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Young C Shin, Georg F Bischof, William A Lauer, Lucas Gonzalez-Nieto, Eva G Rakasz, Gregory M Hendricks, David I Watkins, Mauricio A Martins, Ronald C Desrosiers
The properties of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) pose serious difficulties for the development of an effective prophylactic vaccine. Here we describe the construction and characterization of recombinant (r), replication-competent forms of rhesus monkey rhadinovirus (RRV), a gamma-2 herpesvirus, containing a near-full-length (nfl) genome of the simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV). A 306-nucleotide deletion in the pol gene rendered this nfl genome replication-incompetent as a consequence of deletion of the active site of the essential reverse transcriptase enzyme...
June 18, 2018: PLoS Pathogens
Simon F Müller, Alexander König, Barbara Döring, Dieter Glebe, Joachim Geyer
The hepatic Na+/taurocholate co-transporting polypeptide (NTCP in man, Ntcp in animals) is the high-affinity receptor for the hepatitis B (HBV) and hepatitis D (HDV) viruses. Species barriers for human HBV/HDV within the order Primates were previously attributed to Ntcp sequence variations that disable virus-receptor interaction. However, only a limited number of primate Ntcps have been analysed so far. In the present study, a total of 11 Ntcps from apes, Old and New World monkeys were cloned and expressed in vitro to characterise their interaction with HBV and HDV...
2018: PloS One
Natalibeth Barrera, Pedro C Dos Santos Neto, Federico Cuadro, Diego Bosolasco, Ana P Mulet, Martina Crispo, Alejo Menchaca
High lipid content of oocytes and embryos in domestic animals is one of the well-known factors associated with poor cryosurvival. Herein, we wanted to determine whether the use of delipidated estrous sheep serum during in vitro maturation (IVM) of ovine oocytes reduces the cytoplasmic lipid droplets content and improves embryo development and cryotolerance after vitrification. Cumulus oocytes complexes (COCs) were matured in vitro for 24 h in medium supplemented with whole or delipidated estrous sheep serum prior to vitrification...
2018: PloS One
Daniela Ribeiro Alves, Selene Maia de Morais, Fernanda Tomiotto-Pellissier, Fábio Roger Vasconcelos, Francisco das Chagas Oliveira Freire, Isaac Neto Goes da Silva, Alan Henrique Depieri Cataneo, Milena Menegazzo Miranda-Sapla, Gustavo Adolfo Saavedra Pinto, Ivete Conchon-Costa, Arlindo de Alencar Araripe Noronha, Wander Rogério Pavanelli
This work describes the production of lipases from endophytic fungi: Vermisporium-like, Emericella nidulans, Dichotomophtora portulacae and D. boerhaaviae and the biological activity against the dermatophyte fungi Malassezia sp and Microsporum canis and the parasite Leishmania amazonensis. All fungal enzymes extract showed lipolysis action in the media that contains long carbon chain lipids. The proteomic analysis of lipases exhibits several molecules mostly ranging in size from 220 to 20 kDa, with clear differences in protein profile's yield...
2018: PloS One
Andrew Miller, Narelle Eather, Mitch Duncan, David Revalds Lubans
This study investigated if object control relates to children's game play competence, and examined these competencies as correlates of physical activity and cardiorespiratory fitness. Game play (Game Performance Assessment Instrument), object control (The Test Gross Motor Development-3), moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (Accelerometry), and cardiorespiratory fitness (20-metre shuttle) assessments were completed for 107 children (57% Female, 43% Male) aged 9-12 years (M 10.53, SD 0.65). Two-level regression of object control on game play competence, and object control and game play competence on physical activity and cardiorespiratory fitness assessed associations...
June 18, 2018: Journal of Sports Sciences
Jasper M A de Jong, Barbara Cannon, Jan Nedergaard
Much current understanding of brown adipocyte development comes from in-vitro cell models. Serum type may affect the behavior of cultured cells and thus conclusions drawn. Here, we investigate effects of serum type ("fetal bovine" versus "newborn calf") on responses to differentiation inducers (the PPARγ agonist rosiglitazone or the neurotransmitter norepinephrine) in cultured primary brown adipocytes. Lipid storage was enhanced by fetal versus newborn serum. However, molecular adipose conversion (Pparg2 and Fabp4 expression) was not affected by serum type...
June 18, 2018: Adipocyte
Byung Nam Kim, Alia Weaver, Marina Chumakov, Ileana M Pazos, Dianne L Poster, Karen Gaskell, Do Hung Han, Günther Scherer, Michael A Yandrasits, Byung Cheol Lee, Mohamad Al-Sheikhly
During the pulsed-electron beam direct grafting of neat styrene onto poly(tetrafluoroethylene-co-hexafluoropropylene) (FEP) substrate, the radiolytically-produced styryl and carbon-centered FEP radicals undergo various desired and undesired competing reactions. In this study, a high-dose rate is used to impede the undesired free radical homopolymerization of styrene and ensure uniform covalent grafting through 125-μm FEP films. This outweighs the enhancement of the undesired crosslinking reactions of carbon-centered FEP radicals and the dimerization of the styryl radicals...
