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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28520851/infectivity-of-post-kala-azar-dermal-leishmaniasis-patients-to-sand-flies-revisiting-a-proof-of-concept-in-the-context-of-the-kala-azar-elimination-program-in-the-indian-subcontinent
#1
Ricardo Molina, Debashis Ghosh, Eugenia Carrillo, Séverine Monnerat, Caryn Bern, Dinesh Mondal, Jorge Alvar
We compared xenodiagnosis with quantitative polymerase chain reaction in skin biopsies from 3 patients with maculopapular or nodular post-kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis (PKDL). All patients infected sand flies. Parasite loads in skin varied from 1428 to 63 058 parasites per microgram. PKDL detection and treatment are important missing components of the kala-azar elimination program.
May 18, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28498840/a-third-generation-vaccine-for-human-visceral-leishmaniasis-and-post-kala-azar-dermal-leishmaniasis-first-in-human-trial-of-chad63-kh
#2
Mohamed Osman, Anoop Mistry, Ada Keding, Rhian Gabe, Elizabeth Cook, Sarah Forrester, Rebecca Wiggins, Stefania Di Marco, Stefano Colloca, Loredana Siani, Riccardo Cortese, Deborah F Smith, Toni Aebischer, Paul M Kaye, Charles J Lacey
BACKGROUND: Visceral leishmaniasis (VL or kala azar) is the most serious form of human leishmaniasis, responsible for over 20,000 deaths annually, and post kala azar dermal leishmaniasis (PKDL) is a stigmatizing skin condition that often occurs in patients after successful treatment for VL. Lack of effective or appropriately targeted cell mediated immunity, including CD8+ T cell responses, underlies the progression of VL and progression to PKDL, and can limit the therapeutic efficacy of anti-leishmanial drugs...
May 12, 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28370072/expression-profiling-of-sudanese-visceral-leishmaniasis-patients-pre-and-post-treatment-with-sodium-stibogluconate
#3
M A M Salih, M Fakiola, P A Lyons, B M Younis, A M Musa, A M Elhassan, D Anderson, G Syn, M E Ibrahim, J M Blackwell, H S Mohamed
Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) in Sudan caused by Leishmania donovani is fatal in susceptible individuals if untreated. Treatment with sodium stibogluconate (SSG) leads to post-kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis (PKDL) in 58% of patients. Here, Affymetrix microarrays were used to identify genes differentially expressed in lymph nodes (N=9 paired samples) pre- and post-treatment with SSG. Using the Bioconductor package limma, 438 genes from 28 869 post-quality-control probe sets were differentially expressed (Pnominal ≤...
March 31, 2017: Parasite Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28357614/a-mathematical-study-to-control-visceral-leishmaniasis-an-application-to-south-sudan
#4
Indrajit Ghosh, Tridip Sardar, Joydev Chattopadhyay
In this manuscript, we propose and analyze a compartmental model of visceral leishmaniasis (VL). We model the human population with six compartments including asymptomatic, symptomatic and PKDL-infected, animal population as second host and sandfly population as the vector. Furthermore, the non-adult stage of the sandfly population is introduced in the system, which was not considered before in the literature. We show that the increase in the number of host of sandfly population generates a backward bifurcation...
March 29, 2017: Bulletin of Mathematical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28355259/to-evaluate-efficacy-and-safety-of-amphotericin-b-in-two-different-doses-in-the-treatment-of-post-kala-azar-dermal-leishmaniasis-pkdl
#5
Vidya Nand Rabi Das, Niyamat Ali Siddiqui, Biplab Pal, Chandra Shekhar Lal, Neena Verma, Ashish Kumar, Rakesh Bihari Verma, Dhirendra Kumar, Pradeep Das, Krishna Pandey
BACKGROUND: Post kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis (PKDL) is a skin disorder that usually occurs among patients with a past history of visceral leishmaniasis (VL). Cases are also reported without a history of VL. There is no satisfactory treatment regimen available at present. We aimed to compare the efficacy and safety of amphotericin B in two different doses (0.5mg/kg vs 1mg/kg) in a prospective randomized trial in 50 PKDL patients. METHODS: In this open label study 50 patients with PKDL, aged between 5-60 years were randomized in two groups...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335752/development-of-a-rapid-loop-mediated-isothermal-amplification-assay-for-diagnosis-and-assessment-of-cure-of-leishmania-infection
#6
Sandeep Verma, Ruchi Singh, Vanila Sharma, Ram Avtar Bumb, Narendra Singh Negi, V Ramesh, Poonam Salotra
BACKGROUND: Leishmaniasis is a spectrum of diseases with great relevance to public health. Conventional diagnostic methods are time consuming, needing trained personnel. A robust, rapid and cost effective diagnostic test is warranted for on-time diagnosis and field application. METHODS: We have developed a loop mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay with primers (n = 6) based on Leishmania donovani kDNA for detection of Leishmania infection, using a closed tube to prevent cross-contamination...
