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Central Pulse Pressure

Caroline S Y Eng, Devina Bhowruth, Mark Mayes, Lynsey Stronach, Michelle Blaauw, Amy Barber, Lesley Rees, Rukshana C Shroff
Background: Fluid balance is pivotal in the management of children with chronic kidney disease (CKD) and on dialysis. Although many techniques are available to assess fluid status, there are only a few studies for children, of which none have been comparable against cardiovascular outcome measures. Methods: We performed a longitudinal study in 30 children with CKD5-5D and 13 age-matched healthy controls (71 measurements) to determine a correlation between optimal weight by bioimpedance spectroscopy (Wt-BIS) and clinical assessment (Wt-CA)...
November 9, 2017: Nephrology, Dialysis, Transplantation
Kevin S Heffernan, Jacqueline A Augustine, Wesley K Lefferts, Nicole L Spartano, William E Hughes, Randall S Jorgensen, Brooks B Gump
This study examined central artery stiffness and hemodynamic pulsatility during cognitive engagement in younger and older adults. METHODS: Vascular-hemodynamic measures were completed in 19 younger (age 35±1yrs) and 20 older (age 69±2yrs) adults at rest and during a Stroop task. Aortic stiffness (carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity, PWV) and carotid pulse pressure (PP) were assessed using applanation tonometry. Carotid stiffness was assessed as a single-point PWV using Doppler Ultrasound...
November 9, 2017: Experimental Gerontology
Alexandra B Cooke, Vincent Ta, Sameena Iqbal, Yessica-Haydee Gomez, Thomas Mavrakanas, Paul Barré, Murray Vasilevsky, Elham Rahme, Stella S Daskalopoulou
Objectives: Regular exercise is known to reduce arterial stiffness (AS) in hemodialysis patients. However, the impact of a more realistic intradialytic form of exercise, such as pedaling, is unclear. We aimed to examine 1) the effect of intradialytic pedaling exercise on AS over 4 months, and 2) the longer-term effect of pedaling on AS 4 months after exercise cessation. Methods: Patients on stable in-center hemodialysis (3x/week) were randomly assigned 1:1 to either intradialytic pedaling exercise (EX) or to a control group receiving usual hemodialysis (nonEX) for 4 months...
November 6, 2017: American Journal of Hypertension
T Y Cai, A Qasem, J G Ayer, M Butlin, S O'Meagher, C Melki, G B Marks, A Avolio, D S Celermajer, M R Skilton
Central blood pressure can be estimated from peripheral pulses in adults using generalised transfer functions (TF). We sought to create and test age-specific non-invasively developed TFs in children, with comparison to a pre-existing adult TF. We studied healthy children from two sites at two time points, 8 and 14 years of age, split by site into development and validation groups. Radial and carotid pressure waveforms were obtained by applanation tonometry. Central systolic pressure was derived from carotid waveforms calibrated to brachial mean and diastolic pressures...
December 2017: Journal of Human Hypertension
Ajay K Verma, Da Xu, Amanmeet Garg, Anita T Cote, Nandu Goswami, Andrew P Blaber, Kouhyar Tavakolian
Early detection of hemorrhage remains an open problem. In this regard, blood pressure has been an ineffective measure of blood loss due to numerous compensatory mechanisms sustaining arterial blood pressure homeostasis. Here, we investigate the feasibility of causality detection in the heart rate and blood pressure interaction, a closed-loop control system, for early detection of hemorrhage. The hemorrhage was simulated via graded lower-body negative pressure (LBNP) from 0 to -40 mmHg. The research hypothesis was that a significant elevation of causal control in the direction of blood pressure to heart rate (i...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
Andrea Grillo, Paolo Salvi, Susan Marelli, Lan Gao, Lucia Salvi, Andrea Faini, Giuliana Trifirò, Renzo Carretta, Alessandro Pini, Gianfranco Parati
BACKGROUND: Marfan syndrome is characterized by aortic root dilation, beginning in childhood. Data about aortic pulsatile hemodynamics and stiffness in pediatric age are currently lacking. METHODS AND RESULTS: In 51 young patients with Marfan syndrome (12.0±3.3 years), carotid tonometry was performed for the measurement of central pulse pressure, pulse pressure amplification, and aortic stiffness (carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity). Patients underwent an echocardiogram at baseline and at 1 year follow-up and a genetic evaluation...
November 7, 2017: Journal of the American Heart Association
Yusuke Endo, Koudai Kawase, Taku Miyasho, Tadashi Sano, Kazuto Yamashita, William W Muir
OBJECTIVE: To examine the accuracy of plethysmography variability index (PVI) as a noninvasive indicator of fluid responsiveness in hypovolaemic dogs. STUDY DESIGN: Prospective experimental study. ANIMALS: Six adult healthy sevoflurane-anaesthetized Beagle dogs. METHODS: Dogs were anaesthetized with 1.3-fold their individual minimum alveolar concentration of sevoflurane. The lungs were mechanically ventilated after neuromuscular blockade with vecuronium bromide...
