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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528443/herpesvirus-nuclear-egress
#1
Richard J Roller, Joel D Baines
Herpesviruses assemble and package their genomes into capsids in the nucleus, but complete final assembly of the mature virion in the cell cytoplasm. This requires passage of the genome-containing capsid across the double-membrane nuclear envelope. Herpesviruses have evolved a mechanism that relies on a pair of conserved viral gene products to shuttle the capsids from the nucleus to the cytoplasm by way of envelopment and de-envelopment at the inner and outer nuclear membranes, respectively. This complex process requires orchestration of the activities of viral and cellular factors to alter the architecture of the nuclear membrane, select capsids at the appropriate stage for egress, and accomplish efficient membrane budding and fusion events...
2017: Advances in Anatomy, Embryology, and Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528441/herpesvirus-latency-on-the-importance-of-positioning-oneself
#2
Patrick Lomonte
The nucleus is composed of multiple compartments and domains, which directly or indirectly influence many cellular processes including gene expression, RNA splicing and maturation, protein post-translational modifications, and chromosome segregation. Nuclear-replicating viruses, especially herpesviruses, have co-evolved with the cell, adopting strategies to counteract and eventually hijack this hostile environment for their own benefit. This allows them to persist in the host for the entire life of an individual and to ensure their maintenance in the target species...
2017: Advances in Anatomy, Embryology, and Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528272/glycosylation-is-important-for-legumain-localization-and-processing-to-active-forms-but-not-for-cystatin-e-m-inhibitory-functions
#3
Ngoc Nguyen Lunde, Mads Haugland Haugen, Kristina Broe Bodin Larsen, Ingrid Damgaard, Solveig J Pettersen, Roya Kasem, Wioletta Rut, Marcin Drag, Marcin Poreba, Harald Thidemann Johansen, Rigmor Solberg
The asparaginyl endopeptidase legumain and its inhibitor cystatin E/M are endogenously glycosylated. However, little is known about the nature of the carbohydrate groups and whether they affect the functions of these proteins. In this study both glycosylated and unglycosylated forms of legumain and cystatin E/M were studied. HEK293 cell lines stably over-expressing legumain or cystatin E/M, and HCT116 cells were used as cell models, and mature legumain was purified from bovine kidneys. To obtain unglycosylated proteins, cells were treated with tunicamycin, an inhibitor of N-linked glycosylation, whereas PNGase F and Endo H were used to characterize the glycosylation types...
May 17, 2017: Biochimie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528122/probdnf-inhibits-proliferation-migration-and-differentiation-of-mouse-neural-stem-cells
#4
Jia-Yi Li, Jia Liu, Nimshitha Pavathuparambil Abdul Manaph, Larisa Bobrovskaya, Xin-Fu Zhou
ProBDNF, a precursor of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), is an important regulator of neurodegeneration, hippocampal long-term depression, and synaptic plasticity. ProBDNF and its receptors pan-neurotrophin receptor p75 (p75NTR), vps10p domain-containing receptor Sortilin and tropomyosin receptor kinase B (TrkB) are expressed in neuronal and glial cells. The role of proBDNF in regulation of neurogenesis is not fully defined. This study aims to uncover the function of proBDNF in regulating the differentiation, migration and proliferation of mouse neural stem cells (NSCs) in vitro...
May 17, 2017: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528058/metachronous-germ-cell-tumors-of-the-mediastinum
#5
Shuhei Hakiri, Koji Kawaguchi, Takayuki Fukui, Koichi Fukumoto, Shota Nakamura, Kohei Yokoi
We report a rare case of mediastinal nonseminomatous germ cell tumor arising after 2 complete resections of mediastinal mature teratomas 18 and 10 years prior. After three cycles of chemotherapy for the mediastinal nonseminomatous germ cell tumor, the serum α-fetoprotein and β-human chorionic gonadotropin levels were normalized. However, chest radiography revealed that the mediastinal tumor had remarkably increased in size, and thus growing teratoma syndrome was diagnosed. The patient underwent urgent resection of the tumor, and a pathologic examination showed an encapsulated mature teratoma without any malignant viable cells...
