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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820697/case-report-treatment-of-widespread-nodular-post-kala-azar-dermal-leishmaniasis-with-extended-dose-liposomal-amphotericin-b-in-bangladesh-a-series-of-four-cases
#1
Ariful Basher, Shomik Maruf, Proggananda Nath, Md Golam Hasnain, Muhammod Abdul Mukit, Azim Anuwarul, Fatima Aktar, Rupen Nath, Afm Akhtar Hossain, Abul Hasnat Milton, Dinesh Mondal, Abul Khair Mohammad Sumsuzzaman, Ridwanur Rahman, Mohammad Abul Faiz
Post kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis (PKDL) is a skin manifestation which usually appears after visceral leishmaniasis. It is now proved that PKDL patients serve as a reservoir for anthropometric leishmanial transmission. Hence, to achieve the kala-azar elimination target set by the World Health Organization in the Indian Subcontinent, PKDL cases should be given priority. The goal of treatment for PKDL should be early reepithelizlization and rapid cure, but unfortunately this has been difficult to achieve, especially for patients with severe lesions...
August 14, 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28738881/assessment-of-quality-of-life-in-patients-with-post-kalaazar-dermal-leishmaniasis
#2
Biplab Pal, Krishna Murti, Niyamat Ali Siddiqui, Pradeep Das, Chandra Shekhar Lal, Rajendra Babu, Manoj Kumar Rastogi, Krishna Pandey
BACKGROUND: Post kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis (PKDL) is a dermatological disorder caused by protozoal parasite Leishmania donovani. PKDL cases are thought to be a reservoir of parasites and may increase cases of visceral leishmaniasis. The disease is not life threatening but cosmetic disfigurement associated with it may impair the patients' quality of life. This study aimed to assess the health related quality of life in patients with post kalaazar dermal leishmanasis for the first time...
July 24, 2017: Health and Quality of Life Outcomes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28662432/cathelicidin-augments-vdr-dependent-anti-leishmanial-immune-response-in-indian-post-kala-azar-dermal-leishmaniasis
#3
Sushmita Das, Abul Hasan Sardar, Kumar Abhishek, Ajay Kumar, Vidya Nand Rabidas, Pradeep Das
OBJECTIVES: Indian Post kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis (PKDL) is the cutaneous aftermath of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) caused by L. donovani. Vitamin D-regulated cationic antimicrobial peptide cathelicidin (hCAP-18/LL-37) has microbicidal and immunomodulatory role against cutaneous infections, but its role in PKDL remains elusive. METHODS: Skin snips and blood-derived monocytes of PKDL patients (n=46), before (BT) and after (AT) chemotherapy, were used for this study...
June 26, 2017: International Immunopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28575060/increased-miltefosine-tolerance-in-clinical-isolates-of-leishmania-donovani-is-associated-with-reduced-drug-accumulation-increased-infectivity-and-resistance-to-oxidative-stress
#4
Deepak Kumar Deep, Ruchi Singh, Vasundhra Bhandari, Aditya Verma, Vanila Sharma, Saima Wajid, Shyam Sundar, V Ramesh, Jean Claude Dujardin, Poonam Salotra
BACKGROUND: Miltefosine (MIL) is an oral antileishmanial drug used for treatment of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) in the Indian subcontinent. Recent reports indicate a significant decline in its efficacy with a high rate of relapse in VL as well as post kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis (PKDL). We investigated the parasitic factors apparently involved in miltefosine unresponsiveness in clinical isolates of Leishmania donovani. METHODOLOGY: L. donovani isolated from patients of VL and PKDL at pretreatment stage (LdPreTx, n = 9), patients that relapsed after MIL treatment (LdRelapse, n = 7) and parasites made experimentally resistant to MIL (LdM30) were included in this study...
June 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28558062/safety-and-efficacy-of-short-course-combination-regimens-with-ambisome-miltefosine-and-paromomycin-for-the-treatment-of-visceral-leishmaniasis-vl-in-bangladesh
#5
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Ridwanur Rahman, Vishal Goyal, Rashidul Haque, Kazi Jamil, Abul Faiz, Rasheda Samad, Sally Ellis, Manica Balasegaram, Margriet den Boer, Suman Rijal, Nathalie Strub-Wourgaft, Fabiana Alves, Jorge Alvar, Bhawna Sharma
BACKGROUND: AmBisome therapy for VL has an excellent efficacy and safety profile and has been adopted as a first-line regimen in Bangladesh. Second-line treatment options are limited and should preferably be given in short course combinations in order to prevent the development of resistant strains. Combination regimens including AmBisome, paromomycin and miltefosine have proved to be safe and effective in the treatment of VL in India. In the present study, the safety and efficacy of these same combinations were assessed in field conditions in Bangladesh...