August 25, 2017: Veterinary Anaesthesia and Analgesia
Henrique C S Muela, Valeria A Costa-Hong, Mônica S Yassuda, Natália C Moraes, Claudia M Memória, Michel F Machado, Edson Bor-Seng-Shu, Ricardo C Nogueira, Alfredo J Mansur, Ayrton R Massaro, Ricardo Nitrini, Thiago A Macedo, Luiz A Bortolotto
Cognitive impairment and elevated arterial stiffness have been described in patients with arterial hypertension, but their association has not been well studied. We evaluated the correlation of arterial stiffness and different cognitive domains in patients with hypertension compared with those with normotension. We evaluated 211 patients (69 with normotension and 142 with hypertension). Patients were age matched and distributed according to their blood pressure: normotension, hypertension stage 1, and hypertension stage 2...
November 5, 2017: Journal of Clinical Hypertension
Alastair J Moss, Renzo Pessotto, Andrew D Flapan
CLINICAL INTRODUCTION: A retired 59-year-old woman presented to the cardiology clinic concerned with cardiac pulsations that were visible on her chest wall. These were not associated with dyspnoea, syncope or chest discomfort.Of note, 8 years previously, she complained of recurrent nocturnal diaphoresis and 5 kg weight loss. Blood sampling at that time revealed a microcytic anaemia, reactive thrombocytosis and raised inflammatory markers (erythrocyte sedimentation rate 99 mm/hour, C-reactive protein 161 mg/L)...
November 3, 2017: Heart: Official Journal of the British Cardiac Society
Heikki Huhta, Juulia Junno, Mervi Haapsamo, Tiina Erkinaro, Pasi Ohtonen, Lowell E Davis, A Roger Hohimer, Ganesh Acharya, Juha Rasanen
Fetal aortic isthmus (AoI) allows communication between left (LV) and right (RV) ventricular outputs and represents arterial watershed between the brachiocephalic (brain) and subdiaphragmatic (placenta) circulations. To understand the capability of AoI to maintain the balance between upper and lower body circulations, we performed a complete fetal ascending aorta occlusion in 9 chronically instrumented sheep at near term gestation. We hypothesized that the occlusion would significantly decrease LV output and concomitantly increase RV output in order to maintain adequate systemic cardiac output and perfusion pressure to the fetal brain circulation through retrograde filling of the AoI...
November 2, 2017: Experimental Physiology
Keerthana Natarajan, Hao-Min Cheng, Jiankun Liu, Mingwu Gao, Shih-Hsien Sung, Chen-Huan Chen, Jin-Oh Hahn, Ramakrishna Mukkamala
Current oscillometric devices for monitoring central blood pressure (BP) maintain the cuff pressure at a constant level to acquire a pulse volume plethysmography (PVP) waveform and calibrate it to brachial BP levels estimated with population average methods. A physiologic method was developed to further advance central BP measurement. A patient-specific method was applied to estimate brachial BP levels from a cuff pressure waveform obtained during conventional deflation via a nonlinear arterial compliance model...
October 31, 2017: Scientific Reports
Kyoko Kawashima-Kumagai, Yasuharu Tabara, Kenji Yamashiro, Kazuya Setoh, Munemitsu Yoshikawa, Takahisa Kawaguchi, Masahiro Miyake, Hideo Nakanishi, Yuki Muraoka, Yoshimitsu Takahashi, Shinji Kosugi, Takeo Nakayama, Nagahisa Yoshimura, Fumihiko Matsuda, Akitaka Tsujikawa
OBJECTIVE: Morphological change in retinal vessel calibers has been reported as a marker of cardiovascular risk, but its association with arterial stiffening, a possible factor relating retinal vessel sings and cardiovascular outcomes, is not clear. The study aim was to clarify the relationship between retinal small vessel calibers and longitudinal change in large arterial stiffness in a sample of the general population. METHODS: The study included 6720 Japanese participants (52...
October 27, 2017: Journal of Hypertension
I-Te Lee, Chen-Huan Chen, Jun-Sing Wang, Chia-Po Fu, Wen-Jane Lee, Kae-Woei Liang, Shih-Yi Lin, Wayne Huey-Herng Sheu
BACKGROUND: Arterial stiffening blunts postprandial vasodilatation. We hypothesized that brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) may modulate postprandial central pulse pressure, a surrogate marker for arterial stiffening. METHODS: A total of 82 non-diabetic subjects received a 75-g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) after overnight fasting. Serum BDNF concentrations were determined at 0, 30, and 120min to calculate the area under the curve (AUC). Brachial and central blood pressures were measured using a noninvasive central blood pressure monitor before blood withdrawals at 0 and 120min...
