304/mold-allergy-is-it-real-and-what-do-we-do-about-it
#10
Amanda Rudert, Jay Portnoy
Fungi produce substances that contain pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) and damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) which bind to pattern recognition receptors, stimulating innate immune responses in humans. They also produce allergens that induce production of specific IgE. Areas Covered: In this review we cover both innate and adaptive immune responses to fungi. Some fungal products can activate both innate and adaptive responses and in doing so, cause an intense and complex health effects...
April 28, 2017: Expert Review of Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28449562/longer-telomere-length-of-t-lymphocytes-in-patients-with-early-and-chronic-psychosis
#11
Yin Cui, Vishwanath Vasudev Prabhu, Thong Ba Nguyen, Subramaniam Mohana Devi, Young-Chul Chung
Objective: To investigate pathological conditions that act as sources of pro-inflammatory cytokines and cytotoxic substances to examine telomere length (TL) in patients with either early (duration of illness [DI] ≤5 years) or chronic (DI >5 years) psychosis using T lymphocytes. Methods: Based on these factors and the important role that T lymphocytes play in inflammation, the present study measured the TL of T lymphocytes in patients with either early or chronic psychosis...
May 31, 2017: Clinical Psychopharmacology and Neuroscience: the Official Scientific Journal of the Korean College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28449198/systematic-review-of-sex-work-interventions-in-sub-saharan-africa-examining-combination-prevention-approaches
#12
George Awungafac, Therese Delvaux, Bea Vuylsteke
OBJECTIVE: The incidence of HIV and sexually transmitted infections is disproportionately high among sex workers (SW). We aimed to update the evidence on the effectiveness of SW interventions in sub-Saharan Africa and to provide more insights into combination prevention. METHODS: Systematic review following PRISMA guidelines in a search of PUBMED and POPLINE for peer-reviewed literature published between January 1, 2000 and July 22, 2016 (registration number on PROSPERO: CRD42016042529)...
April 27, 2017: Tropical Medicine & International Health: TM & IH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448973/downregulations-of-cd36-and-calpain-1-inflammation-and-atherosclerosis-by-simvastatin-in-apolipoprotein-e-knockout-mice
#13
Meihui Yin, Qianqian Liu, Lan Yu, Yueyan Yang, Meili Lu, Hongxin Wang, Duosheng Luo, Xianglu Rong, Futian Tang, Jiao Guo
BACKGROUND: In the previous in vitro study, we found that simvastatin decreased the protein expression of CD36, the scavenger receptor, and calpain-1, the Ca2+-sensitive cysteine protease, in oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL)-treated macrophages. In this in vivo study, we investigated whether simvastatin downregulates the expression of CD36 and calpain-1 and inhibits the inflammation and atherosclerosis in apolipoprotein E knockout (ApoE KO) mice. METHODS: Twenty male 6-week-old ApoE KO mice were divided into 2 groups: the ApoE KO group and the ApoE KO + simvastatin (ApoE KO + Sim) group...
April 28, 2017: Journal of Vascular Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448905/drug-use-generations-and-patterns-of-injection-drug-use-birth-cohort-differences-among-people-who-inject-drugs-in-los-angeles-and-san-francisco-california
#14
Ricky N Bluthenthal, Lynn Wenger, Daniel Chu, Philippe Bourgois, Alex H Kral
OBJECTIVES: A robust literature documents generational trends in drug use. We examined the implications of changing national drug use patterns on drug injection histories of diverse people who inject drugs (PWID). METHODS: Drug use histories were collected from 776 active PWID in 2011-13. Using descriptive statistics, we examine drug use initiation by year and birth cohort (BC) differences in drug first injected. A multivariate linear regression model of time to injection initiation ([TTII] (year of first injection minus year of first illicit drug use) was developed to explore BC differences...
April 19, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448904/support-for-marijuana-legalization-in-the-us-state-of-washington-has-continued-to-increase-through-2016
#15
Meenakshi Sabina Subbaraman, William C Kerr
BACKGROUND: Support for the legalization of recreational marijuana continues to increase across the United States and globally. In 2016, recreational marijuana was legalized in the most populous US state of California, as well as three other states. The primary aim of this study was to examine trends in support for recreational marijuana legalization in Washington, a state which has had legal recreational marijuana for almost four years, using data collected over the four years post-legalization...
