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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429177/learning-from-one-s-own-errors-and-those-of-others
#1
Janet Metcalfe, Judy Xu
Three experiments investigated the effects of making errors oneself, as compared to just hearing the correct answer without error generation, hearing another person make an error, or being "on-the-hook," that is, possibly but not necessarily being the person who would be "called-on" to give a response. In all three experiments, generating either an error of commission or generating the correct response, oneself, out loud, compared to being a person who heard another's commission errors (or correct responses), was beneficial for later recall of the correct answer...
April 20, 2017: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421673/endothelial-erbb4-deficit-induces-alterations-in-exploratory-behavior-and-brain-energy-metabolism-in-mice
#2
Gang Wu, Xiu-Xiu Liu, Nan-Nan Lu, Qi-Bing Liu, Yun Tian, Wei-Feng Ye, Guo-Jun Jiang, Rong-Rong Tao, Feng Han, Ying-Mei Lu
AIMS: The receptor tyrosine kinase ErbB4 is present throughout the primate brain and has a distinct functional profile. In this study, we investigate the potential role of endothelial ErbB4 receptor signaling in the brain. RESULTS: Here, we show that the endothelial cell-specific deletion of ErbB4 induces decreased exploratory behavior in adult mice. However, the water maze task for spatial memory and the memory reconsolidation test reveal no changes; additionally, we observe no impairment in CaMKII phosphorylation in Cdh5Cre;ErbB4(f/f) mice, which indicates that the endothelial ErbB4 deficit leads to decreased exploratory activity rather than direct memory deficits...
April 18, 2017: CNS Neuroscience & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416633/intrusions-in-episodic-memory-reconsolidation-or-interference
#3
Angela Klingmüller, Jeremy B Caplan, Tobias Sommer
It would be profoundly important if reconsolidation research in animals and other memory domains generalized to human episodic memory. A 3-d-list-discrimination procedure, based on free recall of objects, with a contextual reminder cue (the testing room), has been thought to demonstrate reconsolidation of human episodic memory (as noted in a previous study). Our goal was to replicate the central result, a high intrusion rate during recall of the target list, and evaluate the reconsolidation account relative to an alternative account, based on state-dependent learning and interference...
May 2017: Learning & Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28397861/preventing-the-return-of-fear-using-reconsolidation-updating-and-methylene-blue-is-differentially-dependent-on-extinction-learning
#4
Allison M Auchter, Jason Shumake, Francisco Gonzalez-Lima, Marie H Monfils
Many factors account for how well individuals extinguish conditioned fears, such as genetic variability, learning capacity and conditions under which extinction training is administered. We predicted that memory-based interventions would be more effective to reduce the reinstatement of fear in subjects genetically predisposed to display more extinction learning. We tested this hypothesis in rats genetically selected for differences in fear extinction using two strategies: (1) attenuation of fear memory using post-retrieval extinction training, and (2) pharmacological enhancement of the extinction memory after extinction training by low-dose USP methylene blue (MB)...
April 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28380277/targeting-memory-reconsolidation-to-prevent-the-return-of-fear-in-patients-with-fear-of-flying
#5
Jessica L Maples-Keller, Matthew Price, Tanja Jovanovic, Seth D Norrholm, Lydia Odenat, Loren Post, Liza Zwiebach, Kathryn Breazeale, Robin Gross, Sae-Jin Kim, Barbara Olasov Rothbaum
BACKGROUND: When a memory is recalled, it may again exist in a labile state and stored information becomes amenable to change, a psychobiological process known as reconsolidation. Exposure therapy for anxiety disorders involves accessing a fear memory and modifying it with less fearful information. A preclinical study reported that providing a reminder of a fear memory 10 min prior to extinction training in humans decreased fear up to 1 year later (Schiller et al., 2010). METHODS: For this pilot clinical study, we used virtual reality exposure therapy (VRE) for fear of flying (FoF) to determine if using a cue to reactivate the memory of the feared stimulus 10 min prior to exposure sessions leads to fewer anxiety-related behaviors and a more durable response compared to a neutral cue...
April 5, 2017: Depression and Anxiety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28379939/re-evaluation-of-learned-information-in-drosophila
#6
Johannes Felsenberg, Oliver Barnstedt, Paola Cognigni, Suewei Lin, Scott Waddell
Animals constantly assess the reliability of learned information to optimize their behaviour. On retrieval, consolidated long-term memory can be neutralized by extinction if the learned prediction was inaccurate. Alternatively, retrieved memory can be maintained, following a period of reconsolidation during which it is labile. Although extinction and reconsolidation provide opportunities to alleviate problematic human memories, we lack a detailed mechanistic understanding of memory updating. Here we identify neural operations underpinning the re-evaluation of memory in Drosophila...
April 13, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28375725/memory-reconsolidation-interference-as-an-emerging-treatment-for-emotional-disorders-strengths-limitations-challenges-and-opportunities
#7
Tom Beckers, Merel Kindt
Experimental research on emotional memory reconsolidation interference, or the induction of amnesia for previously established emotional memory, has a long tradition, but the potential of that research for the development of novel interventions to treat psychological disorders has been recognized only recently. Here we provide an overview of basic research and clinical studies on emotional memory reconsolidation interference. We point out specific advantages of interventions based on memory reconsolidation interference over traditional treatment for emotional disorders...
