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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27836602/a-biomimetic-bioelectronic-tongue-a-switch-for-on-and-off-response-of-acid-sensations
#1
Wei Zhang, Peihua Chen, Lianqun Zhou, Zhen Qin, Keqiang Gao, Jia Yao, Chuanyu Li, Ping Wang
The perception of sour taste in mammals is important for its basic modality properties and avoiding toxic substances. We explore a biomimetic bioelectronic tongue, which integrate MEA (microelectrode array) and taste receptor cell for acid detection as a switch. However, the acid-sensing mechanism and coding of the taste receptor cells in the periphery is not well understood, with long-standing debate. Therefore, we firstly construct a Hodgkin-Huxley type mathematical model of whole-cell acid-sensing taste receptor cells based on the electrophysiologic patch clamp recordings with different acid sensitive receptor expressing and different acidic stimulations...
October 27, 2016: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27776123/chronic-arsenic-exposure-and-risk-of-post-kala-azar-dermal-leishmaniasis-development-in-india-a-retrospective-cohort-study
#2
Sushmita Das, Rakesh Mandal, Vidya Nand Rabidas, Neena Verma, Krishna Pandey, Ashok Kumar Ghosh, Sreekant Kesari, Ashish Kumar, Bidyut Purkait, Chandra Sekhar Lal, Pradeep Das
BACKGROUND: Visceral leishmaniasis (VL), with the squeal of Post-kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis (PKDL), is a global threat for health. Studies have shown sodium stibogluconate (SSG) resistance in VL patients with chronic arsenic exposure. Here, we assessed the association between arsenic exposure and risk of developing PKDL in treated VL patients. METHODS: In this retrospective study, PKDL patients (n = 139), earlier treated with SSG or any other drug during VL, were selected from the study cohort...
October 2016: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27741241/noninvasive-diagnosis-of-visceral-leishmaniasis-development-and-evaluation-of-two-urine-based-immunoassays-for-detection-of-leishmania-donovani-infection-in-india
#3
Sarfaraz Ahmad Ejazi, Pradyot Bhattacharya, Md Asjad Karim Bakhteyar, Aquil Ahmad Mumtaz, Krishna Pandey, Vidya Nand Ravi Das, Pradeep Das, Mehebubar Rahaman, Rama Prosad Goswami, Nahid Ali
BACKGROUND: Visceral Leishmaniasis (VL), a severe parasitic disease, could be fatal if diagnosis and treatment is delayed. Post kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis (PKDL), a skin related outcome, is a potential reservoir for the spread of VL. Diagnostic tests available for VL such as tissue aspiration are invasive and painful although they are capable of evaluating the treatment response. Serological tests although less invasive than tissue aspiration are incompetent to assess cure. Parasitological examination of slit-skin smear along with the clinical symptoms is routinely used for diagnosis of PKDL...
October 2016: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27672208/post-kala-azar-dermal-leishmaniasis-without-previous-history-of-visceral-leishmaniasis
#4
Md Golam Hasnain, Mohammad Sohel Shomik, Prakash Ghosh, Mamun Or Rashid, Md Shakhawat Hossain, Shinjiro Hamano, Dinesh Mondal
Post-kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis (PKDL) without previous visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is a rare dermatological manifestation of Leishmania infection. To date, most of the reported cases neither showed parasitological confirmation nor explained the outcome of treatment. Herein, we report three confirmed cases that were were successfully cured after miltefosine treatment.
September 26, 2016: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27629023/genetic-markers-for-antimony-resistant-clinical-isolates-differentiation-from-indian-kala-azar
#5
Supriya Khanra, Nibedeeta Rani Sarraf, Shantanabha Das, Anjan Kumar Das, Syamal Roy, Madhumita Manna
Visceral Leishmaniasis or Kala-azar is caused by the protozoan parasites belonging to the Genus Leishmania. Once thought eradicated from the Indian subcontinent, the disease came back with drug resistance to almost all prevalent drugs. Molecular epidemiological studies revealed the polymorphic nature of the population of the main player of the disease, Leishmania donovani and involvement of other species (L. tropica) and other genus (Leptomonas) with the disease. This makes control measures almost futile. It also strongly demands the characterization of each and every isolate mandatory which is not done...