March 23, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222162/optimal-combinations-of-control-strategies-and-cost-effective-analysis-for-visceral-leishmaniasis-disease-transmission
#7
Santanu Biswas, Abhishek Subramanian, Ibrahim M ELMojtaba, Joydev Chattopadhyay, Ram Rup Sarkar
Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is a deadly neglected tropical disease that poses a serious problem in various countries all over the world. Implementation of various intervention strategies fail in controlling the spread of this disease due to issues of parasite drug resistance and resistance of sandfly vectors to insecticide sprays. Due to this, policy makers need to develop novel strategies or resort to a combination of multiple intervention strategies to control the spread of the disease. To address this issue, we propose an extensive SIR-type model for anthroponotic visceral leishmaniasis transmission with seasonal fluctuations modeled in the form of periodic sandfly biting rate...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28187202/asymptomatic-leishmaniasis-in-kala-azar-endemic-areas-of-malda-district-west-bengal-india
#8
Pabitra Saha, Swagata Ganguly, Moytrey Chatterjee, Soumendu Bikash Das, Pratip K Kundu, Subhasish K Guha, Tamal K Ghosh, Dilip K Bera, Nandita Basu, Ardhendu K Maji
Asymptomatic leishmaniasis may drive the epidemic and an important challenge to reach the goal of joint Visceral Leishmaniasis (VL) elimination initiative taken by three Asian countries. The role of these asymptomatic carriers in disease transmission, prognosis at individual level and rate of transformation to symptomatic VL/Post Kala-azar Dermal Leishmaniasis (PKDL) needs to be evaluated. Asymptomatic cases were diagnosed by active mass survey in eight tribal villages by detecting antileishmanial antibody using rK39 based rapid diagnostic kits and followed up for three years to observe the pattern of sero-conversion and disease transformation...
February 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28130283/indian-erythrodermic-postkala-azar-dermal-leishmaniasis
#9
Gomathy Sethuraman, Neetu Bhari, Poonam Salotra, Venkatesh Ramesh
Postkala-azar dermal leishmaniasis (PKDL) is a complication of kala-azar or visceral leishmaniasis and is caused by Leishmania donovani. We describe an Indian male patient with the rarer erythrodermic form of PKDL and multiple unusual skin lesions viz. verrucous, annular and mucosal ulceration.
January 27, 2017: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28066878/safety-and-effectiveness-of-sodium-stibogluconate-and-paromomycin-combination-for-the-treatment-of-visceral-leishmaniasis-in-eastern-africa-results-from-a-pharmacovigilance-programme
#10
Robert Kimutai, Ahmed M Musa, Simon Njoroge, Raymond Omollo, Fabiana Alves, Asrat Hailu, Eltahir A G Khalil, Ermias Diro, Peninah Soipei, Brima Musa, Khalid Salman, Koert Ritmeijer, Francois Chappuis, Juma Rashid, Rezika Mohammed, Asfaw Jameneh, Eyasu Makonnen, Joseph Olobo, Lawrence Okello, Patrick Sagaki, Nathalie Strub, Sally Ellis, Jorge Alvar, Manica Balasegaram, Emilie Alirol, Monique Wasunna
INTRODUCTION: In 2010, WHO recommended a new first-line treatment for visceral leishmaniasis (VL) in Eastern Africa. The new treatment, a combination of intravenous (IV) or intramuscular (IM) sodium stibogluconate (SSG) and IM paromomycin (PM) was an improvement over SSG monotherapy, the previous first-line VL treatment in the region. To monitor the new treatment's safety and effectiveness in routine clinical practice a pharmacovigilance (PV) programme was developed. METHODS: A prospective PV cohort was developed...
