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Steven J Zottoli, Ernst-August Seyfarth
The ability to maintain human brain explants in tissue culture was a critical step in the use of these cells for the study of central nervous system disorders. Ross G. Harrison (1870-1959) was the first to successfully maintain frog medullary tissue in culture in 1907, but it took another 38 years before successful culture of human brain tissue was accomplished. One of the pioneers in this achievement was Mary Jane Hogue (1883-1962). Hogue was born into a Quaker family in 1883 in West Chester, Pennsylvania, and received her undergraduate degree from Goucher College in Baltimore, Maryland...
May 16, 2018: Journal of the History of the Neurosciences
Alla M Zaydman, Elena L Strokova, Elena V Kiseleva, Lubov A Suldina, Anton A Strunov, Alexander I Shevchenko, Pavel P Laktionov, Vladimir M Subbotin
Idiopathic scoliosis is one of the most common disabling pathologies of children and adolescents. Etiology and pathogenesis of idiopathic scoliosis remain unknown. To study the etiology of this disease we identified the cells' phenotypes in the vertebral body growth plates in patients with idiopathic scoliosis. Materials and methods: The cells were isolated from vertebral body growth plates of the convex and concave sides of the deformity harvested intraoperatively in 50 patients with scoliosis. Cells were cultured and identified by methods of common morphology, neuromorphology, electron microscopy, immunohistochemistry and PCR analysis...
2018: International Journal of Medical Sciences
Eliedonna Cacao, Francis A Cucinotta
Radiation-induced impairment of neurogenesis in the hippocampal dentate gyrus is a concern due to its reported association with cognitive detriments after radiotherapy for brain cancers and the possible risks to astronauts chronically exposed to space radiation. Here, we have extended our recent work in a mouse model of impaired neurogenesis after exposure to low-linear energy transfer (LET) radiation to heavy ion irradiation. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a predictive mathematical model of radiation-induced changes to neurogenesis for a variety of radiation types after acute or fractionated irradiation...
December 2016: Radiation Research
Candace M Marsters, Jessica M Rosin, Hayley F Thornton, Shaghayegh Aslanpour, Natasha Klenin, Grey Wilkinson, Carol Schuurmans, Quentin J Pittman, Deborah M Kurrasch
BACKGROUND: Although the vast majority of cells in our brains are glia, we are only beginning to understand programs governing their development, especially within the embryonic hypothalamus. In mice, gliogenesis is a protracted process that begins during embryonic stages and continues into the early postnatal period, with glial progenitors first producing oligodendrocyte precursor cells, which then differentiate into pro-oligodendrocytes, pro-myelinating oligodendrocytes, and finally, mature myelinating oligodendrocytes...
November 18, 2016: Neural Development
Eliedonna Cacao, Francis A Cucinotta
Radiation impairment of neurogenesis in the hippocampal dentate gyrus is one of several factors associated with cognitive detriments after treatment of brain cancers in children and adults with radiation therapy. Mouse models have been used to study radiation-induced changes in neurogenesis, however the models are limited in the number of doses, dose fractions, age and time after exposure conditions that have been studied. The purpose of this study is to develop a novel predictive mathematical model of radiation-induced changes to neurogenesis using a system of nonlinear ordinary differential equations (ODEs) to represent the time, age and dose-dependent changes to several cell populations participating in neurogenesis as reported in mouse experiments exposed to low-LET radiation...
March 2016: Radiation Research
E V Protsenko, M E Vasil'eva, L P Peretiatko, A I Malyshkina
In this study, we investigated the morphology of the ventricular germinal zone and neocortex of the cerebral hemispheres in the projection field no. 4 of the motor area in human fetuses in dynamics from week 22 to 40 of fetal development. Morphological study allowed us to clarify the following patterns of prenatal ontogeny of the human CNS. On weeks 22-27, an intensive formation of the main sulci of the first order, differentiating the brain into lobes, is observed. By weeks 28-32, the formation of all sulci of the first order is completed; and on weeks 33-37, additional sulci characteristic of an individual are formed...
September 2014: Ontogenez
Setsuya Fujita
In 1960s, histological study on developing CNS led us to a novel finding that the periventricular layer (“Matrix” of W. His) of fetal neocortex is composed solely of the matrix cells. Application of 3H-thymidine autoradiography revealed “elevator movement” of the matrix cells. Following the stage of pure matrix cell proliferation (Stage I), stage of neuron production (Stage II) ensues, and when Stage II is over, stage of gliogenesis (Stage III) follows immediately; first, glioblasts, then astrocytes, oligodendrocytes and microglia differentiate, in sequence...