September 11, 2016: Acta Tropica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27624408/gene-deleted-live-attenuated-leishmania-vaccine-candidates-against-visceral-leishmaniasis-elicit-pro-inflammatory-cytokines-response-in-human-pbmcs
#6
Kumar Avishek, Himanshu Kaushal, Sreenivas Gannavaram, Ranadhir Dey, Angamuthu Selvapandiyan, V Ramesh, Narender Singh Negi, Uma S Dubey, Hira L Nakhasi, Poonam Salotra
Currently no effective vaccine is available for human visceral leishmaniasis(VL) caused by Leishmania donovani. Previously, we showed that centrin1 and p27gene deleted live attenuated Leishmania parasites (LdCen1(-/-) and Ldp27(-/-)) are safe, immunogenic and protective in animal models. Here, to assess the correlates of protection, we evaluated immune responses induced by LdCen1(-/-) and Ldp27(-/-) in human blood samples obtained from healthy, healed VL (HVL), post kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis(PKDL) and VL subjects...
2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27553063/the-immunology-of-post-kala-azar-dermal-leishmaniasis-pkdl
#7
REVIEW
Eduard E Zijlstra
Post-kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis (PKDL) is a common complication of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) caused by Leishmania donovani. Because of its possible role in transmission it is considered a public health problem in VL endemic areas. The clinical features include a skin rash consisting of macules, papules or nodules in an otherwise healthy individual; this presentation is determined by the immune response towards parasites in the skin that probably persisted from the previous VL episode. The immune response in VL, cured VL and PKDL is the result of changes in the cytokine profile that only in part can be captured under the Th1 and Th2 dichotomy...
2016: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27549162/a-review-of-visceral-leishmaniasis-during-the-conflict-in-south-sudan-and-the-consequences-for-east-african-countries
#8
REVIEW
Waleed Al-Salem, Jennifer R Herricks, Peter J Hotez
BACKGROUND: Visceral leishmaniasis (VL), caused predominantly by Leishmania donovani and transmitted by both Phlebotomus orientalis and Phlebotomus martini, is highly endemic in East Africa where approximately 30 thousands VL cases are reported annually. The largest numbers of cases are found in Sudan - where Phlebotomus orientalis proliferate in Acacia forests especially on Sudan's eastern border with Ethiopia, followed by South Sudan, Ethiopia, Somalia, Kenya and Uganda. Long-standing civil war and unrest is a dominant determinant of VL in East African countries...
2016: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27490264/transmission-dynamics-of-visceral-leishmaniasis-in-the-indian-subcontinent-a-systematic-literature-review
#9
Siddhivinayak Hirve, Marleen Boelaert, Greg Matlashewski, Dinesh Mondal, Byron Arana, Axel Kroeger, Piero Olliaro
BACKGROUND: As Bangladesh, India and Nepal progress towards visceral leishmaniasis (VL) elimination, it is important to understand the role of asymptomatic Leishmania infection (ALI), VL treatment relapse and post kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis (PKDL) in transmission. METHODOLOGY/ PRINCIPAL FINDING: We reviewed evidence systematically on ALI, relapse and PKDL. We searched multiple databases to include studies on burden, risk factors, biomarkers, natural history, and infectiveness of ALI, PKDL and relapse...
August 2016: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27455613/nanomedicines-for-therapy-of-visceral-leishmaniasis
#10
REVIEW
Muzamil Yaqub Want, Priya Yadav, Farhat Afrin
Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) or kala-azar is a vector borne infectious disease caused by the protozoan parasites of the genus Leishmania. VL is endemic in more than 85 countries with an estimated 0.2-0.5 million people at risk, causing high morbidity and mortality across the globe. In the absence of effective vaccines, treatment solely relies on chemotherapy and can be 100% fatal within two years, if left untreated. However, the present chemotherapeutics is limited by toxicity, non-compliance, location of parasites within the lysosomal vacuoles of macrophages, impairing the accession of many potential antileishmanial drugs, prolonged and cumbersome regimen that is unaffordable by rural population with alarming increase in unresponsiveness, complications of post kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis (PKDL) and HIV co-infections...
