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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441781/dengue-virus-non-structural-protein-5
#1
REVIEW
Abbas El Sahili, Julien Lescar
The World Health Organization estimates that the yearly number of dengue cases averages 390 million. This mosquito-borne virus disease is endemic in over 100 countries and will probably continue spreading, given the observed trend in global warming. So far, there is no antiviral drug available against dengue, but a vaccine has been recently marketed. Dengue virus also serves as a prototype for the study of other pathogenic flaviviruses that are emerging, like West Nile virus and Zika virus. Upon viral entry into the host cell and fusion of the viral lipid membrane with the endosomal membrane, the viral RNA is released and expressed as a polyprotein, that is then matured into three structural and seven non-structural (NS) proteins...
April 24, 2017: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441569/the-cytoskeleton-autophagy-connection
#2
REVIEW
David J Kast, Roberto Dominguez
Actin cytoskeleton dynamics play vital roles in most forms of intracellular trafficking by promoting the biogenesis and transport of vesicular cargoes. Mounting evidence indicates that actin dynamics and membrane-cytoskeleton scaffolds also have essential roles in macroautophagy, the process by which cellular waste is isolated inside specialized vesicles called autophagosomes for recycling and degradation. Branched actin polymerization is necessary for the biogenesis of autophagosomes from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membrane...
April 24, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441531/myrf-er-bound-transcription-factors-drive-c-%C3%A2-elegans-synaptic-plasticity-via-cleavage-dependent-nuclear-translocation
#3
Jun Meng, Xiaoxia Ma, Huaping Tao, Xia Jin, Daniel Witvliet, James Mitchell, Ming Zhu, Meng-Qiu Dong, Mei Zhen, Yishi Jin, Yingchuan B Qi
Synaptic refinement is a critical step in nervous system maturation, requiring a carefully timed reorganization and refinement of neuronal connections. We have identified myrf-1 and myrf-2, two C. elegans homologs of Myrf family transcription factors, as key regulators of synaptic rewiring. MYRF-1 and its paralog MYRF-2 are functionally redundant specifically in synaptic rewiring. They co-exist in the same protein complex and act cooperatively to regulate synaptic rewiring. We find that the MYRF proteins localize to the ER membrane and that they are cleaved into active N-terminal fragments, which then translocate into the nucleus to drive synaptic rewiring...
April 24, 2017: Developmental Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441525/myrfs-on-the-move-to-rewire-circuits
#4
Colleen N McLaughlin, Heather T Broihier
Synaptic plasticity occurs in response to intrinsic and extrinsic cues and is a key step in the formation of mature neuronal circuits. In this issue of Developmental Cell, Meng et al. (2017) find that two conserved Myrf transcription factors coexist in the same complex to promote developmental circuit remodeling.
April 24, 2017: Developmental Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441461/sliding-scale-hcg-trigger-yields-equivalent-pregnancy-outcomes-and-reduces-ovarian-hyperstimulation-syndrome-analysis-of-10-427-ivf-icsi-cycles
#5
Vinay Gunnala, Alexis Melnick, Mohamad Irani, David Reichman, Glenn Schattman, Owen Davis, Zev Rosenwaks
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate pregnancy outcomes and the incidence of ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS) using a sliding scale hCG protocol to trigger oocyte maturity and establish a threshold level of serum b-hCG associated with optimal oocyte maturity. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort. SETTING: Academic medical center. PATIENTS: Fresh IVF cycles from 9/2004-12/2011. INTERVENTION: 10,427 fresh IVF-ICSI cycles met inclusion criteria...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441342/of-oestrogens-and-sperm-a-review-of-the-roles-of-oestrogens-and-oestrogen-receptors-in-male-reproduction
#6
REVIEW
Pavla Dostalova, Eva Zatecka, Katerina Dvorakova-Hortova
The crucial role that oestrogens play in male reproduction has been generally accepted; however, the exact mechanism of their action is not entirely clear and there is still much more to be clarified. The oestrogen response is mediated through oestrogen receptors, as well as classical oestrogen receptors' variants, and their specific co-expression plays a critical role. The importance of oestrogen signalling in male fertility is indicated by the adverse effects of selected oestrogen-like compounds, and their interaction with oestrogen receptors was proven to cause pathologies...
