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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775225/cytokines-and-chemokines-differentially-regulate-innate-immune-cell-trafficking-during-post-kala-azar-dermal-leishmaniasis
#1
Ashish K Singh, Vidya N R Das, Ajay Amit, Manas R Dikhit, Vijaya Mahantesh, Shubhankar K Singh, Shyam Naryan, Krishna Pandey, Pradeep Das, Neena Verma, Sanjiva Bimal
Post kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis (PKDL) is often considered to be the anthroponotic reservoir of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) in India. A better understanding of the host immune-response in dermal lesions of PKDL patients is therefore of utmost significance to minimize such patients and to restrict VL transmission. Although the innate immune response is known to play an important role in parasite clearance from dermal lesions, the actual contribution of innate cells to the pathogenicity of PKDL is poorly understood...
May 18, 2018: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29554244/safety-and-effectiveness-of-short-course-ambisome-in-the-treatment-of-post-kala-azar-dermal-leishmaniasis-pkdl-a-prospective-cohort-study-in-bangladesh
#2
Margriet den Boer, Asish Kumar Das, Fatima Akhter, Sakib Burza, V Ramesh, Be-Nazir Ahmed, Eduard E Zijlstra, Koert Ritmeijer
Background: A safe and effective short-course treatment regimen for Post Kala Azar Dermal Leishmaniasis (PKDL) is considered essential for achieving and sustaining elimination of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) in the Indian subcontinent.(1, 2) Here, single dose liposomal amphotericin B (AmBisome) has been adopted as a first line regimen for VL; however the effectiveness and safety of AmBisome for PKDL has not been formally evaluated. Methods: The safety and effectiveness of AmBisome 15 mg/kg, given over 15 days in 5 biweekly infusions of 3mg/kg on an outpatient basis, was evaluated between April and November 2014 in clinically diagnosed PKDL patients of 12 years and older residing in a highly VL endemic area in Bangladesh...
March 15, 2018: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29420575/glycoproteins-in-circulating-immune-complexes-are-biomarkers-of-patients-with-indian-pkdl-a-study-from-endemic-districts-of-west-bengal-india
#3
Priyank Jaiswal, Souvik Datta, Bikash Sardar, Surya Jyoti Chaudhuri, Dipankar Maji, Manab Ghosh, Bibhuti Saha, Sumi Mukhopadhyay
BACKGROUND: Post Kala Azar Dermal Leishmaniasis (PKDL) occurs as dermal consequence of previous Visceral Leishmaniasis (VL) infection and serves as an important reservoir for transmission of VL. Diagnosis of PKDL is often challenging for its symptomatic resemblance to other co-endemic diseases like Leprosy or Vitiligo. Parasitological examination by slit-skin smear and culture are the standard methods but lack high sensitivity. Thus, for efficient control of VL, reliable diagnostic and prognostic assay of PKDL are required...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29317889/clinical-and-laboratory-analysis-of-patients-with-leishmaniasis-a-retrospective-study-from-a-tertiary-care-center-in-new-delhi
#4
Nitin Gupta, Kamla Kant, Bijay Ranjan Mirdha
Background: Leishmaniasis manifests as visceral (VL), cutaneous (CL) or a dermal sequel of VL, known as Post kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis (PKDL). The aim of the study was to analyze the clinical and laboratory features of cases diagnosed with leishmaniasis. Methods: This hospital-based retrospective study included all cases of VL, PKDL, and CL diagnosed between Jan 2011 to Jan 2016 at All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi. Clinical and laboratory profile of the diagnosed cases were analyzed in detail...
October 2017: Iranian Journal of Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145397/post-kala-azar-dermal-leishmaniasis-in-the-indian-subcontinent-a-threat-to-the-south-east-asia-region-kala-azar-elimination-programme
#5
REVIEW
Eduard E Zijlstra, Fabiana Alves, Suman Rijal, Byron Arana, Jorge Alvar
BACKGROUND: The South-East Asia Region Kala-azar Elimination Programme (KAEP) is expected to enter the consolidation phase in 2017, which focuses on case detection, vector control, and identifying potential sources of infection. Post-kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis (PKDL) is thought to play a role in the recurrence of visceral leishmaniasis (VL)/kala-azar outbreaks, and control of PKDL is among the priorities of the KAEP. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDING: We reviewed the literature with regard to PKDL in Asia and interpreted the findings in relation to current intervention methods in the KAEP in order to make recommendations...
November 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040115/keratitis-after-post-kala-azar-dermal-leishmaniasis
#6
Aditya Pradhan, Samar Basak, Tuhin Chowdhury, Ayan Mohanta, Ananya Chatterjee
PURPOSE: To report 2 cases of keratitis occurring after post-kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis (PKDL) in immunocompetent patients. METHODS: Case report and literature review. RESULTS: Two male patients presented with a dense stromal infiltrate in the temporal and superior aspects of the cornea, respectively. Microbiological workup in both patients did not show any offending organism. Both patients were undergoing treatment for PKDL in the form of oral miltefosine...
January 2018: Cornea
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29020350/monitoring-of-parasite-kinetics-in-indian-post-kala-azar-dermal-leishmaniasis
#7
Srija Moulik, Surya Jyati Chaudhuri, Bikash Sardar, Manab Ghosh, Bibhuti Saha, Nilay Kanti Das, Mitali Chatterjee
Background: The potential reservoirs of leishmaniasis in South Asia include relapsed cases of visceral leishmaniasis (VL), patients with post-kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis (PKDL), and an asymptomatically infected population. Therefore, assessment of cure in terms of parasite clearance, early detection of PKDL, and asymptomatic VL are pivotal for ensuring elimination. This study aimed to monitor the efficacy of miltefosine and liposomal amphotericin B (LAmB) in PKDL based on parasite load...