March 2016: Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27192489/the-potential-use-of-forensic-dna-methods-applied-to-sand-fly-blood-meal-analysis-to-identify-the-infection-reservoirs-of-anthroponotic-visceral-leishmaniasis
#11
Ehud Inbar, Philip Lawyer, David Sacks, Daniele Podini
BACKGROUND: In the Indian sub-continent, visceral leishmaniasis (VL), also known as kala azar, is a fatal form of leishmaniasis caused by the kinetoplastid parasite Leishmania donovani and transmitted by the sand fly Phlebotomus argentipes. VL is prevalent in northeast India where it is believed to have an exclusive anthroponotic transmission cycle. There are four distinct cohorts of L. donovani exposed individuals who can potentially serve as infection reservoirs: patients with active disease, cured VL cases, patients with post kala azar dermal leishmaniasis (PKDL), and asymptomatic individuals...
May 2016: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27188804/study-on-the-safety-and-efficacy-of-miltefosine-for-the-treatment-of-children-and-adolescents-with-post-kala-azar-dermal-leishmaniasis-in-bangladesh-and-an-association-of-serum-vitamin-e-and-exposure-to-arsenic-with-post-kala-azar-dermal-leishmaniasis-an-open
#12
D Mondal, M G Hasnain, M S Hossain, D Ghosh, P Ghosh, H Hossain, J Baker, R Nath, R Haque, G Matlashewski, S Hamano
INTRODUCTION: Post-kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis (PKDL) is a dermatological complication that occurs primarily among treated visceral leishmaniasis (VL) patients, and sporadically in a few without a history of VL. It mostly affects children and adolescents but is also common in adults. The conventional treatment with 120 intramuscular injections of sodium stibogluconate (SSG) is phasing out. Miltefosine (MF) is the only eventual alternative to SSG; however, its efficacy and safety profiles for treatment of children and adolescents with PKDL are lacking...
2016: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27186641/elevated-serum-ada-activity-as-a-marker-for-diagnosis-and-prognosis-of-visceral-leishmaniasis-and-post-kala-azar-dermal-leishmaniasis-in-indian-patients
#13
Vijayamahantesh, Ajay Amit, Manas R Dikhit, Raj K Pandey, Kuljit Singh, Ritesh Mishra, V N R Das, Pradeep Das, Sanjiva Bimal
Serum adenosine deaminase (ADA) activity increases in diseases where cellular immunity is involved. Since cell-mediated immune responses play a paramount role in the pathogenesis and healing of the visceral leishmaniasis, therefore, the present study was undertaken to evaluate the serum ADA activity in different pathological conditions. Adenosine deaminase was determined in sera of active visceral leishmaniasis (VL) patients (n = 39), active postkala-azar dermal leishmaniasis (PKDL) cases (n = 34) at the point of diagnosis and after treatment stages along with healthy controls (n = 30), endemic healthy subjects (n = 34) and endemic asymptomatic subjects (n = 34)...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27175732/possibilities-and-challenges-for-developing-a-successful-vaccine-for-leishmaniasis
#14
REVIEW
Saumya Srivastava, Prem Shankar, Jyotsna Mishra, Sarman Singh
Leishmaniasis is a vector-borne disease caused by different species of protozoan parasites of the genus Leishmania. It is a major health problem yet neglected tropical diseases, with approximately 350 million people worldwide at risk and more than 1.5 million infections occurring each year. Leishmaniasis has different clinical manifestations, including visceral (VL or kala-azar), cutaneous (CL), mucocutaneous (MCL), diffuse cutaneous (DCL) and post kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis (PKDL). Currently, the only mean to treat and control leishmaniasis is by rational medications and vector control...
2016: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26948150/evaluation-of-cellular-immunological-responses-in-mono-and-polymorphic-clinical-forms-of-post-kala-azar-dermal-leishmaniasis-in-india
#15
H Kaushal, R Bras-Gonçalves, K Avishek, D Kumar Deep, E Petitdidier, J-L Lemesre, G Papierok, S Kumar, V Ramesh, P Salotra
Post-kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis (PKDL) is a chronic dermal complication that occurs usually after recovery from visceral leishmaniasis (VL). The disease manifests into macular, papular and/or nodular clinical types with mono- or polymorphic presentations. Here, we investigated differences in immunological response between these two distinct clinical forms in Indian PKDL patients. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells of PKDL and naive individuals were exposed in vitro to total soluble Leishmania antigen (TSLA)...