April 25, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440792/an-extra-uterine-system-to-physiologically-support-the-extreme-premature-lamb
#7
Emily A Partridge, Marcus G Davey, Matthew A Hornick, Patrick E McGovern, Ali Y Mejaddam, Jesse D Vrecenak, Carmen Mesas-Burgos, Aliza Olive, Robert C Caskey, Theodore R Weiland, Jiancheng Han, Alexander J Schupper, James T Connelly, Kevin C Dysart, Jack Rychik, Holly L Hedrick, William H Peranteau, Alan W Flake
In the developed world, extreme prematurity is the leading cause of neonatal mortality and morbidity due to a combination of organ immaturity and iatrogenic injury. Until now, efforts to extend gestation using extracorporeal systems have achieved limited success. Here we report the development of a system that incorporates a pumpless oxygenator circuit connected to the fetus of a lamb via an umbilical cord interface that is maintained within a closed 'amniotic fluid' circuit that closely reproduces the environment of the womb...
April 25, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440715/gnrh-agonist-triggering-for-final-oocyte-maturation-in-gnrh-antagonist-ivf-cycles-induces-decreased-lh-pulse-rate-and-amplitude-in-early-luteal-phase-a-possible-luteolysis-mechanism
#8
Samer Tannus, Yechiel Burke, Christopher R McCartney, Shahar Kol
The use of GnRH agonist to trigger final oocyte maturation in GnRH-antagonist in vitro fertilization (IVF) cycles has been shown to significantly reduce or even eliminate the risk of ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS) by inducing rapid luteolysis early in the luteal phase. The exact mechanism of this early luteolysis is still widely unknown. Since luteinizing hormone (LH) has a major role in corpus luteum support, we sought to explore the pattern of LH secretion early in the luteal phase. Ten high risk patients for developing OHSS and triggered with GnRH agonist were included...
April 25, 2017: Gynecological Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440666/relationship-between-delivery-modes-and-genitourinary-syndrome-among-postmenopausal-women
#9
M Yaralizadeh, P Abedi, P Salehinejad
OBJECTIVES: Many postmenopausal women suffer from genitourinary syndrome of menopause (GSM) due to the lack of estrogen. This study aimed to evaluate the relationship between mode of delivery and GSM among postmenopausal women. METHODS: We performed a case-control study of women who had had either vaginal delivery or Cesarean section. Data were collected through a sociodemographic questionnaire and a check list for assessing signs and symptoms of GSM. Subjective symptoms of vaginal atrophy (dryness, dyspareunia, itching, burning and paleness), pH of the vagina and maturation index were assessed and recorded...
April 25, 2017: Climacteric: the Journal of the International Menopause Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440642/asymmetric-silica-nanoparticles-with-tunable-head-tail-structures-enhance-hemocompatibility-and-maturation-of-immune-cells
#10
Prasanna Lakshmi Abbaraju, Anand Kumar Meka, Hao Song, Yannan Yang, Manasi Jambhrunkar, Jun Zhang, Chun Xu, Meihua Yu, Chengzhong Yu
Asymmetric mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSN) with controllable head-tail structures have been successfully synthesized. The head particle type is tunable (solid or porous) and the tail has dendritic large pores. The tail length and tail coverage on head particles are adjustable. Compared to spherical silica nanoparticles with a solid structure (Stöber spheres) or large-pore symmetrical MSN with fully covered tails, asymmetrical head-tail MSN (HTMSN) show superior hemocompatibility due to reduced membrane deformation of red blood cells and decreased level of reactive oxygen species...
April 25, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440558/what-determines-organ-size-differences-between-species-a-meta-analysis-of-the-cellular-basis
#11
Ayelén Gázquez, Gerrit T S Beemster
Little is known about how the characteristic differences in organ size between species are regulated. At the cellular level, the size of an organ is strictly regulated by cell division and expansion during its development. We performed a meta-analysis of the growth parameters of roots, and Graminae and eudicotyledonous leaves, to address the question of how quantitative variation in these two processes contributes to size differences across a range of species. We extracted or derived cellular parameters from published kinematic growth analyses...
