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Yehia M Manawi, Ayman Samara, Tareq Al-Ansari, Muataz A Atieh
Carbon nanomaterials have been extensively used in many applications owing to their unique thermal, electrical and mechanical properties. One of the prime challenges is the production of these nanomaterials on a large scale. This review paper summarizes the synthesis of various carbon nanomaterials via the chemical vapor deposition (CVD) method. These carbon nanomaterials include fullerenes, carbon nanotubes (CNTs), carbon nanofibers (CNFs), graphene, carbide-derived carbon (CDC), carbon nano-onion (CNO) and MXenes...
May 17, 2018: Materials
Danielle Panoz-Brown, Vishakh Iyer, Lawrence M Carey, Christina M Sluka, Gabriela Rajic, Jesse Kestenman, Meredith Gentry, Sydney Brotheridge, Isaac Somekh, Hannah E Corbin, Kjersten G Tucker, Bianca Almeida, Severine B Hex, Krysten D Garcia, Andrea G Hohmann, Jonathon D Crystal
Vivid episodic memories in people have been characterized as the replay of multiple unique events in sequential order [1-3]. The hippocampus plays a critical role in episodic memories in both people and rodents [2, 4-6]. Although rats remember multiple unique episodes [7, 8], it is currently unknown if animals "replay" episodic memories. Therefore, we developed an animal model of episodic memory replay. Here, we show that rats can remember a trial-unique stream of multiple episodes and the order in which these events occurred by engaging hippocampal-dependent episodic memory replay...
April 21, 2018: Current Biology: CB
Wiktor Pronobis, Alexandre Tkatchenko, Klaus-Robert Müller
Machine learning (ML) based prediction of molecular properties across chemical compound space is an important and alternative approach to efficiently estimate the solutions of highly complex many-electron problems in chemistry and physics. Statistical methods represent molecules as descriptors that should encode molecular symmetries and interactions between atoms. Many such descriptors have been proposed; all of them have advantages and limitations. Here, we propose a set of general two-body and three-body interaction descriptors which are invariant to translation, rotation and atomic indexing...
May 11, 2018: Journal of Chemical Theory and Computation
D Brandt, E Sohr, J Pablik, A Schnabel, F Kapplusch, K Mäbert, J H Girschick, H Morbach, F Thielemann, S R Hofmann, C M Hedrich
The pathophysiology of chronic nonbacterial osteomyelitis (CNO) remains incompletely understood. Increased NLRP3 inflammasome activation and IL-1β release in monocytes from CNO patients was suggested to contribute to bone inflammation. Here, we dissect immune cell infiltrates and demonstrate the involvement of monocytes across disease stages. Differences in cell density and immune cell composition may help to discriminate between BOM and CNO. However, differences are subtle and infiltrates vary in CNO. In contrast to other cells involved, monocytes are a stable element during all stages of CNO, which makes them a promising candidate in the search for "drivers" of inflammation...
April 30, 2018: Clinical Immunology: the Official Journal of the Clinical Immunology Society
Marian E Betz, Ashley Brooks-Russell, Sara Brandspigel, Douglas K Novins, Gregory J Tung, Carol Runyan
INTRODUCTION: For ED patients at risk of suicide, counseling to reduce access to lethal means (including firearms) is recommended yet not routine. To enhance practice uptake, we sought to examine the attitudes and beliefs of emergency nurse leaders concerning the acceptability and effectiveness of lethal-means counseling. METHODS: We invited a nurse leader (ED nurse manager or Chief Nursing Officer [CNO]) at each hospital-based emergency department in the 8-state Mountain West region of the United States to complete a closed-ended telephone survey...
April 25, 2018: Journal of Emergency Nursing: JEN: Official Publication of the Emergency Department Nurses Association
Balasubramanian Palaniappan, Uma Sundaram
Pharmacological manipulations of constitutive nitric oxide (cNO) levels have been shown to have variable effects on Na absorption in vivo and in vitro in different tissues. Species differences, untoward in vivo effects (e.g. ENS, blood flow) and pharmacological non-specificity may account for these confounding observations. Thus, to directly and specifically determine the effect of cNO on brush border membrane Na/H exchange (NHE3) and Na-dependent glucose co-transport (SGLT-1), we inhibited cNO synthase (cNOS) with its siRNA in rat small intestinal epithelial cells (IEC-18) in vitro...
April 24, 2018: Nitric Oxide: Biology and Chemistry
Xiaogang Luo, Yuqin Xiao, Qiangxian Wu, Jian Zeng
Development of biodegradable polyurethane materials is the most promising in the wider context of the "greening" of industrial chemistry. To tackle this challenge, a novel biodegradable polyurethane foam from all bioresource-based polyols (lignin and soy oil-derived polyols) and polymeric methyldiphenyl diisocyanate (pMDI) have been synthesized via a one-pot and self-rising process. All these foam samples have the internal cellular morphology and microstructure. FTIR result exhibits characteristic peaks of polyurethane, and indicates covalent bonds between soy-based polyurethane and lignin, and the lignin powders can react with pMDI via active -H and -CNO...