July 2016: Clinical and Experimental Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26787302/feasibility-of-eliminating-visceral-leishmaniasis-from-the-indian-subcontinent-explorations-with-a-set-of-deterministic-age-structured-transmission-models
#16
Epke A Le Rutte, Luc E Coffeng, Daniel M Bontje, Epco C Hasker, José A Ruiz Postigo, Daniel Argaw, Marleen C Boelaert, Sake J De Vlas
BACKGROUND: Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is a neglected tropical disease transmitted by sandflies. On the Indian subcontinent (ISC), VL is targeted for elimination as a public health problem by 2017. In the context of VL, the elimination target is defined as an annual VL incidence of <1 per 10,000 capita at (sub-)district level. Interventions focus on vector control, surveillance and on diagnosing and treating VL cases. Many endemic areas have not yet achieved optimal control due to logistical, biological as well as technical challenges...
January 19, 2016: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26644312/decreased-frequency-and-secretion-of-cd26-promotes-disease-progression-in-indian-post-kala-azar-dermal-leishmaniasis
#17
Shibabrata Mukherjee, Debanjan Mukhopadhyay, Susmita Ghosh, Joyashree N Barbhuiya, Nilay K Das, Mitali Chatterjee
PURPOSE: Leishmania, the causative organisms for leishmaniasis, reside in host macrophages and survive by modulating the microbicidal pathways via attenuation of the oxidative burst and/or suppression of cell-mediated immunity. As post kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis (PKDL), the dermal sequela of visceral leishmaniasis, has no animal model, the underlying mechanism(s) that nullify the microbicidal effector mechanisms remain poorly understood. This study was aimed at assessing the status of dipeptidyl peptidase CD26, a co-stimulatory molecule that is essential for T-cell signal activation...
January 2016: Journal of Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26642203/correction-decline-in-clinical-efficacy-of-oral-miltefosine-in-treatment-of-post-kala-azar-dermal-leishmaniasis-pkdl-in-india
#18
V Ramesh, Ruchi Singh, Kumar Avishek, Aditya Verma, Deepak Kumar Deep, Sandeep Verma, Poonam Salotra
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2015: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26612203/disruption-of-polycystin-l-causes-hippocampal-and-thalamocortical-hyperexcitability
#19
Gang Yao, Chong Luo, Michael Harvey, Maoqing Wu, Taylor H Schreiber, Yanjun Du, Nuria Basora, Xuefeng Su, Diego Contreras, Jing Zhou
Epilepsy or seizure disorder is among the least understood chronic medical conditions affecting over 65 million people worldwide. Here, we show that disruption of the polycystic kidney disease 2-like 1 (Pkd2l1 or Pkdl), encoding polycystin-L (PCL), a non-selective cation channel, increases neuronal excitability and the susceptibility to pentylenetetrazol-induced seizure in mice. PCL interacts with β2-adrenergic receptor (β2AR) and co-localizes with β2AR on the primary cilia of neurons in the brain. Pkdl deficiency leads to the loss of β2AR on neuronal cilia, which is accompanied with a remarkable reduction in cAMP levels in the central nervous system (CNS)...
February 1, 2016: Human Molecular Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26592919/post-kala-azar-dermal-leishmaniasis-and-leprosy-case-report-and-literature-review
#20
REVIEW
Maria Angela Bianconcini Trindade, Lana Luiza da Cruz Silva, Lucia Maria Almeida Braz, Valdir Sabbaga Amato, Bernard Naafs, Mirian Nacagami Sotto
BACKGROUND: Post-kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis (PKDL) is a dermal complication of visceral leishmaniasis (VL), which may occur after or during treatment. It has been frequently reported from India and the Sudan, but its occurrence in South America has been rarely reported. It may mimic leprosy and its differentiation may be difficult, since both diseases may show hypo-pigmented macular lesions as clinical presentation and neural involvement in histopathological investigations. The co-infection of leprosy and VL has been reported in countries where both diseases are endemic...
2015: BMC Infectious Diseases
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