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Long term athlete development

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28218871/a-systematic-review-of-influences-on-development-of-athletes-with-disabilities
#1
Nima Dehghansai, Srdjan Lemez, Nick Wattie, Joseph Baker
Compared with mainstream sport athletes, relatively little is known regarding the factors affecting the development of athletes with a disability. Sport-specific training programs are essential to athletes' successful performance; to create appropriate programs and strategies, a clear understanding of the nuances of development of athletes with a disability is important. The objective of this systematic review was to synthesize existing research on development in athletes with a disability and examine the key determinants of successful development and sporting performance...
January 2017: Adapted Physical Activity Quarterly: APAQ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28198605/the-effect-of-gymnastic-training-on-muscle-strength-and-co-activation-during-isometric-elbow-and-glenohumeral-flexion-extension
#2
Andrzej Kochanowicz, Bartłomiej Niespodziński, Jan Mieszkowski, Kazimierz Kochanowicz, Stanisław Sawczyn
BACKGROUND: The purpose of the study was to demonstrate the differences between non- athletes and gymnasts at the pre- and post-pubertal age in the development of peak torque and ensuing flexion/extension ratios at the elbow and the glenohumeral joints, as well as to assess the relevance of the above activities for the co-activation of selected muscles. METHODS: The study involved 20 gymnasts and 20 non-athletes aged 8-9 years, in addition to 12 gymnasts and 16 non-athletes aged 18-25 years...
February 14, 2017: Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28182712/increased-cerebellar-gray-matter-volume-in-head-chefs
#3
Antonio Cerasa, Alessia Sarica, Iolanda Martino, Carmelo Fabbricatore, Francesco Tomaiuolo, Federico Rocca, Manuela Caracciolo, Aldo Quattrone
OBJECTIVE: Chefs exert expert motor and cognitive performances on a daily basis. Neuroimaging has clearly shown that that long-term skill learning (i.e., athletes, musicians, chess player or sommeliers) induces plastic changes in the brain thus enabling tasks to be performed faster and more accurately. How a chef's expertise is embodied in a specific neural network has never been investigated. METHODS: Eleven Italian head chefs with long-term brigade management expertise and 11 demographically-/ psychologically- matched non-experts underwent morphological evaluations...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28129370/career-performance-trajectories-in-track-and-field-jumping-events-from-youth-to-senior-success-the-importance-of-learning-and-development
#4
Gennaro Boccia, Paolo Moisè, Alberto Franceschi, Francesco Trova, Davide Panero, Antonio La Torre, Alberto Rainoldi, Federico Schena, Marco Cardinale
INTRODUCTION: The idea that early sport success can be detrimental for long-term sport performance is still under debate. Therefore, the aims of this study were to examine the career trajectories of Italian high and long jumpers to provide a better understanding of performance development in jumping events. METHODS: The official long-jump and high-jump rankings of the Italian Track and Field Federation were collected from the age of 12 to career termination, for both genders from the year 1994 to 2014...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28066732/conservative-management-of-tendinopathies-around-hip
#5
REVIEW
Antonio Frizziero, Filippo Vittadini, Andrea Pignataro, Giuseppe Gasparre, Carlo Biz, Pietro Ruggieri, Stefano Masiero
BACKGROUND: The anatomy of hip is widely complex and several anatomical structures interact and contribute to its functioning. For position and role, hip and the surrounding tendons, which have their insertion around, are overstressed and often overloaded, especially in athletes. This could lead to the developing of several tendinopathies, among which the differential diagnosis is often complicated. Many conservative treatments are used in clinical practice, while actually, no defined conservative protocol is recommended...
July 2016: Muscles, Ligaments and Tendons Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904791/current-concepts-in-biomechanical-interventions-for-patellofemoral-pain
#6
Richard W Willy, Erik P Meira
: Patellofemoral pain (PFP) has historically been a complex and enigmatic issue. Many of the factors thought to relate to PFP remain after patients' symptoms have resolved making their clinical importance difficult to determine. The tissue homeostasis model proposed by Dye in 2005 can assist with understanding and implementing biomechanical interventions for PFP. Under this model, the goal of interventions for PFP should be to re-establish patellofemoral joint (PFJ) homeostasis through a temporary alteration of load to the offended tissue, followed by incrementally restoring the envelope of function to the baseline level or higher...
December 2016: International Journal of Sports Physical Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903541/lifelong-physical-activity-regardless-of-dose-is-not-associated-with-myocardial-fibrosis
#7
Shuaib M Abdullah, Kyler W Barkley, Paul S Bhella, Jeffrey L Hastings, Susan Matulevicius, Naoki Fujimoto, Shigeki Shibata, Graeme Carrick-Ranson, M Dean Palmer, Nainesh Gandhi, Laura F DeFina, Benjamin D Levine
BACKGROUND: Recent reports have suggested that long-term, intensive physical training may be associated with adverse cardiovascular effects, including the development of myocardial fibrosis. However, the dose-response association of different levels of lifelong physical activity on myocardial fibrosis has not been evaluated. METHODS AND RESULTS: Seniors free of major chronic illnesses were recruited from predefined populations based on the consistent documentation of stable physical activity over >25 years and were classified into 4 groups by the number of sessions/week of aerobic activities ≥30 minutes: sedentary (group 1), <2 sessions; casual (group 2), 2 to 3 sessions; committed (group 3), 4 to 5 sessions; and Masters athletes (group 4), 6 to 7 sessions plus regular competitions...
