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Peter M Grace, Xiaohui Wang, Keith A Strand, Michael V Baratta, Yingning Zhang, Erika L Galer, Hang Yin, Steven F Maier, Linda R Watkins
The absence of selective pharmacological tools is a major barrier to the in vivo study of microglia. To address this issue, we developed a Gq - and Gi -coupled Designer Receptor Exclusively Activated by a Designer Drug (DREADD) to enable selective stimulation or inhibition of microglia, respectively. DREADDs under a CD68 (microglia/macrophage) promoter were intrathecally transfected via an AAV9 vector. Naïve male rats intrathecally transfected with Gq (stimulatory) DREADDs exhibited significant allodynia following intrathecal administration of the DREADD-selective ligand clozapine-N-oxide (CNO), which was abolished by intrathecal interleukin-1 receptor antagonist...
March 9, 2018: Experimental Neurology
Rhian F Walther, Mubarik Burki, Noelia Pinal, Clare Rogerson, Franck Pichaud
In Drosophila epithelial cells, apical exclusion of Bazooka/Par3 defines the position of the Zonula Adherens (ZA), which demarcates the apical and lateral membrane and allows cells to assemble into sheets. Here, we show that the small GTPase Rap1, its effector AF6/Canoe (Cno) and the Cdc42-effector Pak4/Mushroom bodies tiny (Mbt), converge in regulating epithelial morphogenesis by coupling stabilization of the Adherens Junction (AJ) protein E-Cadherin, and Bazooka retention at the ZA Furthermore, our results show that the localization of Rap1, Cno and Mbt at the ZA is interdependent, indicating their functions during ZA morphogenesis are interlinked...
March 5, 2018: Journal of Cell Science
Safa Bouabid, Fu-Ming Zhou
The indirect pathway striatal medium spiny projection neurons (iMSNs) are critical to motor and cognitive brain functions. These neurons express a high level of cAMP-increasing adenosine A2a receptors (A2aRs). However, the potential effects of cAMP production on iMSN spiking activity have not been established, and recording identified iMSNs in freely moving animals is challenging. Here we show that in the transgenic mice expressing cAMP-producing G protein Gs -coupled designer receptor exclusively activated by designer drug (Gs-DREADD) in iMSNs, the baseline spike firing in MSNs is normal, indicating DREADD expression does not affect the normal physiology of these neurons...
March 3, 2018: Journal of Neurochemistry
Daniel F Manvich, Kevin A Webster, Stephanie L Foster, Martilias S Farrell, James C Ritchie, Joseph H Porter, David Weinshenker
Clozapine-N-oxide (CNO) has long been the ligand of choice for selectively activating Designer Receptors Exclusively Activated by Designer Drugs (DREADDs). However, recent studies have challenged the long-held assertion that CNO is otherwise pharmacologically inert. The present study aimed to 1) determine whether CNO is reverse-metabolized to its parent compound clozapine in mice (as has recently been reported in rats), and 2) determine whether CNO exerts clozapine-like interoceptive stimulus effects in rats and/or mice...
March 1, 2018: Scientific Reports
Sthitapranjya Pati, Ankit Sood, Sourish Mukhopadhyay, Vidita A Vaidya
The medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) is implicated in anxiety-like behaviour. In rodent models, perturbations of mPFC neuronal activity through pharmacological manipulations, optogenetic activation of mPFC neurons or cell-type specific pharmacogenetic inhibition of somatostatin interneurons indicate conflicting effects on anxiety-like behaviour. In the present study we examined the effects of pharmacogenetic activation of Ca 2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase alpha (CamKII alpha)-positive excitatory neurons on anxiety-like behaviour...
March 2018: Journal of Biosciences
Vinod Vijayan, Avik Mazumder
Cinnamon (Cinnamomum cassia) is an important spice which is widely consumed in the Indian subcontinent as well as in several other parts of the world. In the present study, NMR spectroscopy showed the presence of cinnamaldehyde to be the major component of the bark. The possible mutagenic effects of cinnamon bark ethanolic extract (CEE, 0.01-1 mg/plate) cinnamon oil (CNO, 0.125-1 mg/plate), and its active component cinnamadehyde (CLD, 0.125-1 mg/plate) were evaluated. Antimutagenic activity of CEE, CNO, and CLD was also tested against various food borne mutagens (heterocyclic amines and aflatoxin B1 (AFB1)) and sodium azide (SA) using Ames assay...
