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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817803/developmental-dysfunction-of-vip-interneurons-impairs-cortical-circuits
#1
Renata Batista-Brito, Martin Vinck, Katie A Ferguson, Jeremy T Chang, David Laubender, Gyorgy Lur, James M Mossner, Victoria G Hernandez, Charu Ramakrishnan, Karl Deisseroth, Michael J Higley, Jessica A Cardin
GABAergic interneurons play important roles in cortical circuit development. However, there are multiple populations of interneurons and their respective developmental contributions remain poorly explored. Neuregulin 1 (NRG1) and its interneuron-specific receptor ERBB4 are critical genes for interneuron maturation. Using a conditional ErbB4 deletion, we tested the role of vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP)-expressing interneurons in the postnatal maturation of cortical circuits in vivo. ErbB4 removal from VIP interneurons during development leads to changes in their activity, along with severe dysregulation of cortical temporal organization and state dependence...
August 16, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817799/human-astrocyte-maturation-captured-in-3d-cerebral-cortical-spheroids-derived-from-pluripotent-stem-cells
#2
Steven A Sloan, Spyros Darmanis, Nina Huber, Themasap A Khan, Fikri Birey, Christine Caneda, Richard Reimer, Stephen R Quake, Ben A Barres, Sergiu P Paşca
There is significant need to develop physiologically relevant models for investigating human astrocytes in health and disease. Here, we present an approach for generating astrocyte lineage cells in a three-dimensional (3D) cytoarchitecture using human cerebral cortical spheroids (hCSs) derived from pluripotent stem cells. We acutely purified astrocyte-lineage cells from hCSs at varying stages up to 20 months in vitro using immunopanning and cell sorting and performed high-depth bulk and single-cell RNA sequencing to directly compare them to purified primary human brain cells...
August 16, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817792/making-human-stars-a-new-method-to-generate-human-astrocytes
#3
Nicola J Allen
Human astrocytes are increasingly appreciated as important contributors to brain function in health and disease, but techniques to study them are limited. In this issue of Neuron, Sloan and colleagues (2017) describe a new 3D culture model that generates mature human astrocytes, opening the door to future studies of their function.
August 16, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817735/association-of-gene-expression-with-biomass-content-and-composition-in-sugarcane
#4
Nam V Hoang, Agnelo Furtado, Angela J O'Keeffe, Frederik C Botha, Robert J Henry
About 64% of the total aboveground biomass in sugarcane production is from the culm, of which ~90% is present in fiber and sugars. Understanding the transcriptome in the sugarcane culm, and the transcripts that are associated with the accumulation of the sugar and fiber components would facilitate the modification of biomass composition for enhanced biofuel and biomaterial production. The Sugarcane Iso-Seq Transcriptome (SUGIT) database was used as a reference for RNA-Seq analysis of variation in gene expression between young and mature tissues, and between 10 genotypes with varying fiber content...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817722/nicotinamide-alone-accelerates-the-conversion-of-mouse-embryonic-stem-cells-into-mature-neuronal-populations
#5
Síle M Griffin, Mark R Pickard, Rowan P Orme, Clive P Hawkins, Adrian C Williams, Rosemary A Fricker
INTRODUCTION: Vitamin B3 has been shown to play an important role during embryogenesis. Specifically, there is growing evidence that nicotinamide, the biologically active form of vitamin B3, plays a critical role as a morphogen in the differentiation of stem cells to mature cell phenotypes, including those of the central nervous system (CNS). Detailed knowledge of the action of small molecules during neuronal differentiation is not only critical for uncovering mechanisms underlying lineage-specification, but also to establish more effective differentiation protocols to obtain clinically relevant cells for regenerative therapies for neurodegenerative conditions such as Huntington's disease (HD)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817638/the-transcriptional-profiling-of-human-in-vivo-generated-plasma-cells-identifies-selective-imbalances-in-monoclonal-gammopathies
#6
Luis M Valor, Beatriz Rodríguez-Bayona, Ana B Ramos-Amaya, José A Brieva, Antonio Campos-Caro
Plasma cells (PC) represent the heterogeneous final stage of the B cells (BC) differentiation process. To characterize the transition of BC into PC, transcriptomes from human naïve BC were compared to those of three functionally-different subsets of human in vivo-generated PC: i) tonsil PC, mainly consisting of early PC; ii) PC released to the blood after a potent booster-immunization (mostly cycling plasmablasts); and, iii) bone marrow CD138+ PC that represent highly mature PC and include the long-lived PC compartment...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817600/development-and-evaluation-of-height-diameter-at-breast-models-for-native-chinese-metasequoia
#7
Mu Liu, Zhongke Feng, Zhixiang Zhang, Chenghui Ma, Mingming Wang, Bo-Ling Lian, Renjie Sun, Li Zhang