April 24, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Jing Huang, Erika Polgár, Hans Jürgen Solinski, Santosh K Mishra, Pang-Yen Tseng, Noboru Iwagaki, Kieran A Boyle, Allen C Dickie, Mette C Kriegbaum, Hendrik Wildner, Hanns Ulrich Zeilhofer, Masahiko Watanabe, John S Riddell, Andrew J Todd, Mark A Hoon
In the version of this article initially published online, the labels were switched for the right-hand pair of bars in Fig. 4e. The left one of the two should be Chloroquine + veh, the right one Chloroquine + CNO. The error has been corrected in the print, HTML and PDF versions of the article.
April 19, 2018: Nature Neuroscience
Kush Purohit, Puja K Parekh, Joseph Kern, Ryan W Logan, Zheng Liu, Yanhua Huang, Colleen A McClung, John C Crabbe, Angela R Ozburn
BACKGROUND: Chronic alcohol intake leads to long-lasting changes in reward- and stress-related neuronal circuitry. The nucleus accumbens (NAc) is an integral component of this circuitry. Here, we investigate the effects of DREADDs (Designer Receptors Exclusively Activated by Designer Drugs) on neuronal activity in the NAc and binge-like drinking. METHODS: C57BL/6J mice were stereotaxically injected with AAV2 hSyn-HA hM3Dq, -hM4Di, or -eGFP bilaterally into NAc [core + shell, core or shell]...
April 18, 2018: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
Lan Ngoc Pham, Boi Van Luu, Hung Duong Phuoc, Hanh Ngoc Thi Le, Hoa Thi Truong, Phuong Duc Luu, Masakazu Furuta, Kiyoshi Imamura, Yasuaki Maeda
Candlenut oil (CNO) is a potentially new feedstock for biodiesel (BDF) production. In this paper, a two-step co-solvent method for BDF production from CNO was examined. Firstly, esterification of free fatty acids (FFAs) (7 wt%) present in CNO was carried out using a co-solvent of acetonitrile (30 wt%) and H2 SO4 as a catalyst. The content of FFAs was reduced to 0.8 wt% in 1 h at 65°C. Subsequent transesterification of the crude oil produced was carried out using a co-solvent of acetone (20 wt%) and 1 wt% potassium hydroxide (KOH)...
April 9, 2018: Journal of Oleo Science
Cayo Emilio Monteiro Goncalves, Breno R L Galvão, Vinicius Cândido Mota, Joao Pedro Braga, António J C Varandas
We report a new global Double Many-Body Expansion potential energy surface for the ground state of the CNO( 2 A ' ) manifold, calculated by the Explicit Correlation Multi-Reference Configuration Interaction method. The functional form was accurately fitted to 2728 ab initio points with a root mean squared deviation of 1.12 kcal mol -1 . All stationary points found in older reported forms are sistematically described and improved, in addition to two new ones and a characterization of an isomerization transition state between the CNO and NCO minima...
April 5, 2018: Journal of Physical Chemistry. A
Hermann Girschick, Martina Finetti, Francesca Orlando, Susanne Schalm, Antonella Insalaco, Gerd Ganser, Susan Nielsen, Troels Herlin, Isabelle Koné-Paut, Silvana Martino, Marco Cattalini, Jordi Anton, Sulaiman Mohammed Al-Mayouf, Michael Hofer, Pierre Quartier, Christina Boros, Jasmin Kuemmerle-Deschner, Denise Pires Marafon, Maria Alessio, Tobias Schwarz, Nicolino Ruperto, Alberto Martini, Annette Jansson, Marco Gattorno
Objectives: Chronic non-bacterial osteomyelitis (CNO) or chronic recurrent multifocal osteomyelitis (CRMO) is an autoinflammatory disorder characterized by sterile bone osteolytic lesions. The aim of this study was to evaluate the demographic data and clinical, instrumental and therapeutic features at baseline in a large series of CNO/CRMO patients enrolled in the Eurofever registry. Methods: A web-based registry collected retrospective data on patients affected by CRMO/CNO...
March 27, 2018: Rheumatology
Minerva Gonzales, Carol Boswell, Jessica Marquez
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 2018: Nursing Management
Yasmin Padovan-Hernandez, Lori A Knackstedt
Designer Receptors Exclusively Activated by Designer Drugs (DREADDs) are novel tools for the dissection of circuitry mediating behavior and neural function. Designer receptors based on the muscarinic M3 and M4 subtypes were designed to be activated by clozapine-N-oxide (CNO), a ligand previously shown to be an inert metabolite of clozapine. However, recent work in rats has shown that CNO is reverse metabolized to its parent compound. Furthermore, CNO administration (5 mg/kg IP) attenuates amphetamine-induced locomotion and the evoked dopamine response that accompanies it...