June 2017: Annals of Thoracic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527902/the-provisional-matrix-setting-the-stage-for-tissue-repair-outcomes
#6
EDITORIAL
Thomas H Barker, Adam J Engler
Since its conceptualization in the 1980s, the provisional matrix has often been characterized as a simple fibrin-containing scaffold for wound healing that supports the nascent blood clot and is functionally distinct from the basement membrane. However subsequent advances have shown that this matrix is far from passive, with distinct compositional differences as the wound matures, and providing an active role for wound remodeling. Here we review the stages of this matrix, provide an update on the state of our understanding of provisional matrix, and present some of the outstanding issues related to the provisional matrix, its components, and their assembly and use in vivo...
July 2017: Matrix Biology: Journal of the International Society for Matrix Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527889/enhanced-cardiomyogenic-induction-of-mouse-pluripotent-cells-by-cyclic-mechanical-stretch
#7
Akankshya Shradhanjali, Brandon D Riehl, Jeong Soon Lee, Ligyeom Ha, Jung Yul Lim
The cardiac milieu is mechanically active with spontaneous contraction beginning from early development and persistent through maturation and homeostasis, suggesting that mechanical loading may provide biomimetic myocardial developmental signal. In this study, we tested the role of cyclic mechanical stretch loading in the cardiomyogenesis of pluripotent murine embryonic (P19) stem cells. A Flexcell tension system was utilized to apply equiaxial stretch (12% strain, 1.25 Hz frequency) to P19 cell-derived embryoid bodies (EBs)...
May 17, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527840/prevalence-of-middle-mesial-canals-and-isthmi-in-the-mesial-root-of-mandibular-molars-an-in%C3%A2-vivo-cone-beam-computed-tomographic-study
#8
Mehrnaz Tahmasbi, Poorya Jalali, Madhu K Nair, Sevin Barghan, Umadevi P Nair
INTRODUCTION: Many studies have investigated the morphology of the mandibular molar, but the prevalence of the middle mesial (MM) canal in the mesial root of the mandibular molar is still the subject of controversy. In addition, in previous literature, a true MM canal has not been clearly distinguished from an isthmus between the mesiobuccal and mesiolingual canals. Therefore, the objectives of this study were 2-fold: METHODS: Ninety limited field of view cone-beam computed tomographic scans were observed...
May 17, 2017: Journal of Endodontics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527718/rotenone-decreases-ischemia-induced-injury-by-inhibiting-mitochondrial-permeability-transition-in-mature-brains
#9
Evelina Rekuviene, Laima Ivanoviene, Vilmante Borutaite, Ramune Morkuniene
The mitochondrial permeability transition pore (mPTP) is thought to be implicated in brain ischemia-induced cell death. Here we sought to determine whether complex I (CI) of the mitochondrial electron transfer system may be involved in regulation of mPTP opening during ischemia and whether a specific inhibitor of this complex - rotenone can protect against ischemia-induced cell death in an experimental model of total ischemia in adult rat brains. Anesthetized Wistar rats were administered a single injection of rotenone (0...
May 17, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527661/modulation-of-adipocyte-function-by-the-tgf-%C3%AE-family
#10
Yuhang Qiao, Shozo Tomonaga, Masashi Suenaga, Tohru Matsui, Masayuki Funaba
Members of the transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) family are known to regulate the commitment of mesenchymal stem cells to an adipocyte lineage and the differentiation of preadipocytes to adipocytes. However, the roles of TGF-β family members in mature adipocytes are not known. The present study explored the modulation of cell function in 3T3-L1 adipocytes treated with the TGF-β family members TGF-β1, activin A, activin B, bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) 4, and BMP7. These TGF-β family members modulated the expression of some adipokines; activin A upregulated leptin expression, and activin B downregulated the expression of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1...