February 26, 2018: Drug and Chemical Toxicology
Xiuhang Chai, Zong Meng, Jiang Jiang, Peirang Cao, Xinyu Liang, Michael Piatko, Shawn Campbell, Seong Koon Lo, Yuanfa Liu
PKO and CNO are composed of 97-98% triacylglycerols and 2-3% minor non-triglyceride components (FFA, DAG and MAG). Triglycerides were separated from minor components by chromatographic method. The lipid composition, thermal properties, polymorphism, isothermal crystallization behavior, nanostructure and microstructure of PKO, PKO-TAG, CNO and CNO-TAG were evaluated. Removal of minor components had no effect on lipid composition and equilibrium solid fat contents. However, presence of minor components did increase the slip melting point and promoted the onset of crystallization from DSC crystallization profiles...
March 2018: Food Research International
Shima Ghani, Hassan Barzegar, Mohammad Noshad, Mohammad Hojjati
In this study, we developed the new bioactive film from soluble soybean polysaccharide (SSPS) incorporated with different concentrations of cinnamon essential oil nanoemulsions (CNO) and the functional properties of them were evaluated. Then CNO-SSPS film was applied on the meat during refrigerate for 8 days. The use of CNO in film production has reduced thickness, water vapor permeability, water solubility, lightness (L*), redness (a*) and whiteness (WI) and increased antioxidant activity of SSPS-films. Also, the SSPS- film containing 0...
January 31, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Montserrat García Gómez
BACKGROUND: Musicians suffer from a wide range of health problems related to their profession. The aim of this paper was to assess whether work-related musician diseases are included into the Official Spanish List of Occupational Diseases and, if so, to describe and quantify those recognized in recent years. METHODS: The Official Spanish List of Occupational Diseases was searched to identify occupational diseases affecting musicians. We then conducted an incidence study of those occupational diseases recognized under code 29...
January 2018: Archivos de Prevención de Riesgos Laborales
D A Adekunbi, X F Li, G Lass, K Shetty, O A Adegoke, S H Yeo, W H Colledge, S L Lightman, K T O'Byrne
The posterodorsal medial amygdala (MePD) is a neural site in the limbic brain involved in regulating emotional and sexual behaviours. There is however limited information on the specific neuronal cell type in the MePD functionally mediating these behaviours in rodents. The recent discovery of a significant kisspeptin neurone population in the MePD has raised interest in the possible role of kisspeptin and its cognate receptor in sexual behaviour. This study therefore tested the hypothesis that the MePD kisspeptin neurone population is involved in regulating attraction towards opposite sex conspecifics, sexual behaviour, social interaction and anxiety response by selectively stimulating these neurones using the novel pharmacosynthetic DREADDs (designer receptors exclusively activated by designer drugs) technique...
January 22, 2018: Journal of Neuroendocrinology
Patricia Reid-Ponte
Patient- and family-centered care is a central tenet of nursing practice. This concept has evolved to include patient partnerships, patient engagement, and patient activation. This column differentiates these concepts and describes the core principles embedded in the overriding intention of ensuring that patients (and their families or significant others) are orchestrators of their health and their care plans. In this interview, Karen Drenkard, PhD, RN, FAAN, NEA-BC, CNO, of the GetWellNetwork, discusses work by the O'Neil Center as a leader in this area...
February 2018: Journal of Nursing Administration
Stephen V Mahler, Gary Aston-Jones
Neuropsychopharmacology accepted article preview online, 05 January 2018. doi:10.1038/npp.2017.299.
January 5, 2018: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
C M Mazzone, D Pati, M Michaelides, J DiBerto, J H Fox, G Tipton, C Anderson, K Duffy, J M McKlveen, J A Hardaway, S T Magness, W A Falls, S E Hammack, Z A McElligott, Y L Hurd, T L Kash
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2018: Molecular Psychiatry
Andrea Taddio, Giovanna Ferrara, Antonella Insalaco, Manuela Pardeo, Massimo Gregori, Martina Finetti, Serena Pastore, Alberto Tommasini, Alessandro Ventura, Marco Gattorno
BACKGROUND: Chronic Non-Bacterial Osteomyelitis (CNO) is an inflammatory disorder that primarily affects children. Although underestimated, its incidence is rare. For these reasons, no diagnostic and no therapeutic guidelines exist. The manuscript wants to give some suggestions on how to deal with these patients in the every-day clinical practice. MAIN BODY: CNO is characterized by insidious onset of bone pain with local swelling. Systemic symptoms such as fever, skin involvement and arthritis may be sometimes present...