April 25, 2017: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440496/pu-1-serves-a-critical-role-in-the-innate-defense-against-aspergillus%C3%A2-fumigatus-via-dendritic-cell-associated-c-type-lectin-receptor-1-and-toll-like-receptors-2-and-4-in-thp-1-derived-macrophages
#12
Chenyang Liu, Min Wang, Wenkui Sun, Feng Cai, Shen Geng, Xin Su, Yi Shi
Aspergillus fumigatus (A. fumigatus) is one of the most common fungal pathogens of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA), which may be life threatening in immunocompromised individuals. The dendritic cell-associated C-type lectin receptor (Dectin-1), toll‑like receptor (TLR)-2 and TLR-4 are major pattern recognition receptors in alveolar macrophages that recognize A. fumigatus components. The PU.1 transcription factor is known to be important for the transcriptional control of these three receptors in mature macrophages...
April 24, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440334/trends-in-perinatal-mortality-and-its-risk-factors-in-japan-analysis-of-vital-registration-data-1979-2010
#13
Maaya Kita Sugai, Stuart Gilmour, Erika Ota, Kenji Shibuya
As Japan has achieved one of the lowest perinatal mortality rates (PMR), our study aims to estimate trends in and risk factors for perinatal mortality among singleton births in Japan. We used Japanese vital registration data to assess trends in and risk factors for perinatal outcomes between 1979 and 2010. Birth and death registration data were merged. An autoregressive integrated moving average model was fitted separately by sex to the PMR and the proportion of stillbirths. A multilevel Poisson regression model was used to estimate risk factors for perinatal mortality...
April 25, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440307/lps-independent-activation-of-the-pro-inflammatory-receptor-trem1-by-c-ebp%C3%AE%C2%B5-in-granulocytes
#14
Hyung C Suh, Touati Benoukraf, Pavithra Shyamsunder, Tong Yin, Qi Cao, Jonathan Said, Stephen Lee, Ricky Lim, Henry Yang, Jacqueline Salotti, Peter F Johnson, Vikas Madan, H Phillip Koeffler
C/EBPε is a critical transcriptional factor for granulocyte differentiation and function. Individuals with germline mutations of C/EBPε fail to develop normal granulocytes and suffer from repeated infections. In order to gain a global view of the transcriptional machinery regulated by C/EBPε, we performed whole-genome ChIP-Seq using mouse bone marrow cells. To complement the C/EBPε DNA binding analyses, RNA-Sequencing was done in parallel using sorted mature and immature granulocytes from WT and C/EBPε KO bone marrow...
April 25, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439878/dissecting-and-modelling-the-emergent-murine-tec-compartment-during-ontogeny
#15
Fabian Brunk, Chloé Michel, Tim Holland-Letz, Alla Slynko, Annette Kopp-Schneider, Bruno Kyewski, Sheena Pinto
The origin of the thymic epithelium, i.e. the cortical (cTEC) and medullary (mTEC) epithelial cells, from bipotent stem cells through TEC progenitors and lineage-specific progeny still remains poorly understood. We sought to obtain an unbiased view of the incipient emergence of TEC subsets by following embryonic TEC development based on co-expression of EpCAM, CD80 and MHC class II (MHCII) on non-hematopoietic (CD45(-) ) thymic stromal cells in wild-type BL6 mice. Using a combination of ex vivo analysis, Re-aggregate Thymic Organ Culture (RTOC) reconstitution assays and mathematical modelling, we traced emergent lineage commitment in murine embryonic TECs...
April 25, 2017: European Journal of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439729/macular-morphology-in-former-preterm-and-full-term-infants-aged-4-to-10%C3%A2-years
#16
Achim Fieß, Johannes Janz, Alexander K Schuster, Ruth Kölb-Keerl, Markus Knuf, Bernd Kirchhof, Philipp S Muether, Jacqueline Bauer
OBJECTIVE: To analyse macular retinal and choroidal layer thickness in former preterm and full-term infants and to assess associated perinatal influence factors and functional correlation. METHODS: This prospective controlled, cross-sectional, hospital-based study in a tertiary center of maximum care examined former preterm infants with a gestational age (GA) ≤ 32 weeks and full-term neonates currently aged 4 to 10 years. We investigated data from 397 infants, analysing total foveal retinal thickness and six distinct macular retinal layer and choroidal layer measurements via spectral-domain optical coherence tomography...