June 18, 2018: Radiation Research
Chengchuang Song, Jian Wang, Yilei Ma, Zhaoxin Yang, Dong Dong, Hui Li, Jiameng Yang, Yongzhen Huang, Martin Plath, Yun Ma, Hong Chen
Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) are involved in the regulation of skeletal muscle development. In the present study, differentially expressed lncRNAs were identified from RNA-seq data derived from myoblasts and myotubes. We conducted studies to elucidate the function and molecular mechanism of action of Linc-smad7 during skeletal muscle development. Our findings show that Linc-smad7 is upregulated during the early phase of myoblasts differentiation. In in vitro studies, we showed that overexpression of Linc-smad7 promoted the arrest of myoblasts in G1 phase, inhibited DNA replication, and induced myoblast differentiation...
June 18, 2018: Epigenetics: Official Journal of the DNA Methylation Society
Jiagui Feng, Deepnarayan Biswas, Akhil Rajan, Matthew D Watson, Federico Mazzola, Oliver J Clark, Kaycee Underwood, Igor Marković, Martin McLaren, Andrew Hunter, David Michael Burn, Liam Duffy, Sourabh Barua, Geetha Balakrishnan, Francois Bertran, Patrick Le Fevre, Timur Kim, Gerrit van der Laan, Thorsten Hesjedal, Peter Wahl, Phil D C King
How the interacting electronic states and phases of layered transition-metal dichalcogenides evolve when thinned to the single-layer limit is a key open question in the study of two-dimensional materials. Here, we use angle-resolved photoemission to investigate the electronic structure of monolayer VSe<sub>2</sub> grown on bi-layer graphene/SiC. While the global electronic structure is similar to that of bulk VSe<sub>2</sub>, we show that, for the monolayer, pronounced energy gaps develop over the entire Fermi surface with decreasing temperature below T<sub>c</sub>=140±5 K, concomitant with the emergence of charge-order superstructures evident in low-energy electron diffraction...
June 18, 2018: Nano Letters
Dina Watterson, Kerrie Walter, Lisa O'Brien, Desiree Terrill, Kathleen Philip, Indi Swan, Lisa Somerville
Objective: To explore cost-efficiency, safety and acceptability of trans-disciplinary advanced allied health (AH) practitioners for acute adult general medicine inpatients. Design: Quasi-experimental feasibility study. Setting: Three acute general medical units in an Australian urban hospital. Participants: Two hundred and fifty-six acute hospital inpatients. Main Outcome Measures: Cost-efficiency measures included AH service utilization and length of stay (LOS)...
June 15, 2018: International Journal for Quality in Health Care
Sangeet Lal, Diego Carrera, Joanna J Phillips, William A Weiss, Corey Raffel
Background: Oncolytic measles virus (MV) is effective in xenograft models of many tumor types in immune-compromised mice. However, no murine cell line exists that is tumorigenic, grows in immune-competent mice, and is killed by MV. The lack of such a model prevents an examination of the effect of the immune system on MV oncotherapy. Methods: Cerebellar stem cells from human CD46-transgenic immunocompetent mice were transduced to express Sendai virus C-protein, murine C-Myc, and Gfi1b proteins...
June 14, 2018: Neuro-oncology
Danilo Cimadomo, Alberto Vaiarelli, Silvia Colamaria, Elisabetta Trabucco, Carlo Alviggi, Roberta Venturella, Erminia Alviggi, Ramona Carmelo, Laura Rienzi, Filippo Maria Ubaldi
STUDY QUESTION: Are the mean numbers of blastocysts obtained from sibling cohorts of oocytes recruited after follicular phase and luteal phase stimulations (FPS and LPS) in the same ovarian cycle similar? SUMMARY ANSWER: The cohorts of oocytes obtained after LPS are larger than their paired-FPS-derived cohorts and show a comparable competence, thus resulting in a larger mean number of blastocysts. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: Three theories of follicle recruitment have been postulated to date: (i) the 'continuous recruitment' theory, (ii) the 'single recruitment episode' theory and (iii) the 'wave' theory...
June 15, 2018: Human Reproduction
Molly M Quinn, Mitchell P Rosen, Isabel Elaine Allen, Heather G Huddleston, Marcelle I Cedars, Victor Y Fujimoto
STUDY QUESTION: Does the interval from delivery to initiation of a subsequent ART treatment cycle impact clinical pregnancy or live birth rates? SUMMARY ANSWER: An interval from delivery to treatment start of <6 months or ≥24 months is associated with decreased likelihood of clinical pregnancy and live birth. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: Short interpregnancy intervals are associated with poor obstetric outcomes in the naturally conceiving population prompting birth spacing recommendations of 18-24 months from international organizations...
