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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161772/microarray-analysis-of-gene-expression-in-the-cyclooxygenase-cox-knockout-mice-a-connection-to-autism-spectrum-disorder
#1
Ravneet Rai-Bhogal, Eizaaz Ahmad, Hongyan Li, Dorota A Crawford
The cellular and molecular events that take place during brain development play an important role in governing function of the mature brain. Lipid signalling molecules such as prostaglandin E2 (PGE2 ) play an important role in healthy brain development. Abnormalities along the COX/PGE2 signalling pathway due to genetic or environmental causes have been linked to Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASDs). This study aims to evaluate the effect of altered COX/PGE2 signalling on development and function of the prenatal brain using male mice lacking cyclooxygenase-1 and -2 (COX-1(-/-) and COX-2(-/-) ) as potential model systems of ASD...
November 21, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161633/urinary-concentrations-of-biomarkers-of-phthalates-and-phthalate-alternatives-and-ivf-outcomes
#2
Ronit Machtinger, Audrey J Gaskins, Catherine Racowsky, Abdallah Mansur, Michal Adir, Andrea A Baccarelli, Antonia M Calafat, Russ Hauser
Phthalates are a class of chemicals found in a large variety of consumer products. Available experimental and limited human data show adverse effects of some phthalates on ovarian function, which has raised concerns regarding potential effects on fertility. The aim of the current study was to determine whether urinary concentrations of metabolites of phthalates and phthalate alternatives are associated with intermediate and clinical in vitro fertilization (IVF) outcomes. We enrolled 136 women undergoing IVF in a Tertiary University Affiliated Hospital...
November 18, 2017: Environment International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161529/developing-a-serious-videogame-for-preteens-to-motivate-hpv-vaccination-decision-making-land-of-secret-gardens
#3
Joan R Cates, Bernard F Fuemmeler, Sandra J Diehl, Laurie L Stockton, Jeannette Porter, Chioma Ihekweazu, Arshya S Gurbani, Tamera Coyne-Beasley
INTRODUCTION: Vaccination against human papillomavirus (HPV) is routinely recommended for ages 11-12, yet in 2016 only 49.5% of women and 37.5% of men had completed the three-dose series in the United States. Offering information and cues to action through a serious videogame for preteens may foster HPV vaccination awareness, information seeking, and communication. MATERIALS AND METHODS: An iterative process was used to develop an interactive videogame, Land of Secret Gardens...
November 21, 2017: Games for Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161441/contributions-of-function-altering-variants-in-genes-implicated-in-pubertal-timing-and-body-mass-for-self-limited-delayed-puberty
#4
Sasha R Howard, Leonardo Guasti, Ariel Poliandri, Alessia David, Claudia P Cabrera, Michael R Barnes, Karoliina Wehkalampi, Stephen O'Rahilly, Catherine E Aiken, Anthony P Coll, Marcella Ma, Debra Rimmington, Giles S H Yeo, Leo Dunkel
Context: Self-limited delayed puberty (DP) is often associated with delay in physical maturation, but whilst highly heritable the causal genetic factors remain elusive. Genome-wide association studies of the timing of puberty have identified multiple loci for age of menarche (AAM) in females and voice break in males, particularly in pathways controlling energy balance. Objective/Main outcome measures: We aimed to assess the contribution of rare variants in such genes to the phenotype of familial DP...
November 16, 2017: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161429/crosstalk-between-the-microbiome-and-epigenome-messages-from-bugs
#5
Yufeng Qin, Paul A Wade
Mammals exist in a complicated symbiotic relationship with their gut microbiome, which is postulated to have broad impacts on host health and disease. As omics-based technologies have matured, the potential mechanisms by which the microbiome affects host physiology are being addressed. The gut microbiome, which provides environmental cues, can modify host cell responses to stimuli through alterations in the host epigenome and, ultimately, gene expression. Increasing evidence highlights microbial generation of bioactive compounds that impact the transcriptional machinery in host cells...
November 17, 2017: Journal of Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161318/loss-of-mtorc2-signaling-in-oligodendrocyte-precursor-cells-delays-myelination
#6
Mark D Grier, Kathryn L West, Nathaniel D Kelm, Cary Fu, Mark D Does, Brittany Parker, Eleanor McBrier, Andre H Lagrange, Kevin C Ess, Robert P Carson
Myelin abnormalities are increasingly being recognized as an important component of a number of neurologic developmental disorders. The integration of many signaling pathways and cell types are critical for correct myelinogenesis. The PI3-K and mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathways have been found to play key roles. mTOR is found within two distinct complexes, mTORC1 and mTORC2. mTORC1 activity has been shown to play a major role during myelination, while the role of mTORC2 is not yet well understood...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161153/protective-effects-of-agomelatine-on-testicular-damage-caused-by-bortezomib
#7
N Akaras, T Bal, H Atilay, J Selli, M B Halici
Bortezomib is a chemotherapeutic agent used to treat several cancers; however, it exhibits severe side effects in testicular tissue. We investigated the use of agomelatine to prevent testicular tissue damage caused by bortezomib. We used 36 male Sprague-Dawley rats divided randomly into six equal groups: group 1, no treatment control; group 2, agomelatine treatment only; group 3, bortezomib treatment only for 48 h; group 4, bortezomib + agomelatine treatment for 48 h; group 5, bortezomib treatment only for 72 h; and group 6, bortezomib + agomelatine treatment for 72 h...