November 2016: Circulation. Cardiovascular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895662/muscle-enriched-micrornas-isolated-from-whole-blood-are-regulated-by-exercise-and-are-potential-biomarkers-of-cardiorespiratory-fitness
#8
Joshua Denham, Priscilla R Prestes
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNA molecules that regulate gene expression post-transcriptionally. Evidence indicating miRNAs influence exercise-induced health and performance adaptations is mounting. Circulating miRNAs are responsible for intercellular communication and could serve as biomarkers for disease and exercise-related traits. Such biomarkers would contribute to exercise screening, monitoring, and the development of personalized exercise prescription. Accordingly, we investigated the impact of long-term strenuous aerobic exercise training and a single bout of maximal aerobic exercise on five muscle-enriched miRNAs implicated in exercise adaptations (miR-1, miR-133a, miR-181a, miR-486, and miR-494)...
2016: Frontiers in Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872124/incidence-mechanisms-and-severity-of-match-related-collegiate-men-s-soccer-injuries-on-fieldturf-and-natural-grass-surfaces-a-6-year-prospective-study
#9
Michael C Meyers
BACKGROUND: Numerous injuries have been attributed to playing on artificial turf. More recently, newer generations of artificial turf have been developed to duplicate the playing characteristics of natural grass. Although artificial turf has been deemed safer than natural grass in some studies, few long-term studies have been conducted comparing match-related collegiate soccer injuries between the 2 playing surfaces. HYPOTHESIS: Collegiate male soccer athletes do not experience any difference in the incidence, mechanisms, or severity of match-related injuries between FieldTurf and natural grass...
November 21, 2016: American Journal of Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27842983/a-novel-hplc-mrm-strategy-to-discover-unknown-and-long-term-metabolites-of-stanozolol-for-expanding-analytical-possibilities-in-doping-control
#10
Zhe Wang, Xinmiao Zhou, Xin Liu, Ying Dong, Jinlan Zhang
Stanozolol is one of the most commonly abused anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) by athletes and usually detected by its parent drug and major metabolites. However, its metabolic pathway is complex, varied and individually different, it is important to characterize its overall metabolic profiles and discover new and long-term metabolites for the aims of expanding detection windows. High performance liquid chromatography coupled with triple quadrupole mass spectrometer (HPLC-MS/MS) was used to analyze the human urine after oral administration of stanozolol...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Chromatography. B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27837349/comparison-of-body-composition-and-nutrients-deficiencies-between-portuguese-rink-hockey-players
#11
Maria-Raquel G Silva, Hugo-Henrique Silva
: We evaluated dietary intake and body composition of child and adolescent rink-hockey players and controls. Seventy-two male rink-hockey players (38 children and 34 adolescents) and 79 male controls (43 children and 36 adolescents) were evaluated in order to collect training data, detailed dietary intake and body composition. Rink-hockey players presented significantly lower body fat (BF) and higher fat-free mass (FFM) than controls. Mean intakes of carbohydrate and protein were considered to be adequate, but mean intakes of fat were above the recommended levels in athletes...
January 2017: European Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27780175/player-selection-bias-in-national-football-league-draftees
#12
Kyle S Beyer, David H Fukuda, Michael J Redd, Jeffrey R Stout, Jay R Hoffman
Beyer, KS, Fukuda, DH, Redd, MJ, Stout, JR, and Hoffman, JR. Player selection bias in National Football League draftees. J Strength Cond Res 30(11): 2965-2971, 2016-Relative age effects (RAEs) have been studied as a potential factor associated with player selection bias in numerous sports. However, little research has examined the role of RAEs among National Football League (NFL) draftees. The purpose of the current study was to determine the existence of RAEs in NFL draftees from the last 10 NFL drafts. Draftee birth dates were collected and divided into calendar and scholastic quarters (SQ1-SQ4)...
November 2016: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27755352/complete-reversion-of-cardiac-functional-adaptation-induced-by-exercise-training
#13
Attila Oláh, Dalma Kellermayer, Csaba Mátyás, Balázs Tamás Németh, Árpád Lux, Lilla Szabó, Marianna Török, Mihály Ruppert, Anna Meltzer, Alex Ali Sayour, Kálmán Benke, István Hartyánszky, Béla Merkely, Tamás Radovits
PURPOSE: Long-term exercise training is associated with characteristic cardiac adaptation, termed athlete's heart. Our research group previously characterized in vivo left ventricular (LV) function of exercise-induced cardiac hypertrophy in detail in a rat model; however, the effect of detraining on LV function is still unclear. We aimed at evaluating the reversibility of functional alterations of athlete's heart after detraining. METHODS: Rats (n = 16) were divided into detrained exercised (DEx) and detrained control (DCo) groups...