March 27, 2017: Annual Review of Clinical Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28347877/the-role-of-gabaa-in-the-expression-of-updated-information-through-the-reconsolidation-process-in-humans
#8
Rodrigo S Fernández, Malen D Moyano, Michael Radloff, Jorge Campos, Martin Carbó-Tano, Ricardo F Allegri, María E Pedreira, Cecilia Forcato
Consolidated memory can be again destabilized by the presentation of a memory cue (reminder) of the previously acquired information. During this process of labilization/restabilization memory traces can be either impaired, strengthened or updated in content. Here, we study if a consolidated memory can be updated by linking one original cue to two different outcomes and whether this process was modulated by the GABAergic system. To aim that, we designed two experiments carried out in three consecutive days. All participants learned a list of non-sense syllable pairs on day 1...
March 24, 2017: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346453/activity-induced-histone-modifications-govern-neurexin-1-mrna-splicing-and-memory-preservation
#9
Xinlu Ding, Sanxiong Liu, Miaomiao Tian, Wenhao Zhang, Tao Zhu, Dongdong Li, Jiawei Wu, HaiTeng Deng, Yichang Jia, Wei Xie, Hong Xie, Ji-Song Guan
Epigenetic mechanisms regulate the formation, consolidation and reconsolidation of memories. However, the signaling path from neuronal activation to epigenetic modifications within the memory-related brain circuit remains unknown. We report that learning induces long-lasting histone modifications in hippocampal memory-activated neurons to regulate memory stability. Neuronal activity triggers a late-onset shift in Nrxn1 splice isoform choice at splicing site 4 by accumulating a repressive histone marker, H3K9me3, to modulate the splicing process...
March 27, 2017: Nature Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346121/can-memories-of-traumatic-experiences-or-addiction-be-erased-or-modified-a-critical-review-of-research-on-the-disruption-of-memory-reconsolidation-and-its-applications
#10
Michael Treanor, Lily A Brown, Jesse Rissman, Michelle G Craske
Recent research suggests that the mere act of retrieving a memory can temporarily make that memory vulnerable to disruption. This process of "reconsolidation" will typically restabilize the neural representation of the memory and foster its long-term storage. However, the process of reconsolidating the memory takes time to complete, and during this limited time window, the original memory may be modified either by the presentation of new information or with pharmacological agents. Such findings have prompted rising interest in using disruption during reconsolidation as a clinical intervention for anxiety, posttraumatic stress, and substance use disorders...
March 2017: Perspectives on Psychological Science: a Journal of the Association for Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302564/tackling-maladaptive-memories-through-reconsolidation-from-neural-to-clinical-science
#11
James W B Elsey, Merel Kindt
Behavioral neuroscience has greatly informed how we understand the formation, persistence, and plasticity of memory. Research has demonstrated that memory reactivation can induce a labile period, during which previously consolidated memories are sensitive to change, and in need of restabilization. This process is known as reconsolidation. Such findings have advanced not only our basic understanding of memory processes, but also hint at the prospect of harnessing these insights for the development of a new generation of treatments for disorders of emotional memory...
March 18, 2017: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28290061/accelerated-resolution-therapy-art-a-review-and-research-to-date
#12
REVIEW
Wendi Waits, Megan Marumoto, Jennifer Weaver
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To describe and summarize published research on accelerated resolution therapy (ART), a promising and relatively new psychotherapy with the potential to offer rapid and effective resolution of a wide range of psychiatric symptoms. Unlike most evidence-based psychotherapies, ART is a predominately imaginative therapy that relies upon the rescripting of distressing events and metaphors as one of its key therapeutic elements. RECENT FINDINGS: The number of studies conducted on ART is limited, primarily consisting of one randomized, controlled trial (RCT) with 57 subjects and two large cohort studies involving 80 and 117 subjects, respectively...
March 2017: Current Psychiatry Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28286265/vicarious-extinction-learning-during-reconsolidation-neutralizes-fear-memory
#13
Armita Golkar, Cathelijn Tjaden, Merel Kindt
BACKGROUND: Previous studies have suggested that fear memories can be updated when recalled, a process referred to as reconsolidation. Given the beneficial effects of model-based safety learning (i.e. vicarious extinction) in preventing the recovery of short-term fear memory, we examined whether consolidated long-term fear memories could be updated with safety learning accomplished through vicarious extinction learning initiated within the reconsolidation time-window. We assessed this in a final sample of 19 participants that underwent a three-day within-subject fear-conditioning design, using fear-potentiated startle as our primary index of fear learning...