May 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28520851/infectivity-of-post-kala-azar-dermal-leishmaniasis-patients-to-sand-flies-revisiting-a-proof-of-concept-in-the-context-of-the-kala-azar-elimination-program-in-the-indian-subcontinent
#6
Ricardo Molina, Debashis Ghosh, Eugenia Carrillo, Séverine Monnerat, Caryn Bern, Dinesh Mondal, Jorge Alvar
We compared xenodiagnosis with quantitative polymerase chain reaction in skin biopsies from 3 patients with maculopapular or nodular post-kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis (PKDL). All patients infected sand flies. Parasite loads in skin varied from 1428 to 63 058 parasites per microgram. PKDL detection and treatment are important missing components of the kala-azar elimination program.
May 18, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28498840/a-third-generation-vaccine-for-human-visceral-leishmaniasis-and-post-kala-azar-dermal-leishmaniasis-first-in-human-trial-of-chad63-kh
#7
Mohamed Osman, Anoop Mistry, Ada Keding, Rhian Gabe, Elizabeth Cook, Sarah Forrester, Rebecca Wiggins, Stefania Di Marco, Stefano Colloca, Loredana Siani, Riccardo Cortese, Deborah F Smith, Toni Aebischer, Paul M Kaye, Charles J Lacey
BACKGROUND: Visceral leishmaniasis (VL or kala azar) is the most serious form of human leishmaniasis, responsible for over 20,000 deaths annually, and post kala azar dermal leishmaniasis (PKDL) is a stigmatizing skin condition that often occurs in patients after successful treatment for VL. Lack of effective or appropriately targeted cell mediated immunity, including CD8+ T cell responses, underlies the progression of VL and progression to PKDL, and can limit the therapeutic efficacy of anti-leishmanial drugs...
May 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28370072/expression-profiling-of-sudanese-visceral-leishmaniasis-patients-pre-and-post-treatment-with-sodium-stibogluconate
#8
M A M Salih, M Fakiola, P A Lyons, B M Younis, A M Musa, A M Elhassan, D Anderson, G Syn, M E Ibrahim, J M Blackwell, H S Mohamed
Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) in Sudan caused by Leishmania donovani is fatal in susceptible individuals if untreated. Treatment with sodium stibogluconate (SSG) leads to post-kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis (PKDL) in 58% of patients. Here, Affymetrix microarrays were used to identify genes differentially expressed in lymph nodes (N=9 paired samples) pre- and post-treatment with SSG. Using the Bioconductor package limma, 438 genes from 28 869 post-quality-control probe sets were differentially expressed (Pnominal ≤...
March 31, 2017: Parasite Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28357614/a-mathematical-study-to-control-visceral-leishmaniasis-an-application-to-south-sudan
#9
Indrajit Ghosh, Tridip Sardar, Joydev Chattopadhyay
In this manuscript, we propose and analyze a compartmental model of visceral leishmaniasis (VL). We model the human population with six compartments including asymptomatic, symptomatic and PKDL-infected, animal population as second host and sandfly population as the vector. Furthermore, the non-adult stage of the sandfly population is introduced in the system, which was not considered before in the literature. We show that the increase in the number of host of sandfly population generates a backward bifurcation...
May 2017: Bulletin of Mathematical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28355259/to-evaluate-efficacy-and-safety-of-amphotericin-b-in-two-different-doses-in-the-treatment-of-post-kala-azar-dermal-leishmaniasis-pkdl
#10
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Vidya Nand Rabi Das, Niyamat Ali Siddiqui, Biplab Pal, Chandra Shekhar Lal, Neena Verma, Ashish Kumar, Rakesh Bihari Verma, Dhirendra Kumar, Pradeep Das, Krishna Pandey
BACKGROUND: Post kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis (PKDL) is a skin disorder that usually occurs among patients with a past history of visceral leishmaniasis (VL). Cases are also reported without a history of VL. There is no satisfactory treatment regimen available at present. We aimed to compare the efficacy and safety of amphotericin B in two different doses (0.5mg/kg vs 1mg/kg) in a prospective randomized trial in 50 PKDL patients. METHODS: In this open label study 50 patients with PKDL, aged between 5-60 years were randomized in two groups...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335752/development-of-a-rapid-loop-mediated-isothermal-amplification-assay-for-diagnosis-and-assessment-of-cure-of-leishmania-infection
#11
Sandeep Verma, Ruchi Singh, Vanila Sharma, Ram Avtar Bumb, Narendra Singh Negi, V Ramesh, Poonam Salotra
BACKGROUND: Leishmaniasis is a spectrum of diseases with great relevance to public health. Conventional diagnostic methods are time consuming, needing trained personnel. A robust, rapid and cost effective diagnostic test is warranted for on-time diagnosis and field application. METHODS: We have developed a loop mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay with primers (n = 6) based on Leishmania donovani kDNA for detection of Leishmania infection, using a closed tube to prevent cross-contamination...