December 29, 2017: Pediatric Rheumatology Online Journal
R Wilkinson, G Lotay, A Lennarz, C Ruiz, G Christian, C Akers, W N Catford, A A Chen, D Connolly, B Davids, D A Hutcheon, D Jedrejcic, A M Laird, L Martin, E McNeice, J Riley, M Williams
We have performed a direct measurement of the ^{19}Ne(p,γ)^{20}Na reaction in inverse kinematics using a beam of radioactive ^{19}Ne. The key astrophysical resonance in the ^{19}Ne+p system has been definitely measured for the first time at E_{c.m.}=456_{-2}^{+5}  keV with an associated strength of 17_{-5}^{+7}  meV. The present results are in agreement with resonance strength upper limits set by previous direct measurements, as well as resonance energies inferred from precision (^{3}He, t) charge exchange reactions...
December 15, 2017: Physical Review Letters
Chao Wang, Huiqing Fan, Xiaohu Ren, Jiangwei Ma, Jiawen Fang, Weijia Wang
As an amorphous or semi-crystalline material, graphitic carbon nitride (g-C3N4) displays poor photocatalytic activity due to the rapid recombination of photo generated charge carriers, which is mainly caused by the high density of defects in the graphitic structure. In this work, a porous O-doped g-C3N4 nanosheet (P-CNO) with highly ordered architecture is fabricated by introducing a novel hydrothermal treatment to the precursor before the final thermal condensation. The photocatalytic hydrogen evolution rate (HER) and HER per surface area of P-CNO are 13...
December 29, 2017: ChemSusChem
Colen Cooper Gore Silier, Justina Greschik, Susanne Gesell, Veit Grote, Annette F Jansson
OBJECTIVE: Although chronic non-bacterial osteitis (CNO) is an ever-increasingly recognised illness in the paediatric community and the adult healthcare community, a study to assess diagnosing, treatment and the psychosocial aspect of CNO from a large population pool was not available. We aimed to investigate CNO from the patient perspective. DESIGN: Health services research, patient survey. SETTING: Ludwig-Maximilians-University (LMU) Pediatric Rheumatology Department CNO Conferences held in June 2013 and June 2015...
December 26, 2017: BMJ Open
Sigrun Ruth Hofmann, Fanny Böttger, Ursula Range, Christian Lück, Henner Morbach, Hermann Joseph Girschick, Meinolf Suttorp, Christian Michael Hedrich
Objectives: Chronic recurrent multifocal osteomyelitis (CRMO), the most severe form of chronic nonbacterial osteomyelitis (CNO), is an autoinflammatory bone disorder. In the absence of diagnostic criteria or biomarkers, CNO/CRMO remains a diagnosis of exclusion. The aim of this study was to identify biomarkers for diagnosing multifocal disease (CRMO). Study design: Sera from 71 pediatric CRMO patients, 11 patients with osteoarticular infections, 62 patients with juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA), 7 patients with para-infectious or reactive arthritis, and 43 patients with acute leukemia or lymphoma, as well as 59 healthy individuals were collected...
2017: Frontiers in Pediatrics
William T Keenan, Diego C Fernandez, Lukas J Shumway, Haiqing Zhao, Samer Hattar
Designer Receptors Exclusively Activated by Designer Drugs (DREADDs) are an important tool for modulating and understanding neural circuits. Depending on the DREADD system used, DREADD-targeted neurons can be activated or repressed in vivo following a dose of the DREADD agonist clozapine- N -oxide (CNO). Because DREADD experiments often involve behavioral assays, the method of CNO delivery is important. Currently, the most common delivery method is intraperitoneal (IP) injection. IP injection is both a fast and reliable technique, but it is painful and stressful particularly when many injections are required...
2017: Frontiers in Neural Circuits
Vibol Sok, Alex Fragoso
Carbon nanomaterials have emerged as suitable supports for enzyme immobilization and stabilization due to their inherently large surface area, high electrical conductivity, chemical stability, and mechanical strength. In this paper, carbon nano-onions (CNOs) were used as supports to immobilize alkaline phosphatase, horseradish peroxidase, and glucose oxidase. CNOs were first functionalized by oxidation to generate carboxylic groups on the surface followed by the covalent linking of using a soluble carbodiimide as coupling agent...
February 7, 2018: Preparative Biochemistry & Biotechnology
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