March 20, 2018: Neuroscience Letters
Peter M Grace, Xiaohui Wang, Keith A Strand, Michael V Baratta, Yingning Zhang, Erika L Galer, Hang Yin, Steven F Maier, Linda R Watkins
The absence of selective pharmacological tools is a major barrier to the in vivo study of microglia. To address this issue, we developed a Gq - and Gi -coupled Designer Receptor Exclusively Activated by a Designer Drug (DREADD) to enable selective stimulation or inhibition of microglia, respectively. DREADDs under a CD68 (microglia/macrophage) promoter were intrathecally transfected via an AAV9 vector. Naïve male rats intrathecally transfected with Gq (stimulatory) DREADDs exhibited significant allodynia following intrathecal administration of the DREADD-selective ligand clozapine-N-oxide (CNO), which was abolished by intrathecal interleukin-1 receptor antagonist...
March 9, 2018: Experimental Neurology
Rhian F Walther, Mubarik Burki, Noelia Pinal, Clare Rogerson, Franck Pichaud
In Drosophila epithelial cells, apical exclusion of Bazooka (the Drosophila Par3 protein) defines the position of the zonula adherens (ZA), which demarcates the apical and lateral membrane and allows cells to assemble into sheets. Here, we show that the small GTPase Rap1, its effector Canoe (Cno) and the Cdc42 effector kinase Mushroom bodies tiny (Mbt), converge in regulating epithelial morphogenesis by coupling stabilization of the adherens junction (AJ) protein E-Cadherin and Bazooka retention at the ZA. Furthermore, our results show that the localization of Rap1, Cno and Mbt at the ZA is interdependent, indicating that their functions during ZA morphogenesis are interlinked...
March 26, 2018: Journal of Cell Science
Safa Bouabid, Fu-Ming Zhou
The indirect pathway striatal medium spiny projection neurons (iMSNs) are critical to motor and cognitive brain functions. These neurons express a high level of cAMP-increasing adenosine A2a receptors. However, the potential effects of cAMP production on iMSN spiking activity have not been established, and recording identified iMSNs in freely moving animals is challenging. Here, we show that in the transgenic mice expressing cAMP-producing G protein Gs -coupled designer receptor exclusively activated by designer drug (Gs-DREADD) in iMSNs, the baseline spike firing in MSNs is normal, indicating DREADD expression does not affect the normal physiology of these neurons...
March 3, 2018: Journal of Neurochemistry
Daniel F Manvich, Kevin A Webster, Stephanie L Foster, Martilias S Farrell, James C Ritchie, Joseph H Porter, David Weinshenker
Clozapine-N-oxide (CNO) has long been the ligand of choice for selectively activating Designer Receptors Exclusively Activated by Designer Drugs (DREADDs). However, recent studies have challenged the long-held assertion that CNO is otherwise pharmacologically inert. The present study aimed to 1) determine whether CNO is reverse-metabolized to its parent compound clozapine in mice (as has recently been reported in rats), and 2) determine whether CNO exerts clozapine-like interoceptive stimulus effects in rats and/or mice...
March 1, 2018: Scientific Reports
Sthitapranjya Pati, Ankit Sood, Sourish Mukhopadhyay, Vidita A Vaidya
The medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) is implicated in anxiety-like behaviour. In rodent models, perturbations of mPFC neuronal activity through pharmacological manipulations, optogenetic activation of mPFC neurons or cell-type specific pharmacogenetic inhibition of somatostatin interneurons indicate conflicting effects on anxiety-like behaviour. In the present study we examined the effects of pharmacogenetic activation of Ca 2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase alpha (CamKII alpha)-positive excitatory neurons on anxiety-like behaviour...
March 2018: Journal of Biosciences
Vinod Vijayan, Avik Mazumder
Cinnamon (Cinnamomum cassia) is an important spice which is widely consumed in the Indian subcontinent as well as in several other parts of the world. In the present study, NMR spectroscopy showed the presence of cinnamaldehyde to be the major component of the bark. The possible mutagenic effects of cinnamon bark ethanolic extract (CEE, 0.01-1 mg/plate) cinnamon oil (CNO, 0.125-1 mg/plate), and its active component cinnamadehyde (CLD, 0.125-1 mg/plate) were evaluated. Antimutagenic activity of CEE, CNO, and CLD was also tested against various food borne mutagens (heterocyclic amines and aflatoxin B1 (AFB1)) and sodium azide (SA) using Ames assay...
February 26, 2018: Drug and Chemical Toxicology
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