September 2014: Neuroscience Research
Daniel Reyes-Haro, Ernesto Mora-Loyola, Berenice Soria-Ortiz, Jesús García-Colunga
Axons and glial cells are the main components of white matter. The corpus callosum (CC) is the largest white matter tract in mammals; in rodents, 99% of the cells correspond to glia after postnatal day 5 (P5). The area of the CC varies through life and regional differences related to the number of axons have been previously described. Whether glial cell density varies accordingly is unknown; thus the aim of this study was to estimate glial cell density for the genu, body and splenium -the three main regions of CC-, of P6 and P30 rats...
2013: Biological Research
Judith A Blake, Melanie R Ziman
Pax3 has numerous integral functions in embryonic tissue morphogenesis and knowledge of its complex function in cells of adult tissue continues to unfold. Across a variety of adult tissue lineages, the role of Pax3 is principally linked to maintenance of the tissue's resident stem/progenitor cell population. In adult peripheral nerves, Pax3 is reported to be expressed in nonmyelinating Schwann cells, however, little is known about the purpose of this expression. Based on the evidence of the role of Pax3 in other adult tissue stem and progenitor cells, it was hypothesised that the cells in adult peripheral nerve that express Pax3 may be peripheral glioblasts...
2013: PloS One
Longxiao Sun, Shudong Wang, Kaikai Li, Dazhi Meng
It is an important subject to research the functional mechanism of cancer-related genes make in formation and development of cancers. The modern methodology of data analysis plays a very important role for deducing the relationship between cancers and cancer-related genes and analyzing functional mechanism of genome. In this research, we construct mutual information networks using gene expression profiles of glioblast and renal in normal condition and cancer conditions. We investigate the relationship between structure and robustness in gene networks of the two tissues using a cascading failure model based on betweenness centrality...
2012: Frontiers in Genetics
(no author information available yet)
Disorders of neurogenesis of cortical and subcortical structures in rat brain limbic system were studied in the offspring of rats that received ethanol during pregnancy. The methods used included the staining of histological sections with cresyl violet, in vitro culture, and electron paramagnetic resonance. Prenatal alcohol intoxication was shown to induce the disturbances in proliferative activity of granular layer cells in the hippocampal dentate gyrus, neuron- and glioblast migration, enhancement of free NO and lipoperoxide production and cell death...
2012: Morfologi︠a︡
X Jie, L Hua, W Jiang, F Feng, G Feng, Z Hua
Establishment of a detection platform for glioblastoma-dendritic cell (DC) vaccine preparation and to determine the efficacy of the vaccine in a clinical trial. Autologous glioblastoma-DC vaccine was prepared from a glioblast specimen procured from surgical resection. The specimen was used to enrich the vaccine with peripherally blood-derived DCs after heat-shock induced, glioblastoma apoptosis. The control group received conventional treatment of surgery and radio-chemotherapy post-operation. The therapeutic group received a combination of glioblastoma-DC vaccine and conventional therapy...
January 2012: Cell Biochemistry and Biophysics
Paul Honegger, Antoinette Defaux, Florianne Monnet-Tschudi, Marie-Gabrielle Zurich
Serum-free aggregating brain cell cultures are free-floating three-dimensional primary cell cultures able to reconstitute spontaneously a histotypic brain architecture to reproduce critical steps of brain development and to reach a high level of structural and functional maturity. This culture system offers, therefore, a unique model for neurotoxicity testing both during the development and at advanced cellular differentiation, and the high number of aggregates available combined with the excellent reproducibility of the cultures facilitates routine test procedures...
2011: Methods in Molecular Biology
Eun Sook Jang, James E Goldman
BACKGROUND: The forebrain subventricular zone (SVZ) of neonatal mammals contains a large, heterogeneous population of migratory and proliferating precursors of interneurons and glia. These cell types are produced in large numbers in the immediate postnatal period, the glioblasts populating the hemispheres with astrocytes and oligodendrocytes, the neuroblasts migrating to the olfactory bulb to become interneurons. How cell fate decisions are determined or stabilized in this mixed population is not clear, although previous studies indicate the importance of two transcription factors, Pax6 in neurons and Olig2 in glia, and suggest there may be reciprocal repression between these genes...