February 22, 2017: Behaviour Research and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28285131/retrieval-under-stress-decreases-the-long-term-expression-of-a-human-declarative-memory-via-reconsolidation
#14
Pablo Nicolás Fernández Larrosa, Alejandro Ojea, Ignacio Ojea, Victor Alejandro Molina, María Aurelia Zorrilla-Zubilete, Alejandro Delorenzi
Acute stress impairs memory retrieval of several types of memories. An increase in glucocorticoids, several minutes after stressful events, is described as essential to the impairing retrieval-effects of stressors. Moreover, memory retrieval under stress can have long-term consequences. Through what process does the reactivated memory under stress, despite the disrupting retrieval effects, modify long-term memories? The reconsolidation hypothesis proposes that a previously consolidated memory reactivated by a reminder enters a vulnerability phase (labilization) during which it is transiently sensitive to modulation, followed by a re-stabilization phase...
March 8, 2017: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28275863/post-reexposure-administration-of-d-cycloserine-facilitates-reconsolidation-of-contextual-conditioned-fear-memory-in-rats
#15
Akiyoshi Saitoh, Kie Akagi, Jun-Ichiro Oka, Mitsuhiko Yamada
The effect of D-cycloserine, a N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor partial agonist, on the reconsolidation of conditioned fear memory is not precisely understood. In this study, we clarified the effects of D-cycloserine on the reconsolidation in rats, by performing contextual fear conditioning with a mild fear-conditioning procedure and with post-reexposure administration of the drug. The D-cycloserine (15 mg/kg subcutaneously)-treated rats showed a persistent and greater fear response during the test session compared with the control group...
March 8, 2017: Journal of Neural Transmission
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28274825/brain-correlates-of-memory-reconsolidation-a-role-for-the-tpj
#16
Katharine C N S Simon, Rebecca L Gómez, Lynn Nadel, Paige E Scalf
In this paper, we investigate the process by which new experiences reactivate and potentially update old memories. Such memory reconsolidation appears dependent on the extent to which current experience deviates from what is predicted by the reactivated memory (i.e. prediction error). If prediction error is low, the reactivated memory is likely to be updated with new information. If it is high, however, a new, separate, memory is more likely to be formed. The temporal parietal junction TPJ has been shown across a broad range of content areas (attention, social cognition, decision making and episodic memory) to be sensitive to the degree to which current information violates the observer's expectations - in other words, prediction error...
March 6, 2017: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28274823/bdnf-controls-object-recognition-memory-reconsolidation
#17
Andressa Radiske, Janine I Rossato, Maria Carolina Gonzalez, Cristiano A Köhler, Lia R Bevilaqua, Martín Cammarota
Reconsolidation restabilizes memory after reactivation. Previously, we reported that the hippocampus is engaged in object recognition memory reconsolidation to allow incorporation of new information into the original engram. Here we show that BDNF is sufficient for this process, and that blockade of BDNF function in dorsal CA1 impairs updating of the reactivated recognition memory trace.
March 5, 2017: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28273291/an-integrated-neuroscience-perspective-on-formulation-and-treatment-planning-for-posttraumatic-stress-disorder-an-educational-review
#18
David A Ross, Melissa R Arbuckle, Michael J Travis, Jennifer B Dwyer, Gerrit I van Schalkwyk, Kerry J Ressler
Importance: Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a common psychiatric illness, increasingly in the public spotlight in the United States due its prevalence in the soldiers returning from combat in Iraq and Afghanistan. This educational review presents a contemporary approach for how to incorporate a modern neuroscience perspective into an integrative case formulation. The article is organized around key neuroscience "themes" most relevant for PTSD. Within each theme, the article highlights how seemingly diverse biological, psychological, and social perspectives all intersect with our current understanding of neuroscience...
April 1, 2017: JAMA Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28268256/cannabidiol-regulation-of-emotion-and-emotional-memory-processing-relevance-for-treating-anxiety-related-and-substance-abuse-disorders
#19
REVIEW
Jonathan L C Lee, Leandro J Bertoglio, Francisco S Guimarães, Carl W Stevenson
Learning to associate cues or contexts with potential threats or rewards is adaptive and enhances survival. Both aversive and appetitive memories are therefore powerful drivers of behaviour, but the inappropriate expression of conditioned responding to fear- and drug-related stimuli can develop into anxiety-related and substance abuse disorders respectively. These disorders are associated with abnormally persistent emotional memories and inadequate treatment, often leading to symptom relapse. Studies show that cannabidiol, the main non-psychotomimetic phytocannabinoid found in Cannabis sativa, reduces anxiety via 5-HT1A and (indirect) cannabinoid receptor activation in paradigms assessing innate responses to threat...
March 7, 2017: British Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28254465/spermidine-improves-the-persistence-of-reconsolidated-fear-memory-and-neural-differentiation-in-vitro-involvement-of-bdnf
#20
Cristiane Signor, Bruna Amanda Girardi, Arithane Lorena Wendel, Pâmella Karina Santana Frühauf, Micheli M Pillat, Henning Ulrich, Carlos F Mello, Maribel A Rubin
Putrescine, spermidine and spermine are organic cations implicated in learning, memory consolidation, reconsolidation and neurogenesis. These physiological processes are closely related, and convincing evidence indicates that neurogenesis is implicated both, in the establishment and maintenance of remote contextual fear memory. Although brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is a key mediator involved in both neurogenesis and memory consolidation, effects of spermidine on persistence of memory after reactivation (reconsolidation) and possible involvement of BDNF have not been investigated...
February 22, 2017: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
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