March 2017: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27724495/impacts-of-talent-development-environments-on-athlete-burnout-a-self-determination-perspective
#14
Chunxiao Li, Chee Keng John Wang, Do Young Pyun
Guided by Deci and Ryan's (2000) self-determination theory, this survey study aimed to examine the effects of the talent development environmental factors on athlete burnout. Talented adolescent athletes (n = 691) filled out a survey form measuring the talent development environmental factors, needs satisfaction and burnout. The findings showed that three talent environmental factors (i.e., long-term development focus, holistic quality preparation and communication) were negative predictors of burnout via needs satisfaction...
October 11, 2016: Journal of Sports Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27705538/the-adolescent-athlete-a-developmental-approach-to-injury-risk
#15
Damien McKay, Carolyn Broderick, Katharine Steinbeck
With the advent of long-term athlete development programs and early sport specialization, the training of elite athletes now spans the period of adolescence. Adolescence represents a period of physical, psychosocial and cognitive development, but also a time of physical and psychological vulnerability. Changes in skeletal and physiological attributes coincide with an increased risk of sport related injury. A window of vulnerability is shaped by the properties of the musculoskeletal system, the influence of pubertal hormones and the lag time between physical and cognitive development...
November 2016: Pediatric Exercise Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27676856/an-injury-prevention-program-is-able-to-reduce-the-number-of-injury-complaints-at-medium-term-in-athletics
#16
Pascal Edouard, Emmanuelle Cugy, Romain Dolin, Nicolas Morel, Kathrin Steffen
OBJECTIVE: The incidence of injuries in athletics is important, with consequences at short and long terms in sport, health, social and professional levels. It is therefore important to define strategies to reduce the incidence and severity of injuries in athletics. The objective of this study was to determine whether an injury prevention program (IPP) can reduce the occurrence and/or severity of injuries related to the practice of athletics. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The IPP has been developed, based on current scientific knowledge, targeting exercises on the most common injuries in athletics (hamstring muscle injury, Achilles and patellar tendinopathy, low back pain, ankle sprain) and selecting exercises known to treat and/or prevent these injuries (care stability, hamstrings and leg eccentric muscle strengthening, pelvis balance and stabilizing work)...
September 2016: Annals of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27612195/mechanisms-prediction-and-prevention-of-acl-injuries-cut-risk-with-three-sharpened-and-validated-tools
#17
REVIEW
Timothy E Hewett, Gregory D Myer, Kevin R Ford, Mark V Paterno, Carmen E Quatman
Economic and societal pressures influence modern medical practice to develop and implement prevention strategies. Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury devastates the knee joint leading to short term disability and long term sequelae. Due to the high risk of long term osteoarthritis in all treatment populations following ACL injury, prevention is the only effective intervention for this life-altering disruption in knee health. The "Sequence of Prevention" Model provides a framework to monitor progress towards the ultimate goal of preventing ACL injuries...
November 2016: Journal of Orthopaedic Research: Official Publication of the Orthopaedic Research Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27604720/weight-drop-models-in-traumatic-brain-injury
#18
Brian T Kalish, Michael J Whalen
Weight drop models in rodents have been used for several decades to advance our understanding of the pathophysiology of traumatic brain injury. Weight drop models have been used to replicate focal cerebral contusion as well as diffuse brain injury characterized by axonal damage. More recently, closed head injury models with free head rotation have been developed to model sports concussions, which feature functional disturbances in the absence of overt brain damage assessed by conventional imaging techniques...
2016: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27526721/football-players-perceptions-of-future-risk-of-concussion-and-concussion-related-health-outcomes
#19
Christine M Baugh, Emily Kroshus, Patrick T Kiernan, David Mendel, William P Meehan
Concussion is increasingly recognized as a risk of participation in contact and collision sports. There have been few examinations of athletes' perceptions of their susceptibility to concussion or concussion-related health consequences. We examine college football players' perceptions of their risk of sustaining a concussion and concussion-related health consequences in their future, whether these perceptions change over time, and how concussion history is related to perceived future risk of concussion and concussion-related health consequences...
February 15, 2017: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27508857/-op-8a-05-regular-physical-activity-attenuates-the-association-between-coffee-consumption-and-cardiovascular-events-in-hypertension-the-harvest
#20
L Mos, C Fania, F Saladini, A Mazzer, S Cozzio, A Bortolazzi, G Garavelli, E Casiglia, P Palatini
OBJECTIVE: Coffee consumption has been found to predict the risk of cardiovascular events (CVE) in hypertension. Aim of the present study was to ascertain whether the strength of the coffee-CVE association is modulated by regular physical activity. DESIGN AND METHOD: The analysis was made in 1204 participants from the HARVEST, a prospective cohort study of non-diabetic subjects aged 18-45 years, screened for stage 1 hypertension. Among the participants, 26.2% were abstainers, 62...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
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