June 15, 2018: Human Reproduction
Liu-Zhu Pan, Shuai Zhu, Min Zhang, Ming-Jiu Sun, Juan Lin, Fei Chen, Jing-He Tan
Reported classifications of germinal vesicle (GV) chromatin configurations in pig oocytes were not done by uniform standards and they were not well correlated with oocyte competence. In this study, GV-chromatin of pig oocytes was classified into non-surrounded nucleolus (NSN), surrounded nucleolus (SN), partly NSN (pNSN) and SN (pSN), prematurely-condensed NSN (cNSN), pNSN (cpNSN) and pSN (cpSN), and early diakinesis (ED) patterns. During in vitro maturation in 199-medium, NSN oocytes from 1-2 mm follicles went consecutively through pNSN, pSN, cpSN and ED before undergoing GV breakdown, and chromatin in some SN oocytes from 3-6 mm follicles re-decondensed into a RDC configuration...
June 14, 2018: Biology of Reproduction
Marissa A Scavuzzo, Jessica Teaw, Diane Yang, Malgorzata Borowiak
The pancreas is a complex organ composed of many different cell types that work together to regulate blood glucose homeostasis and digestion. These cell types include enzyme-secreting acinar cells, an arborized ductal system responsible for the transportation of enzymes to the gut, and hormone-producing endocrine cells. Endocrine beta-cells are the sole cell type in the body that produce insulin to lower blood glucose levels. Diabetes, a disease characterized by a loss or the dysfunction of beta-cells, is reaching epidemic proportions...
June 2, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Haiming Liu, Zhe Zhang, Nan Wu, Hao Guo, Hao Zhang, Daiming Fan, Yongzhan Nie, Yuanning Liu
Mounting evidence suggests that long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) play important roles in the regulation of gene expression by acting as competing endogenous RNA (ceRNA). However, the regulatory mechanisms of lncRNA as ceRNA in gastric cancer (GC) are not fully understood. Here, we first constructed a dysregulated lncRNA-associated ceRNA network by integrating analysis of gene expression profiles of lncRNAs, microRNAs (miRNAs), and messenger RNAs (mRNAs). Then, we determined three lncRNAs ( RP5-1120P11 , DLEU2 , and DDX11-AS1 ) as hub lncRNAs, in which associated ceRNA subnetworks were involved in cell cycle-related processes and cancer-related pathways...
June 18, 2018: Genes
Akhil Chameettachal, Vineeta Narayana Pillai, Lizna Mohamed Ali, Fathima Nuzra Nagoor Pitchai, Mustafa Taleb Ardah, Farah Mustafa, Roland Marquet, Tahir Aziz Rizvi
The mouse mammary tumor virus (MMTV) Pr77Gag polypeptide is an essential retroviral structural protein without which infectious viral particles cannot be formed. This process requires specific recognition and packaging of dimerized genomic RNA (gRNA) by Gag during virus assembly. Most of the previous work on retroviral assembly has used either the nucleocapsid portion of Gag, or other truncated Gag derivatives&mdash;not the natural substrate for virus assembly. In order to understand the molecular mechanism of MMTV gRNA packaging process, we expressed and purified full-length recombinant Pr77Gag -His₆-tag fusion protein from soluble fractions of bacterial cultures...
June 18, 2018: Viruses
Diana T Fleisher, Rachel J Katz-Sidlow, James A Meltzer
OBJECTIVE: The management of injured children is a required element of pediatric emergency medicine (PEM) fellowship training. Given the relatively infrequent exposure of trainees to major trauma, it is important to understand how programs train fellows and assess their competency in pediatric trauma. METHODS: An online survey was sent to 84 PEM fellowship program directors (PDs). Program directors were asked to describe their program's characteristics, the degree of fellow independence, educational techniques used to train fellows in trauma, and their expectation of fellows' competency in 14 core trauma-related skills upon graduation...
June 14, 2018: Pediatric Emergency Care
Taichi Itoh, Jannet Lee-Jayaram, Rui Fang, Travis Hong, Benjamin Berg
OBJECTIVES: Just-in-time training (JITT) is a method of simulation-based training where the training occurs within the clinical environment in a concise manner. Just-in-time training has shown effects at the learner, patient, and system-wide levels. We evaluated a JITT curriculum for the procedures of intraosseous (IO) needle placement and defibrillator use in a pediatric emergency department (ED) by comparing the trainees' comfort level in performing those procedures independently (Kirkpatrick level 2a) and trainees' knowledge of the procedures/equipment (Kirkpatrick level 2b) before and after the JITT...
June 14, 2018: Pediatric Emergency Care
Oliver R L Farley, Josh L Secomb, Ellen R Raymond, Lina E Lundgren, Brendon K Ferrier, Chris R Abbiss, Jeremy M Sheppard
Farley, ORL, Secomb, JL, Raymond, ER, Lundgren, LE, Ferrier, BK, Abbiss, CR, and Sheppard, JM. Workloads of competitive surfing: work-to-relief ratios, surf-break demands, and updated analysis. J Strength Cond Res XX(X): 000-000, 2018-The study provides an in-depth descriptive and quantitative time-motion analysis of competitive surfing, using Global Positioning System (GPS) units and video synchronization, which serves to extend upon the results of Farley, Harris, and Kilding (Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 26, 7 [2012])...
June 14, 2018: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
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