April 19, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448888/isolation-identification-and-characterization-of-potential-impurities-of-anidulafungin
#16
Lanning Zhao, Qilong Wang, Yi Bie, Xiaoxia Lu
Eight impurities ranging from 0.03 to 0.97% in anidulafungin bulk drug were detected by HPLC. Four impurities (Imp-I, Imp-II, Imp-III and Imp-VIII) among impurities were isolated from the self-prepared or marketed samples of anidulafungin bulk drug by means of preparative HPLC. A thorough study was undertaken to characterize these impurities and based on 1D ((1)H, (13)C, H-D, DEPT 90 and 135) and 2D (COSY, TOCSY, HSQC, HMBC) NMR and ESI-MS spectral data. Based on the characterization data, Imp-I was found to be known open-chain hydrolysis product formed during the synthesis and degradation...
April 17, 2017: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448885/development-and-validation-of-a-liquid-chromatographic-method-for-the-analysis-of-squaric-acid-dibutyl-ester-and-its-impurities
#17
Marwa F Mansour, Peixi Zhu, Ann Van Schepdael, Erwin Adams
A simple, fast and selective stability indicating liquid chromatographic method has been described for the simultaneous determination of squaric acid dibutyl ester and its impurities. The chromatographic separation was achieved on a C2 column (250mm×4.6mm i.d., 5μm) using a mobile phase consisting of 0.15% phosphoric acid - acetonitrile - methanol (30:60:10, v/v/v). Isocratic elution was performed at a flow rate of 1.0mLmin(-1). The analytes were detected by UV at 252nm. The method was validated according to the ICH guidelines and satisfactory results were obtained...
April 18, 2017: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448772/the-effect-of-a-federal-controlled-substance-act-schedule-change-on-hydrocodone-combination-products-claims-in-a-medicaid-population
#18
Stephanie Tran, Pavel Lavitas, Karen Stevens, Bonnie C Greenwood, Karen Clements, Caroline J Alper, Kimberly Lenz, Mylissa Price, Tasmina Hydery, Jennifer L Arnold, Mito Takeshita, Rachel Bacon, Justin P Peristere, Paul L Jeffrey
BACKGROUND: In 2012, hydrocodone combination products (HCPs) were the most prescribed medications in the United States. Under the Controlled Substance Act of 1970, hydrocodone alone was classified as a Schedule II drug, while HCPs were classified as Schedule III, indicating a lower risk for abuse and misuse. However, according to a Drug Enforcement Agency analysis, the addition of nonopioids has not been shown to diminish abuse potential of hydrocodone. In response to concerns for drug abuse and overdose, the Drug Enforcement Agency rescheduled HCPs to Schedule II in October 2014, with the intent of limiting overprescribing and increasing awareness of their abuse potential...
May 2017: Journal of Managed Care & Specialty Pharmacy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448748/evaluation-of-humic-substances-removal-from-leachates-originating-from-solid-waste-landfills-in-rio-de-janeiro-state-brazil
#19
Letícia S M S Lima, Ronei De Almeida, Bianca R Quintaes, Daniele M Bila, Juacyara C Campos
This study aimed to evaluate the use of coagulation/flocculation and Fenton processes for the removal of the recalcitrant component, in particular humic substances, from two different leachates generated in the Gericinó and Gramacho landfills in Rio de Janeiro State (Brazil). A coagulation/flocculation process, using FeCl3·6H2O as the coagulant, was applied to the two leachate samples. In the case of the leachate from Gericinó landfill, the treatment removed 93% of color, 71% of TOC, 69% of COD, 76% of HS, 73% of humic acids (HA) and 82% of fulvic acids (FA)...
April 27, 2017: Journal of Environmental Science and Health. Part A, Toxic/hazardous Substances & Environmental Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448700/duration-and-relevance-of-untreated-psychiatric-disorders-2-nonpsychotic-psychiatric-disorders-and-substance-use-disorders
#20
Jose M Rubio, Christoph U Correll
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 2017: Journal of Clinical Psychiatry
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