March 23, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222162/optimal-combinations-of-control-strategies-and-cost-effective-analysis-for-visceral-leishmaniasis-disease-transmission
#12
Santanu Biswas, Abhishek Subramanian, Ibrahim M ELMojtaba, Joydev Chattopadhyay, Ram Rup Sarkar
Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is a deadly neglected tropical disease that poses a serious problem in various countries all over the world. Implementation of various intervention strategies fail in controlling the spread of this disease due to issues of parasite drug resistance and resistance of sandfly vectors to insecticide sprays. Due to this, policy makers need to develop novel strategies or resort to a combination of multiple intervention strategies to control the spread of the disease. To address this issue, we propose an extensive SIR-type model for anthroponotic visceral leishmaniasis transmission with seasonal fluctuations modeled in the form of periodic sandfly biting rate...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28187202/asymptomatic-leishmaniasis-in-kala-azar-endemic-areas-of-malda-district-west-bengal-india
#13
Pabitra Saha, Swagata Ganguly, Moytrey Chatterjee, Soumendu Bikash Das, Pratip K Kundu, Subhasish K Guha, Tamal K Ghosh, Dilip K Bera, Nandita Basu, Ardhendu K Maji
Asymptomatic leishmaniasis may drive the epidemic and an important challenge to reach the goal of joint Visceral Leishmaniasis (VL) elimination initiative taken by three Asian countries. The role of these asymptomatic carriers in disease transmission, prognosis at individual level and rate of transformation to symptomatic VL/Post Kala-azar Dermal Leishmaniasis (PKDL) needs to be evaluated. Asymptomatic cases were diagnosed by active mass survey in eight tribal villages by detecting antileishmanial antibody using rK39 based rapid diagnostic kits and followed up for three years to observe the pattern of sero-conversion and disease transformation...
February 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28130283/indian-erythrodermic-postkala-azar-dermal-leishmaniasis
#14
Gomathy Sethuraman, Neetu Bhari, Poonam Salotra, Venkatesh Ramesh
Postkala-azar dermal leishmaniasis (PKDL) is a complication of kala-azar or visceral leishmaniasis and is caused by Leishmania donovani. We describe an Indian male patient with the rarer erythrodermic form of PKDL and multiple unusual skin lesions viz. verrucous, annular and mucosal ulceration.
January 27, 2017: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28066878/safety-and-effectiveness-of-sodium-stibogluconate-and-paromomycin-combination-for-the-treatment-of-visceral-leishmaniasis-in-eastern-africa-results-from-a-pharmacovigilance-programme
#15
Robert Kimutai, Ahmed M Musa, Simon Njoroge, Raymond Omollo, Fabiana Alves, Asrat Hailu, Eltahir A G Khalil, Ermias Diro, Peninah Soipei, Brima Musa, Khalid Salman, Koert Ritmeijer, Francois Chappuis, Juma Rashid, Rezika Mohammed, Asfaw Jameneh, Eyasu Makonnen, Joseph Olobo, Lawrence Okello, Patrick Sagaki, Nathalie Strub, Sally Ellis, Jorge Alvar, Manica Balasegaram, Emilie Alirol, Monique Wasunna
INTRODUCTION: In 2010, WHO recommended a new first-line treatment for visceral leishmaniasis (VL) in Eastern Africa. The new treatment, a combination of intravenous (IV) or intramuscular (IM) sodium stibogluconate (SSG) and IM paromomycin (PM) was an improvement over SSG monotherapy, the previous first-line VL treatment in the region. To monitor the new treatment's safety and effectiveness in routine clinical practice a pharmacovigilance (PV) programme was developed. METHODS: A prospective PV cohort was developed...