November 10, 2017: Clinica Chimica Acta; International Journal of Clinical Chemistry
Andreas Jekell, Thomas Kahan
PURPOSE: Inhibition of the renin-angiotensin system may have effects on vascular structure and function beyond the effects on blood pressure (BP) reduction. We studied the ability of a single arm cuff oscillometric method (Arteriograph, TensioMed, Hungary) to assess effects of antihypertensive treatment on BP and arterial stiffness. Furthermore, this technique was compared to pulse wave analysis and applanation tonometry (SphygmoCor, AtCor Medical, Australia). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Brachial and aortic BP, augmentation index (AIx), and carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (PWV) was simultaneously assessed by both techniques in 71 untreated hypertensive patients...
October 26, 2017: Blood Pressure
Stijn A Peeters, Lian Engelen, Jacqueline Buijs, Nish Chaturvedi, John H Fuller, Anders Jorsal, Hans-Henrik Parving, Lise Tarnow, Simone Theilade, Peter Rossing, Casper G Schalkwijk, Coen D A Stehouwer
BACKGROUND: Altered regulation of extracellular matrix (ECM) composition by matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinase (TIMPs) may contribute to arterial stiffening. We investigated associations between circulating MMP-1, -2, -3, -9, -10 and TIMP-1, and carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (cfPWV) and pulse pressure (PP), as markers of arterial stiffness in type 1 diabetic patients. METHODS: Individuals with type 1 diabetes from three different cohorts were included in this study: EURODIAB Prospective Complications study (n = 509), LEACE (n = 370) and PROFIL (n = 638)...
October 25, 2017: Cardiovascular Diabetology
John D Sluyter, Carlos A Camargo, Alistair W Stewart, Debbie Waayer, Carlene M M Lawes, Les Toop, Kay-Tee Khaw, Simon A McG Thom, Bernhard Hametner, Siegfried Wassertheurer, Kim H Parker, Alun D Hughes, Robert Scragg
BACKGROUND: The effects of monthly, high-dose, long-term (≥1-year) vitamin D supplementation on central blood pressure (BP) parameters are unknown. METHODS AND RESULTS: A total of 517 adults (58% male, aged 50-84 years) were recruited into a double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial substudy and randomized to receive, for 1.1 years (median; range: 0.9-1.5 years), either (1) vitamin D3 200 000 IU (initial dose) followed 1 month later by monthly 100 000-IU doses (n=256) or (2) placebo monthly (n=261)...
October 24, 2017: Journal of the American Heart Association
German Fierro, Fernando Silveira, Ricardo Armentano
Pulse transit time (ptt) is a widely researched approach for wearable, unobtrusive, blood pressure monitoring. The estimation of ptt, being a delay measurement, may be affected by the group delay introduced by the signal conditioning chain. In this work a previously reported method for estimating central (aortic) blood pressure from ptt at aortic domain, using ECG R wave and BCG J wave detection, is considered. A simple design approach for the signal conditioning chain, which is suitable for a wearable device and that takes care of minimizing the impact of eventually introduced spurious delays is presented...
July 2017: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
Chai Rui, Li Si-Man, Xu Li-Sheng, Yao Yang, Hao Li-Ling
This study mainly analyzed the parameters such as ascending branch slope (A_slope), dicrotic notch height (Hn), diastolic area (Ad) and systolic area (As) diastolic blood pressure (DBP), systolic blood pressure (SBP), pulse pressure (PP), subendocardial viability ratio (SEVR), waveform parameter (k), stroke volume (SV), cardiac output (CO) and peripheral resistance (RS) of central pulse wave invasively and non-invasively measured. These parameters extracted from the central pulse wave invasively measured were compared with the parameters measured from the brachial pulse waves by a regression model and a transfer function model...
July 2017: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
Jitanan Laosiripisan, Andreana P Haley, Hirofumi Tanaka
BACKGROUND: Arterial blood pressure (BP) can be divided into steady state component that is determined by mean arterial pressure and pulsatile component that is explored by pulse pressure (PP). We determined relationships between BP components and regional cerebral perfusion. METHODS: A total of 52 apparently healthy and cognitively normal adults aged 40-60 years were studied. Regional cerebral perfusion was measured using functional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) arterial spin labeling technique in 10 a priori regions of interest...
November 1, 2017: American Journal of Hypertension
E Manikanta, L Vinoth Kumar, Ch Leela, P Prem Kiran
Evolution of acoustic shock wave (ASW) properties generated during nanosecond (ns) and picosecond (ps) laser-induced breakdown (LIB) of atmospheric air at different input intensities is presented. The intensity is varied by changing the focal geometry of ns and ps pulses. The ASW pressures are observed to follow the dynamic interplay between the plasma density and recombination of plasma species. The conversion of laser energy to acoustic energy has increased from loose to tight focusing conditions. The central frequencies have moved toward the lower side with increasing laser intensities for both ns-LIB (76-48 kHz) and ps-LIB (111...
August 20, 2017: Applied Optics
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