May 17, 2017: Cytokine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527483/single-fetal-death-in-monochorionic-twin-pregnancy-co-twin-prognosis-and-neonatal-outcome
#11
Emídio Vale-Fernandes, Joana Dias, Belandina Gil, Alexandra Cadilhe
The incidence of single fetal death in twin pregnancy varies from 0.5% - 6.8%, leaving the surviving fetus with increased morbi-mortality. The prognosis is worse in monochorionic pregnancies. In addressing these cases it should be noted referral to tertiary center with differentiated perinatal support, induction of fetal lung maturation and termination of pregnancy if there's loss of fetal well-being or possibility of maternal complications and suspected neurological sequelae in the surviving fetus. The risk of iatrogenic prematurity should always be weighed with the possible consequences arising from the fetus staying in a hostile uterine environment...
February 27, 2017: Acta Médica Portuguesa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527383/tributyltin-and-triphenyltin-exposure-promotes-in-vitro-adipogenic-differentiation-but-alters-the-adipocyte-phenotype-in-rainbow-trout
#12
Esmail Lutfi, Natàlia Riera-Heredia, Marlon Córdoba, Cinta Porte, Joaquim Gutiérrez, Encarnación Capilla, Isabel Navarro
Numerous environmental pollutants have been identified as potential obesogenic compounds affecting endocrine signaling and lipid homeostasis. Among them, well-known organotins such as tributyltin (TBT) and triphenyltin (TPT), can be found in significant concentrations in aquatic environments. The aim of the present study was to investigate in vitro the effects of TBT and TPT on the development and lipid metabolism of rainbow trout (Onchorynchus mykiss) primary cultured adipocytes. Results showed that TBT and TPT induced lipid accumulation and slightly enhanced peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) and CCAAT enhancer binding protein alpha (C/EBPα) protein expression when compared to a control, both in the presence or absence of lipid mixture...
May 8, 2017: Aquatic Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527335/dissection-of-cis-regulatory-element-architecture-of-the-rice-oleosin-gene-promoters-to-assess-abscisic-acid-responsiveness-in-suspension-cultured-rice-cells
#13
Sol Kim, Soo-Bin Lee, Chae-Seong Han, Mi-Na Lim, Sung-Eun Lee, In Sun Yoon, Yong-Sic Hwang
Oleosins are the most abundant proteins in the monolipid layer surrounding neutral storage lipids that form oil bodies in plants. Several lines of evidence indicate that they are physiologically important for the maintenance of oil body structure and for mobilization of the lipids stored inside. Rice has six oleosin genes in its genome, the expression of all of which was found to be responsive to abscisic acid (ABA) in our examination of mature embryo and aleurone tissues. The 5'-flanking region of OsOle5 was initially characterized for its responsiveness to ABA through a transient expression assay system using the protoplasts from suspension-cultured rice cells...
May 1, 2017: Journal of Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527294/activation-of-hypoxia-signaling-in-stromal-progenitors-impairs-kidney-development
#14
Katharina Gerl, Dominik Steppan, Michaela Fuchs, Charlotte Wagner, Carsten Willam, Armin Kurtz, Birgül Kurt
Intrauterine hypoxia is a reason for impaired kidney development. The cellular and molecular pathways along which hypoxia exerts effects on nephrogenesis are not well understood. They are likely triggered by hypoxia-inducible transcription factors (HIFs), and their effects appear to be dependent on the cell compartment contributing to kidney formation. In this study, we investigated the effects of HIF activation in the developing renal stroma, which also essentially modulates nephron development from the metanephric mesenchyme...
May 17, 2017: American Journal of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527110/a-review-of-the-hemodynamic-factors-believed-to-contribute-to-vascular-access-dysfunction
#15
Connor V Cunnane, Eoghan M Cunnane, Michael T Walsh
A vascular access (VA) is used to facilitate hemodialysis in patients that suffer from end-stage renal disease. However, they suffer from high failure rates due to non-maturation and venous stenosis, with intimal hyperplasia (IH) the underlying cause of both conditions. Abnormal hemodynamic profiles, which arise following VA creation, are believed to lead to the development of IH. However, the exact physiological response that initiates this process is unknown. This review evaluates the different hemodynamic parameters that are hypothesised to correlate with the development of IH...