March 2017: Clinical Drug Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27974858/longitudinal-study-of-transmission-in-households-with-visceral-leishmaniasis-asymptomatic-infections-and-pkdl-in-highly-endemic-villages-in-bihar-india
#11
Vidya Nand Ravi Das, Ravindra Nath Pandey, Niyamat Ali Siddiqui, Lloyd A C Chapman, Vijay Kumar, Krishna Pandey, Greg Matlashewski, Pradeep Das
BACKGROUND: Visceral Leishmaniasis (VL) is a neglected tropical disease that afflicts some of the poorest populations in the world including people living in the Bihar state of India. Due to efforts from local governments, NGOs and international organizations, the number of VL cases has declined in recent years. Despite this progress, the reservoir for transmission remains to be clearly defined since it is unknown what role post kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis (PKDL) and asymptomatic infections play in transmission...
December 2016: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27927185/epidemiology-of-visceral-leishmaniasis-among-children-in-gadarif-hospital-eastern-sudan
#12
Mohammed Ahmed A Ahmed, Ahmed A Ahmed, Saeed M Omar, Gamal K Adam, Tajeldin M Abdallah, AbdelAziem A Ali
BACKGROUND: Since 1900s, visceral leishmaniasis (VL) has been among the most important health problems in Sudan, particularly in the endemic areas such as eastern and central regions. METHODS: This was a cross sectional, hospital-based study conducted from 1(st) January 2015 to 31(st) December 2015 to investigate the epidemiological factors of VL in Gadarif hospital, eastern Sudan. RESULTS: During the study period there were 47 identified children with VL among 145 suspected cases...
December 7, 2016: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27836602/a-biomimetic-bioelectronic-tongue-a-switch-for-on-and-off-response-of-acid-sensations
#13
Wei Zhang, Peihua Chen, Lianqun Zhou, Zhen Qin, Keqiang Gao, Jia Yao, Chuanyu Li, Ping Wang
The perception of sour taste in mammals is important for its basic modality properties and avoiding toxic substances. We explore a biomimetic bioelectronic tongue, which integrate MEA (microelectrode array) and taste receptor cell for acid detection as a switch. However, the acid-sensing mechanism and coding of the taste receptor cells in the periphery is not well understood, with long-standing debate. Therefore, we firstly construct a Hodgkin-Huxley type mathematical model of whole-cell acid-sensing taste receptor cells based on the electrophysiologic patch clamp recordings with different acid sensitive receptor expressing and different acidic stimulations...
June 15, 2017: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27776123/chronic-arsenic-exposure-and-risk-of-post-kala-azar-dermal-leishmaniasis-development-in-india-a-retrospective-cohort-study
#14
Sushmita Das, Rakesh Mandal, Vidya Nand Rabidas, Neena Verma, Krishna Pandey, Ashok Kumar Ghosh, Sreekant Kesari, Ashish Kumar, Bidyut Purkait, Chandra Sekhar Lal, Pradeep Das
BACKGROUND: Visceral leishmaniasis (VL), with the squeal of Post-kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis (PKDL), is a global threat for health. Studies have shown sodium stibogluconate (SSG) resistance in VL patients with chronic arsenic exposure. Here, we assessed the association between arsenic exposure and risk of developing PKDL in treated VL patients. METHODS: In this retrospective study, PKDL patients (n = 139), earlier treated with SSG or any other drug during VL, were selected from the study cohort...
October 2016: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27741241/noninvasive-diagnosis-of-visceral-leishmaniasis-development-and-evaluation-of-two-urine-based-immunoassays-for-detection-of-leishmania-donovani-infection-in-india
#15
Sarfaraz Ahmad Ejazi, Pradyot Bhattacharya, Md Asjad Karim Bakhteyar, Aquil Ahmad Mumtaz, Krishna Pandey, Vidya Nand Ravi Das, Pradeep Das, Mehebubar Rahaman, Rama Prosad Goswami, Nahid Ali
BACKGROUND: Visceral Leishmaniasis (VL), a severe parasitic disease, could be fatal if diagnosis and treatment is delayed. Post kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis (PKDL), a skin related outcome, is a potential reservoir for the spread of VL. Diagnostic tests available for VL such as tissue aspiration are invasive and painful although they are capable of evaluating the treatment response. Serological tests although less invasive than tissue aspiration are incompetent to assess cure. Parasitological examination of slit-skin smear along with the clinical symptoms is routinely used for diagnosis of PKDL...