April 25, 2017: Graefe's Archive for Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439685/histological-and-ultrastructural-study-of-myxobolus-mugchelo-parenzan-1966-with-initial-histopathology-survey-of-the-liza-ramada-host-intestine
#17
Mykola Ovcharenko, Bahram Sayyaf Dezfuli, Giuseppe Castaldelli, Mattia Lanzoni, Luisa Giari
This paper provides histological and ultrastructural data on Myxobolus mugchelo (Myxozoa), a parasite of the intestinal wall of thinlip mullet Liza ramada from the Comacchio lagoons (Northern Adriatic Sea, Italy). About 80% of the examined mullets were infected with this myxozoan. In histological sections, the plasmodia appeared rounded to ovoid and spindle shaped, measured 181.61 ± 97 × 122.79 ± 53.16 μm (mean ± standard deviation, SD) in size. Early sporogenic plasmodia were located primarily in the muscle layer where no pronounced inflammatory response was detected...
April 24, 2017: Parasitology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439621/qtl-mapping-of-domestication-and-diversifying-selection-related-traits-in-round-fruited-semi-wild-xishuangbanna-cucumber-cucumis-sativus-l-var-xishuangbannanesis
#18
Yupeng Pan, Shuping Qu, Kailiang Bo, Meiling Gao, Kristin R Haider, Yiqun Weng
QTL analysis revealed 11 QTL underlying flowering time and fruit size variation in the semi-wild Xishuangbanna cucumber, of which, FT6.2 and FS5.2 played the most important roles in determining photoperiod-dependent flowering time and round-fruit shape, respectively. Flowering time and fruit size are two important traits in domestication and diversifying selection in cucumber, but their genetic basis is not well understood. Here we reported QTL mapping results on flowering time and fruit size with F2 and F2:3 segregating populations derived from the cross between WI7200, a small fruited, early flowering primitive cultivated cucumber and WI7167, a round-fruited, later flowering semi-wild Xishuangbanna (XIS) cucumber...
April 24, 2017: TAG. Theoretical and Applied Genetics. Theoretische und Angewandte Genetik
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439495/immunotherapies-in-sarcoma-updates-and-future-perspectives
#19
REVIEW
Marwan Ghosn, Elie El Rassy, Hampig Raphael Kourie
Sarcomas are malignant tumors that are characterized by a wide diversity of subtypes with various cytogenetic profiles. Despite major treatment breakthroughs, standard treatment modalities combining chemotherapy, radiotherapy, and surgery failed to improve overall survival. Therefore, high expectations are foreseen with immunotherapy upon its maturation and better understanding of its mechanism of action. This paper presents a targeted review of the published data and ongoing clinical trials in immunotherapies of sarcomas, mainly adoptive cell therapies, cancer vaccines and immune checkpoint inhibitors...
April 10, 2017: World Journal of Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439462/microanatomy-and-paleohistology-of-the-intercentra-of-north-american-metoposaurids-from-the-upper-triassic-of-petrified-forest-national-park-arizona-usa-with-implications-for-the-taxonomy-and-ontogeny-of-the-group
#20
Bryan M Gee, William G Parker, Adam D Marsh
Metoposaurids are temnospondyl amphibians that are commonly recovered from the Chinle Formation deposits of North America. Two species, Koskinonodon perfectus and Apachesaurus gregorii, are known from Petrified Forest National Park (PEFO), AZ. Small, elongate intercentra are the single diagnostic postcranial characteristic of the smaller A. gregorii. However, a poor understanding of the earliest life stages of Koskinonodon perfectus and other large metoposaurids makes it unclear whether the proportions of the intercentra are a diagnostic feature for species discrimination or whether they are influenced by ontogeny...
2017: PeerJ
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