2011: PloS One
Manami Ueda, Chitose Sugiura, Kousaku Ohno, Akiyoshi Kakita, Akira Hori, Eisaku Ohama, Harry V Vinters, Hajime Miyata
To elucidate the biological significance of fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2) expression in epilepsy-associated malformations of cortical development, immunohistochemical expression of FGF-2 was investigated in the developing human cerebral mantles obtained from 30 autopsy cases of fetuses, stillborn infants and children ranging from 12 weeks gestation to 15 years old, and 70 surgically-resected corticectomy specimens from patients with medically intractable epilepsy, including: group I, 12 tubers of tuberous sclerosis; group II, 24 cases of focal cortical dysplasia (FCD) with balloon cells (BC); group III, 11 FCD without BC; group IV, 23 histologically normal-appearing neocortices from patients with Rasmussen encephalitis, cystic-gliotic encephalopathy, temporal lobe epilepsy; and group V, 14 normal-appearing neocortices adjacent to dysplastic lesions from groups I and II...
December 2011: Neuropathology: Official Journal of the Japanese Society of Neuropathology
K Okumura-Noji, T Kato, J Ito, T Suzuki, R Tanaka
When quiescent rat glioblasts were stimulated by glia maturation factor (GMF), their intrinsic Ca(2+)-dependent phosphorylation of proteins, especially that of M(r) 100 k protein, increased. The phosphorylation of M(r) 100 k protein in the homogenate started rising 13 h (S phase) after GMF stimulation and reached the maximal level (8-fold greater than the control) at 26 h. Phosphorylation was also detected in intact cells by the use of [(32)P]orthophosphate. Calmodulin augmented and W-7 (calmodulin inhibitor) slightly inhibited the phosphorylation, suggesting that Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase may partly be involved in phosphorylation of the M(r) 100 k protein...
1990: Neurochemistry International
J Ito, T Kato, R Tanaka
The morphological differentiation of normal rat glioblasts induced by glia maturation factor (GMF) was investigated with regard to the reorganization of the cytoskeletal structures by the use of indirect immunofluorescence staining methods. The microfilaments were reorganized from a stress fiber form to a plasmalemmal undercoat structure by GMF, and to a network-like structure by dBcAMP. The GMF- or dBcAMP-induced morphological differentiation was enhanced by cytochalasin D (over 2 ?M) and conversely inhibited by colchicine (over 1 ?M)...
1990: Neurochemistry International
K Okumura-Noji, T Kato, J Ito, R Tanaka, S Wakabayashi, Y Wada
The effects of diphenylhydantoin (DPH) and other anticonvulsants on the growth of glial cells as well as neuroblastoma cell lines was studied. The DPH inhibition of the DNA synthesis was most marked in rat fetal glioblasts induced by glia maturation factor (GMF) among the cell lines studied, and that in C6 cells. The IC(50) of DPH for glioblasts and C6 cells were about 0.2 and 0.4 mM, respectively. The inhibitory effects of DPH and valproate on DNA synthesis was specific for glial cells, and the DNA synthesis of such neuronal cell lines as Neuro2a, NAs-1, and PC12 was unaffected at pharmacological concentrations...
1989: Neurochemistry International
J Ito, T Kato, F Hara, K Kano-Tanaka, R Tanaka
Glial growth inhibitory factor (GGIF) was detected in the culture medium of mouse neuroblastoma cells. The partial purification and characterization of GGIF revealed that it was an acidic and heat-unstable protein and separated into two molecular weight forms (GGIF1: 33.0 to 40.5 K Mr; and GGIF2: 31.0 to 34.0 K Mr) on DEAE. Sephacel column chromatography. GGIF inhibited the growth of neoplastic glial cells as well as normal glioblasts in monolayer culture. The inhibitory effect of GGIF on proliferation of glioblasts appeared even after the incubation for less than 1 h, and retained thereafter unless the factor was removed...
1987: Neurochemistry International
T Suzuki, T Kato, T Fujii, R Tanaka
There were specific changes in the contents of cytoskeletal components and their organization during glioblast differentiation induced by glia maturation factor (GMF). Vimentin and glial fibrillary acidic protein increased in their contents, whereas actin did not. Tubulin was only a minor component of the glial cytoskeleton. Diffusely distributed intermediate filaments decreased and a number of fiber bundles were formed in parallel with the long axis of the large processes. The microtubules forming radiating fibers from the nuclear matrix to the cell body periphery were rearranged in such a way that the fibers perpendicular to the nuclear axis decreased whereas those parallel to the axis remained unchanged...
1986: Neurochemistry International
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