Accurate tree height and diameter at breast height (dbh) are important input variables for growth and yield models. A total of 5503 Chinese Metasequoia trees were used in this study. We studied 53 fitted models, of which 7 were linear models and 46 were non-linear models. These models were divided into two groups of single models and multivariate models according to the number of independent variables. The results show that the allometry equation of tree height which has diameter at breast height as independent variable can better reflect the change of tree height; in addition the prediction accuracy of the multivariate composite models is higher than that of the single variable models...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817577/detailing-neuroanatomical-development-in-late-childhood-and-early-adolescence-using-noddi
#8
Alyssa Mah, Bryce Geeraert, Catherine Lebel
Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) studies have provided much evidence of white and subcortical gray matter changes during late childhood and early adolescence that suggest increasing myelination, axon density, and/or fiber coherence. Neurite orientation dispersion and density imaging (NODDI) can be used to further characterize development in white and subcortical grey matter regions in the brain by improving specificity of the MRI signal compared to conventional DTI. We used measures from NODDI and DTI to examine white and subcortical gray matter development in a group of 27 healthy participants aged 8-13 years...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817560/fruit-weight-is-controlled-by-cell-size-regulator-encoding-a-novel-protein-that-is-expressed-in-maturing-tomato-fruits
#9
Qi Mu, Zejun Huang, Manohar Chakrabarti, Eudald Illa-Berenguer, Xiaoxi Liu, Yanping Wang, Alexis Ramos, Esther van der Knaap
Increases in fruit weight of cultivated vegetables and fruits accompanied the domestication of these crops. Here we report on the positional cloning of a quantitative trait locus (QTL) controlling fruit weight in tomato. The derived allele of Cell Size Regulator (CSR-D) increases fruit weight predominantly through enlargement of the pericarp areas. The expanded pericarp tissues result from increased mesocarp cell size and not from increased number of cell layers. The effect of CSR on fruit weight and cell size is found across different genetic backgrounds implying a consistent impact of the locus on the trait...
August 2017: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817419/the-association-of-fat-and-lean-tissue-with-whole-body-and-spine-bone-mineral-density-is-modified-by-hiv-status-and-sex-in-children-and-youth
#10
Denise L Jacobson, Jane C Lindsey, Brent A Coull, Kathleen Mulligan, Priya Bhagwat, Grace M Aldrovandi
BACKGROUND: HIV-infected (HIV-pos) male children/youth showed lower bone mineral density at sexual maturity than HIV-uninfected (HIV-neg) females. It is not known whether complications of HIV disease, including abnormal body fat distribution, contribute to lower bone accrual in male HIV-pos adolescents. METHODS: In a cross-sectional study, we evaluated the relationship between body composition (fat and lean mass) and bone mass in HIV-pos and HIV-neg children/youth and determined if it is modified by HIV status and sex...
August 16, 2017: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816640/exosomal-microrna-communication-between-tissues-during-organogenesis
#11
Toru Hayashi, Matthew P Hoffman
Epithelial-mesenchymal interactions are required to coordinate cell proliferation, patterning, and functional differentiation of multiple cell types in a developing organ. This exquisite coordination is dependent on various secreted molecules that provide developmental signals to mediate these tissue interactions. Recently, it was reported that mature mesenchymal-derived microRNAs (miRNAs) in the fetal mouse salivary gland are loaded into exosomes, and transported to the epithelium where they influence progenitor cell proliferation...
August 17, 2017: RNA Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816603/analysis-of-the-small-non-protein-coding-rna-profile-of-mouse-spermatozoa-reveals-specific-enrichment-of-pirnas-within-mature-spermatozoa
#12
Kate Hutcheon, Eileen A McLaughlin, Simone J Stanger, Ilana R Bernstein, Matthew D Dun, Andrew L Eamens, Brett Nixon
Post-testicular sperm maturation and storage within the epididymis is a key determinant of gamete quality and fertilization competence. Here we demonstrate that mouse spermatozoa possess a complex small non-protein-coding RNA (sRNA) profile, the composition of which is markedly influenced by their epididymal transit. Thus, although miRNAs are highly represented in the spermatozoa of the proximal epididymis, this sRNA class is largely diminished in mature spermatozoa of the distal epididymis. Coincident with this, a substantial enrichment in Piwi-interacting RNA (piRNA) abundance in cauda spermatozoa was detected...
August 17, 2017: RNA Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816581/novel-functions-for-chromatin-dynamics-in-mrna-biogenesis-beyond-transcription
#13
Catherine Dargemont, Anna Babour
The first step of gene expression results in the production of mRNA ribonucleoparticles (mRNPs) that are exported to the cytoplasm via the NPC for translation into the cytoplasm. During this process, the mRNA molecule synthesized by RNA polymerase II (Pol II) undergoes extensive maturation, folding and packaging events that are intimately coupled to its synthesis. All these events take place in a chromatin context and it is therefore not surprising that a growing number of studies recently reported specific contributions of chromatin dynamics to various steps of mRNP biogenesis...