March 2017: Clinical Drug Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27974858/longitudinal-study-of-transmission-in-households-with-visceral-leishmaniasis-asymptomatic-infections-and-pkdl-in-highly-endemic-villages-in-bihar-india
#16
Vidya Nand Ravi Das, Ravindra Nath Pandey, Niyamat Ali Siddiqui, Lloyd A C Chapman, Vijay Kumar, Krishna Pandey, Greg Matlashewski, Pradeep Das
BACKGROUND: Visceral Leishmaniasis (VL) is a neglected tropical disease that afflicts some of the poorest populations in the world including people living in the Bihar state of India. Due to efforts from local governments, NGOs and international organizations, the number of VL cases has declined in recent years. Despite this progress, the reservoir for transmission remains to be clearly defined since it is unknown what role post kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis (PKDL) and asymptomatic infections play in transmission...
December 2016: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27927185/epidemiology-of-visceral-leishmaniasis-among-children-in-gadarif-hospital-eastern-sudan
#17
Mohammed Ahmed A Ahmed, Ahmed A Ahmed, Saeed M Omar, Gamal K Adam, Tajeldin M Abdallah, AbdelAziem A Ali
BACKGROUND: Since 1900s, visceral leishmaniasis (VL) has been among the most important health problems in Sudan, particularly in the endemic areas such as eastern and central regions. METHODS: This was a cross sectional, hospital-based study conducted from 1(st) January 2015 to 31(st) December 2015 to investigate the epidemiological factors of VL in Gadarif hospital, eastern Sudan. RESULTS: During the study period there were 47 identified children with VL among 145 suspected cases...
December 7, 2016: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27836602/a-biomimetic-bioelectronic-tongue-a-switch-for-on-and-off-response-of-acid-sensations
#18
Wei Zhang, Peihua Chen, Lianqun Zhou, Zhen Qin, Keqiang Gao, Jia Yao, Chuanyu Li, Ping Wang
The perception of sour taste in mammals is important for its basic modality properties and avoiding toxic substances. We explore a biomimetic bioelectronic tongue, which integrate MEA (microelectrode array) and taste receptor cell for acid detection as a switch. However, the acid-sensing mechanism and coding of the taste receptor cells in the periphery is not well understood, with long-standing debate. Therefore, we firstly construct a Hodgkin-Huxley type mathematical model of whole-cell acid-sensing taste receptor cells based on the electrophysiologic patch clamp recordings with different acid sensitive receptor expressing and different acidic stimulations...
June 15, 2017: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27776123/chronic-arsenic-exposure-and-risk-of-post-kala-azar-dermal-leishmaniasis-development-in-india-a-retrospective-cohort-study
#19
Sushmita Das, Rakesh Mandal, Vidya Nand Rabidas, Neena Verma, Krishna Pandey, Ashok Kumar Ghosh, Sreekant Kesari, Ashish Kumar, Bidyut Purkait, Chandra Sekhar Lal, Pradeep Das
BACKGROUND: Visceral leishmaniasis (VL), with the squeal of Post-kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis (PKDL), is a global threat for health. Studies have shown sodium stibogluconate (SSG) resistance in VL patients with chronic arsenic exposure. Here, we assessed the association between arsenic exposure and risk of developing PKDL in treated VL patients. METHODS: In this retrospective study, PKDL patients (n = 139), earlier treated with SSG or any other drug during VL, were selected from the study cohort...
October 2016: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27741241/noninvasive-diagnosis-of-visceral-leishmaniasis-development-and-evaluation-of-two-urine-based-immunoassays-for-detection-of-leishmania-donovani-infection-in-india
#20
Sarfaraz Ahmad Ejazi, Pradyot Bhattacharya, Md Asjad Karim Bakhteyar, Aquil Ahmad Mumtaz, Krishna Pandey, Vidya Nand Ravi Das, Pradeep Das, Mehebubar Rahaman, Rama Prosad Goswami, Nahid Ali
BACKGROUND: Visceral Leishmaniasis (VL), a severe parasitic disease, could be fatal if diagnosis and treatment is delayed. Post kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis (PKDL), a skin related outcome, is a potential reservoir for the spread of VL. Diagnostic tests available for VL such as tissue aspiration are invasive and painful although they are capable of evaluating the treatment response. Serological tests although less invasive than tissue aspiration are incompetent to assess cure. Parasitological examination of slit-skin smear along with the clinical symptoms is routinely used for diagnosis of PKDL...
October 2016: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
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