October 2016: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27672208/post-kala-azar-dermal-leishmaniasis-without-previous-history-of-visceral-leishmaniasis
#16
Golam Hasnain, Mohammad Sohel Shomik, Prakash Ghosh, Mamun Or Rashid, Shakhawat Hossain, Shinjiro Hamano, Dinesh Mondal
Post-kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis (PKDL) without previous visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is a rare dermatological manifestation of Leishmania infection. To date, most of the reported cases neither showed parasitological confirmation nor explained the outcome of treatment. Herein, we report three confirmed cases that were were successfully cured after miltefosine treatment.
December 7, 2016: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27629023/genetic-markers-for-antimony-resistant-clinical-isolates-differentiation-from-indian-kala-azar
#17
Supriya Khanra, Nibedeeta Rani Sarraf, Shantanabha Das, Anjan Kumar Das, Syamal Roy, Madhumita Manna
Visceral Leishmaniasis or Kala-azar is caused by the protozoan parasites belonging to the Genus Leishmania. Once thought eradicated from the Indian subcontinent, the disease came back with drug resistance to almost all prevalent drugs. Molecular epidemiological studies revealed the polymorphic nature of the population of the main player of the disease, Leishmania donovani and involvement of other species (L. tropica) and other genus (Leptomonas) with the disease. This makes control measures almost futile. It also strongly demands the characterization of each and every isolate mandatory which is not done...
December 2016: Acta Tropica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27624408/gene-deleted-live-attenuated-leishmania-vaccine-candidates-against-visceral-leishmaniasis-elicit-pro-inflammatory-cytokines-response-in-human-pbmcs
#18
Kumar Avishek, Himanshu Kaushal, Sreenivas Gannavaram, Ranadhir Dey, Angamuthu Selvapandiyan, V Ramesh, Narender Singh Negi, Uma S Dubey, Hira L Nakhasi, Poonam Salotra
Currently no effective vaccine is available for human visceral leishmaniasis(VL) caused by Leishmania donovani. Previously, we showed that centrin1 and p27gene deleted live attenuated Leishmania parasites (LdCen1(-/-) and Ldp27(-/-)) are safe, immunogenic and protective in animal models. Here, to assess the correlates of protection, we evaluated immune responses induced by LdCen1(-/-) and Ldp27(-/-) in human blood samples obtained from healthy, healed VL (HVL), post kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis(PKDL) and VL subjects...
2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27553063/the-immunology-of-post-kala-azar-dermal-leishmaniasis-pkdl
#19
REVIEW
Eduard E Zijlstra
Post-kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis (PKDL) is a common complication of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) caused by Leishmania donovani. Because of its possible role in transmission it is considered a public health problem in VL endemic areas. The clinical features include a skin rash consisting of macules, papules or nodules in an otherwise healthy individual; this presentation is determined by the immune response towards parasites in the skin that probably persisted from the previous VL episode. The immune response in VL, cured VL and PKDL is the result of changes in the cytokine profile that only in part can be captured under the Th1 and Th2 dichotomy...
2016: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27549162/a-review-of-visceral-leishmaniasis-during-the-conflict-in-south-sudan-and-the-consequences-for-east-african-countries
#20
REVIEW
Waleed Al-Salem, Jennifer R Herricks, Peter J Hotez
BACKGROUND: Visceral leishmaniasis (VL), caused predominantly by Leishmania donovani and transmitted by both Phlebotomus orientalis and Phlebotomus martini, is highly endemic in East Africa where approximately 30 thousands VL cases are reported annually. The largest numbers of cases are found in Sudan - where Phlebotomus orientalis proliferate in Acacia forests especially on Sudan's eastern border with Ethiopia, followed by South Sudan, Ethiopia, Somalia, Kenya and Uganda. Long-standing civil war and unrest is a dominant determinant of VL in East African countries...
2016: Parasites & Vectors
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