November 21, 2017: Biotechnic & Histochemistry: Official Publication of the Biological Stain Commission
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161152/proliferative-cells-isolated-from-the-adult-human-peripheral-retina-only-transiently-upregulate-key-retinal-markers-upon-induced-differentiation
#8
Erik O Johnsen, Rebecca C Frøen, Ole Kristoffer Olstad, Bjørn Nicolaissen, Goran Petrovski, Morten C Moe, Agate Noer
Purpose/Aim: The adult human retina has limited regenerative potential, and severe injury will result in permanent damage. Lower vertebrates handle retinal injury by activating neural stem cells (NSCs) in the ciliary marginal zone (CMZ). Müller glia-like cells expressing markers of NSCs are also present in the peripheral retina (PR) of the adult human eye, leading to the hypothesis that a CMZ-like zone might exists also in humans. In order to shed further light on this hypothesis we investigated the in vitro differentiation potential of proliferative cells isolated from the adult human PR towards a retinal phenotype...
November 21, 2017: Current Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160911/simultaneous-use-of-erythropoietin-and-lfm-a13-as-a-new-therapeutic-approach-for-colorectal-cancer
#9
Anna Tankiewicz-Kwedlo, Justyna Magdalena Hermanowicz, Tomasz Domaniewski, Krystyna Pawlak, Małgorzata Rusak, Anna Pryczynicz, Arkadiusz Surazynski, Tomasz Kaminski, Adam Kazberuk, Dariusz Pawlak
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Bruton's tyrosine kinase (BTK) is a non-receptor tyrosine kinase involved in the activation of signaling pathways responsible for cell maturation and viability. BTK has previously been reported to be overexpressed in colon cancers. This kind of cancer is often accompanied by anemia, which is treated with an erythropoietin supplement. The goal of the present study was to assess the effects of combination therapy with erythropoietin beta (Epo) and LFM-A13 (BTK inhibitor) on colon cancer in in vitro and in vivo models...
November 21, 2017: British Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160905/regulated-recruitment-of-srgap1-modulates-rhoa-signaling-for-contractility-during-epithelial-junction-maturation
#10
Xuan Liang, Sajini Kiru, Guillermo A Gomez, Alpha S Yap
Adherens junctions in epithelia are contractile structures, where coupling of adhesion to the actomyosin cytoskeleton generates mechanical tension for morphogenesis and homeostasis. In established monolayers, junctional contractility is supported by the interplay between cell signals and scaffolding proteins. However, less is known about how contractile junctions develop, especially during the establishment of epithelial monolayers. Here we show that junctional tension increases concomitant with accumulation of actomyosin networks as Caco-2 epithelia become confluent...
November 21, 2017: Cytoskeleton
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160796/role-of-galectin-3-in-bone-cell-differentiation-bone-pathophysiology-and-vascular-osteogenesis
#11
REVIEW
Carla Iacobini, Claudia Blasetti Fantauzzi, Giuseppe Pugliese, Stefano Menini
Galectin-3 is expressed in various tissues, including the bone, where it is considered a marker of chondrogenic and osteogenic cell lineages. Galectin-3 protein was found to be increased in the differentiated chondrocytes of the metaphyseal plate cartilage, where it favors chondrocyte survival and cartilage matrix mineralization. It was also shown to be highly expressed in differentiating osteoblasts and osteoclasts, in concomitance with expression of osteogenic markers and Runt-related transcription factor 2 and with the appearance of a mature phenotype...
November 21, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160762/commentary-on-the-article-improving-the-prediction-of-maturity-from-anthropometric-variables-using-a-maturity-ratio
#12
Alan Nevill, Richard F Burton
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 21, 2017: Pediatric Exercise Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160745/the-unveiling-of-the-warburg-effect-and-the-inscribed-innovative-approach-to-a-radical-non-toxic-anticancer-therapy
#13
Olivia Crociani, Ilaria Marzi, Maria Grazia Cipolleschi, Antonella Mannini, Massimo Contini, Massimo Olivotto
The purpose of this research has been deciphering the Warburg paradox, the biochemical enigma unsolved since 1923. This paradox consists of the aerobic pyruvate conversion to lactate brought about by anaplastic cancer, through the metabolic pathway known as aerobic glycolysis. This pathway implies a heavy energetic waste. We solved the enigma by demonstrating that its specific character, i.e. the forced aerobic lactate exportation, represents a crucial metabolic device to counteract the cytotoxic effect produced by an excess of pyruvate at the connection of glycolysis with the Krebs cycle...