August 17, 2017: Nucleus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816503/pubertal-development-of-body-size-and-soccer-specific-functional-capacities-in-adolescent-players
#14
Humberto Moreira Carvalho, José A Lekue, Susana M Gil, Iraia Bidaurrazaga-Letona
Pubertal growth in body size and functional capacities were examined in adolescent soccer players (n = 33). The average age at baseline was 10.9 (9.8-11.8 years). Peak height velocity (PHV) and growth curves for body mass and functional performance (countermovement jump, 15-m sprint, agility and Yo-Yo intermittent recovery test - level 1) were determined with Bayesian multilevel models. Estimates for PHV and age at PHV were 8.1 cm/year (95% credible interval: 4.2-18.5 cm/year) and 12.9 years (95% credible interval: 11...
August 17, 2017: Research in Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816419/tubulin-acetylation-accompanies-autophagy-development-induced-by-different-abiotic-stimuli-in-arabidopsis-thaliana
#15
Vira Olenieva, Dmytro Lytvyn, Alla Yemets, Catherine Bergounioux, Yaroslav Blume
Microtubules (MTs) play an important role in the regulation of autophagy development in yeast and animal as well as in plant cells. MTs participate in maturation and traffic of autophagosomes through their dynamic state changes and post-translational modifications of tubulin, namely acetylation. We subjected Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings to metabolic-, salt-, osmotic stresses as well as irradiation of ultraviolet B and investigated the involvement of plant MTs in the development of stress-induced autophagy via tubulin acetylation...
August 17, 2017: Cell Biology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816348/transition-metal-dependent-regulation-of-the-signal-transduction-cascade-driving-oocyte-meiosis
#16
Stephanie Schaefer-Ramadan, Satanay Hubrack, Khaled Machaca
The G2-M transition of the cell cycle requires the activation of members of the Cdc25 dual specificity phosphatase family. Using Xenopus oocyte maturation as a model system, we have previously shown that chelation of transition metals blocks meiosis progression by inhibiting Cdc25C activation. Here, using approaches that allow for the isolation of very pure and active recombinant Cdc25C, we show that Cdc25C does not bind zinc as previously reported. Additionally, we show that mutants in the disordered C-terminal end of Cdc25C are poor initiators of meiosis, likely due to their inability to localize to the proper sub-cellular location...
August 17, 2017: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816282/-long-term-follow-up-experience-of-comprehensive-treatment-of-testicular-mixed-germ-cell-tumors
#17
J F Ye, B Wang, L L Ma, L Zhao, G L Wang, K Hong
OBJECTIVE: Testicular mixed germ cell tumor is mixed with embryonal carcinoma, choriocarcinoma, yolk sac tumor, teratoma, seminoma and other two or more components of the testicular tumor, the clinical is relatively rare and high degree of malignancy, this article will summarize its clinical features and optimize its treatment. METHODS: A retrospective analysis of the clinical data of 22 patients with testicular tumor mixed germ cell in Peking University Third Hospital from May 1994 to November 2016 was conducted using a combination of statistical analysis and discussion of the relevant literature...
August 18, 2017: Beijing da Xue Xue Bao. Yi Xue Ban, Journal of Peking University. Health Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816092/attitudes-towards-science-among-spanish-citizens-the-case-of-critical-engagers
#18
Montaña Cámara, Ana Muñoz van den Eynde, José A López Cerezo
Using data obtained from Spanish surveys on the public perception of science, this article presents a critical review of current practices of population profile segmentation, including the one-dimensional representation of perceived risks and benefits and of the systematic underestimation of critical attitudes to the social impact of science and technology. We use discriminant analysis to detect a somewhat hidden cluster in the Spanish population which we call 'critical engagers'. These individuals are critically and socially responsible and are not reticent about expressing concern regarding scientific-technological change...
August 1, 2017: Public Understanding of Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816085/dynamics-of-a-vertical-flow-windrow-vermicomposting-system
#19
Ales Hanc, Tereza Castkova, Stanislav Kuzel, Tomas Cajthaml
Large-scale vermicomposting under outdoor conditions may differ from small-scale procedures in the laboratory. The present study evaluated changes in selected properties of a large-scale vertical-flow windrow vermicomposting system with continuous feeding with household biowaste. The windrow profile was divided into five layers of differing thickness and age after more than 12 months of vermicomposting. The top layer (0-30 cm, age <3 months) was characterised by partially decomposed organic matter with a high pH value and an elevated carbon/nitrogen (C/N) ratio...
August 1, 2017: Waste Management & Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815998/architects-of-nature-growing-buildings-with-bacterial-biofilms
#20
Martyn Dade-Robertson, Alona Keren-Paz, Meng Zhang, Ilana Kolodkin-Gal
In his text 'On Architecture', Vitruvius suggested that architecture is an imitation of nature. Here we discuss what happens when we begin using nature in architecture. We describe recent developments in the study of biofilm structure, and propose combining modern architecture and synthetic microbiology to develop sustainable construction approaches. Recently, Kolodkin-Gal laboratory and others revealed a role for precipitation of calcium carbonate in the maturation and assembly of bacterial communities with complex structures...
August 16, 2017: Microbial Biotechnology
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