May 19, 2017: Cardiovascular Engineering and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526951/pyrocincholic-acid-3%C3%AE-o-%C3%AE-d-quinovopyranosyl-28-o-%C3%AE-d-glucopyranoside-suppresses-adipogenesis-and-regulates-lipid-metabolism-in-3t3-l1-adipocytes
#16
Li Peng, Yanting Lu, Yuhui Xu, Jing Hu, Fang Wang, Yumei Zhang, Wenyong Xiong
Obesity is crucially involved in many metabolic diseases, such as type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease and cancer. Regulating the number or size of adipocytes has been suggested to be a potential treatment for obesity. In this study, we investigated the effect of pyrocincholic acid 3β-O-β-D-quinovopyranosyl-28-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (PAQG), a 27-nor-oleanolic acid saponin extracted from Metadina trichotoma, on adipogenesis and lipid metabolism in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. The 3T3-L1 pre-adipocytes were incubated with vehicle or PAQG for 6 days in differentiation process...
May 19, 2017: Natural Products and Bioprospecting
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526924/effects-of-water-ph-on-life-history-parameters-of-a-new-bosminid-cladocera-bosmina-bosmina-tripurae-korinek-saha-and-bhattachaya-1999-in-laboratory-condition
#17
Himadri Saha, K S Wisdom, Asem Lembika Devi, Da-U-Ruhi Pde, Sukham Tuni Devi, Makamguang Kamei, Anamika Biswas, Ratan K Saha, Prasenjit Pal
The effects of water pH on life history parameters of Bosmina tripurae have been studied to determine the most suitable water pH desired for the maximum growth and development of this newly discovered cladoceran species. The study was carried out under the laboratory condition at 20 ± 2°C. Five pH ranges 5.0 ± 0.2, 6.0 ± 0.2, 7.0 ± 0.2, 8.0 ± 0.2 and 9.0 ± 0.2 with six replicates for each pH consisting of one animal in each Petri dish (80 × 15 mm) were used for the study...
May 19, 2017: Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526755/the-matrix-protein-tiggrin-regulates-plasmatocyte-maturation-in-drosophila-larva
#18
Chen U Zhang, Ken M Cadigan
The lymph gland (LG) is a major source of hematopoiesis during Drosophila development. In this tissue, prohemocytes differentiate into multiple lineages including macrophage-like plasmatocytes, which comprise the vast majority of mature hemocytes. Previous studies have uncovered genetic pathways that regulate prohemocyte maintenance and some cell fate choices between hemocyte lineages. However, less is known about how the plasmatocyte pool of the LG is established and matures. Here we report that Tiggrin, a matrix protein expressed in the LG, is a specific regulator of plasmatocyte maturation...
May 19, 2017: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526652/retinoic-acid-induces-differentiation-of-buffalo-bubalus-bubalis-embryonic-stem-cells-into-germ-cells
#19
Syed Mohmad Shah, Suresh Kumar Singla, Prabhat Palta, Radhey Sham Manik, Manmohan Singh Chauhan
Development of precise and reproducible culture system for in vitro differentiation of embryonic stem (ES) cells into germ cells counts as a major leap forward for understanding not only the remarkable process of gametogenesis, otherwise obscured by limited availability of precursor primordial germ cells (PGCs), but in finally treating the catastrophic infertility. Taking into account the significant role of retinoic acid (RA) during in vivo gametogenesis, we designed the present study to investigate the effects of its stimulation on directing the differentiation of ES cells into germ cells...
May 16, 2017: Gene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526601/model-based-precision-dosing-of-sirolimus-in-pediatric-patients-with-vascular-anomalies
#20
Tomoyuki Mizuno, Chie Emoto, Tsuyoshi Fukuda, Adrienne M Hammill, Denise M Adams, Alexander A Vinks
Sirolimus is the first drug to show efficacy in the treatment of patients with complicated vascular anomalies. The current study expands on the evolution of a PK model-based strategy for the precision dosing of sirolimus as part of prospective concentration controlled clinical trials in pediatric patients with vascular anomalies. Twelve month follow up data collected from 52 pediatric patients participating in the Phase 2 clinical trial were analyzed. Target attainment across the age range of 3weeks to 18years after 2-3months of therapy was 94% (49 out of 52 patients)...
May 16, 2017: European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
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