November 21, 2017: Cell Cycle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160161/serum-from-differently-exercised-subjects-induces-myogenic-differentiation-in-lhcn-m2-human-myoblasts
#14
D Vitucci, E Imperlini, R Arcone, A Alfieri, A Canciello, L Russomando, D Martone, A Cola, G Labruna, S Orrù, D Tafuri, A Mancini, P Buono
Myogenesis is the formation of muscle tissue from muscle precursor cells. Physical exercise induces satellite cell activation in muscle. Currently, C2C12 murine myoblast cells are used to study myogenic differentiation. Herein, we evaluated whether human LHCN-M2 myoblasts can differentiate into mature myotubes and express early (myotube formation, creatine kinase activity and myogenin) and late (MyHC-β) muscle-specific markers when cultured in differentiation medium (DM) for 2, 4 and 7 days. We demonstrate that treatment of LHCN-M2 cells with DM supplemented with 0...
November 21, 2017: Journal of Sports Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160020/comparison-of-quantitative-regional-ventilation-weighted-fourier-decomposition-mri-with-dynamic-fluorinated-gas-washout-mri-and-lung-function-testing-in-copd-patients
#15
Till F Kaireit, Marcel Gutberlet, Andreas Voskrebenzev, Julia Freise, Tobias Welte, Jens M Hohlfeld, Frank Wacker, Jens Vogel-Claussen
BACKGROUND: Ventilation-weighted Fourier decomposition-MRI (FD-MRI) has matured as a reliable technique for quantitative measures of regional lung ventilation in recent years, but has yet not been validated in COPD patients. PURPOSE/HYPOTHESIS: To compare regional fractional lung ventilation obtained by ventilation-weighted FD-MRI with dynamic fluorinated gas washout MRI ((19) F-MRI) and lung function test parameters. STUDY TYPE: Prospective study...
November 21, 2017: Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging: JMRI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29159959/influence-of-body-condition-on-the-population-dynamics-of-atlantic-salmon-with-consideration-of-the-potential-impact-of-sea-lice
#16
R Susdorf, N K G Salama, D Lusseau
Atlantic salmon Salmo salar is an iconic species of high conservation and economic importance. At sea, individuals typically are subject to sea lice infestation, which can have detrimental effects on their host. Over recent decades, the body condition and marine survival in NE Atlantic stocks have generally decreased, reflected in fewer adults returning to rivers, which is partly attributable to sea lice. We developed a deterministic stage-structured population model to assess condition-mediated population dynamics resulting in changing fecundity, age at sexual maturation and marine survival rate...
November 21, 2017: Journal of Fish Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29159903/soluble-mhc-molecules-in-immune-regulation-highlighting-class-ii-antigens
#17
REVIEW
Katerina Bakela, Irene Athanassakis
The involvement of Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) antigens in the development and regulation of immune response has been well defined over the years, starting from maturation, antigenic peptide loading, migration to the cell membrane for recognition by the T cell receptor and recycling for immune response cessation. During this intracellular trafficking, MHC antigens find a way to be excreted by the cells, since they can be found as soluble MHC class I (sMHCI) and class II (sMHCII) molecules in all body fluids...
November 21, 2017: Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29159877/crystalline-structure-of-pulverized-dental-calculus-induces-cell-death-in-oral-epithelial-cells
#18
S M Ziauddin, A Yoshimura, J L Montenegro Raudales, Y Ozaki, K Higuchi, T Ukai, T Kaneko, T Miyazaki, E Latz, Y Hara
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Dental calculus is a mineralized deposit attached to the tooth surface. We have shown that cellular uptake of dental calculus triggers nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-like receptor family pyrin domain-containing 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome activation, leading to the processing of the interleukin-1β precursor into its mature form in mouse and human phagocytes. The activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome also induced a lytic form of programmed cell death, pyroptosis, in these cells...
November 20, 2017: Journal of Periodontal Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29159832/expression-and-localisation-of-rxfp3-in-human-spermatozoa-and-impact-of-insl7-on-sperm-functions
#19
S Heidari, A H Taromchi, R Nejatbakhsh, S Shokri
Insulin-like peptide 7 (INSL7) or relaxin-3 is a member of the insulin superfamily that is recently discovered. This hormone interacts with relaxin family peptide receptor 3 (RXFP3). Although recent studies of INSL7 have focused on its function in the brain as a neuropeptide, spermatozoa may be a candidate target of INSL7 due to its detection in testes and contains binding sites. Therefore, this study aims to analyse the expression and localisation of RXFP3 on human spermatozoa and to assess the effect of INSL7 on human sperm motility...
November 21, 2017: Andrologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29159704/neuroimmune-regulation-of-jc-virus-by-intracellular-and-extracellular-agnoprotein
#20
Michael Craigie, Stephanie Cicalese, Ilker Kudret Sariyer
JC virus (JCV) is a human polyomavirus and the etiologic agent of the demyelinating disease progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML). PML is observed in patients with underlying immunocompromising conditions, suggesting that neuro-immune interactions between peripheral immune cells and neuro-glia play an important role in controlling viral reactivation in the brain. There is little known about the immunobiology of JCV reactivation in glial cells and the role of immune, glial, and viral players in this regulation...
November 20, 2017: Journal of Neuroimmune Pharmacology: the Official Journal of the Society on NeuroImmune Pharmacology
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