January 18, 2018: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28957391/real-time-pcr-in-detection-and-quantitation-of-leishmania-donovani-for-the-diagnosis-of-visceral-leishmaniasis-patients-and-the-monitoring-of-their-response-to-treatment
#8
Faria Hossain, Prakash Ghosh, Md Anik Ashfaq Khan, Malcolm S Duthie, Aarthy C Vallur, Alessandro Picone, Randall F Howard, Steven G Reed, Dinesh Mondal
Sustained elimination of Visceral Leishmaniasis (VL) requires the reduction and control of parasite reservoirs to minimize the transmission of Leishmania donovani infection. A simple, reproducible and definitive diagnostic procedure is therefore indispensable for the early and accurate detection of parasites in VL, Relapsed VL (RVL) and Post Kala-azar Dermal Leishmaniasis (PKDL) patients, all of whom are potential reservoirs of Leishmania parasites. To overcome the limitations of current diagnostic approaches, a novel quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) method based on Taqman chemistry was devised for the detection and quantification of L...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820697/case-report-treatment-of-widespread-nodular-post-kala-azar-dermal-leishmaniasis-with-extended-dose-liposomal-amphotericin-b-in-bangladesh-a-series-of-four-cases
#9
Ariful Basher, Shomik Maruf, Proggananda Nath, Md Golam Hasnain, Muhammod Abdul Mukit, Azim Anuwarul, Fatima Aktar, Rupen Nath, Afm Akhtar Hossain, Abul Hasnat Milton, Dinesh Mondal, Abul Khair Mohammad Sumsuzzaman, Ridwanur Rahman, M A Faiz
Post kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis (PKDL) is a skin manifestation which usually appears after visceral leishmaniasis. It is now proved that PKDL patients serve as a reservoir for anthropometric leishmanial transmission. Hence, to achieve the kala-azar elimination target set by the World Health Organization in the Indian Subcontinent, PKDL cases should be given priority. The goal of treatment for PKDL should be early reepithelizlization and rapid cure, but unfortunately this has been difficult to achieve, especially for patients with severe lesions...
October 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28738881/assessment-of-quality-of-life-in-patients-with-post-kalaazar-dermal-leishmaniasis
#10
Biplab Pal, Krishna Murti, Niyamat Ali Siddiqui, Pradeep Das, Chandra Shekhar Lal, Rajendra Babu, Manoj Kumar Rastogi, Krishna Pandey
BACKGROUND: Post kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis (PKDL) is a dermatological disorder caused by protozoal parasite Leishmania donovani. PKDL cases are thought to be a reservoir of parasites and may increase cases of visceral leishmaniasis. The disease is not life threatening but cosmetic disfigurement associated with it may impair the patients' quality of life. This study aimed to assess the health related quality of life in patients with post kalaazar dermal leishmanasis for the first time...
July 24, 2017: Health and Quality of Life Outcomes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28662432/cathelicidin-augments-vdr-dependent-anti-leishmanial-immune-response-in-indian-post-kala-azar-dermal-leishmaniasis
#11
Sushmita Das, Abul Hasan Sardar, Kumar Abhishek, Ajay Kumar, Vidya Nand Rabidas, Pradeep Das
OBJECTIVES: Indian Post kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis (PKDL) is the cutaneous aftermath of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) caused by L. donovani. Vitamin D-regulated cationic antimicrobial peptide cathelicidin (hCAP-18/LL-37) has microbicidal and immunomodulatory role against cutaneous infections, but its role in PKDL remains elusive. METHODS: Skin snips and blood-derived monocytes of PKDL patients (n=46), before (BT) and after (AT) chemotherapy, were used for this study...
June 26, 2017: International Immunopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28575060/increased-miltefosine-tolerance-in-clinical-isolates-of-leishmania-donovani-is-associated-with-reduced-drug-accumulation-increased-infectivity-and-resistance-to-oxidative-stress
#12
Deepak Kumar Deep, Ruchi Singh, Vasundhra Bhandari, Aditya Verma, Vanila Sharma, Saima Wajid, Shyam Sundar, V Ramesh, Jean Claude Dujardin, Poonam Salotra
BACKGROUND: Miltefosine (MIL) is an oral antileishmanial drug used for treatment of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) in the Indian subcontinent. Recent reports indicate a significant decline in its efficacy with a high rate of relapse in VL as well as post kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis (PKDL). We investigated the parasitic factors apparently involved in miltefosine unresponsiveness in clinical isolates of Leishmania donovani. METHODOLOGY: L. donovani isolated from patients of VL and PKDL at pretreatment stage (LdPreTx, n = 9), patients that relapsed after MIL treatment (LdRelapse, n = 7) and parasites made experimentally resistant to MIL (LdM30) were included in this study...
June 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28558062/safety-and-efficacy-of-short-course-combination-regimens-with-ambisome-miltefosine-and-paromomycin-for-the-treatment-of-visceral-leishmaniasis-vl-in-bangladesh
#13
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Ridwanur Rahman, Vishal Goyal, Rashidul Haque, Kazi Jamil, Abul Faiz, Rasheda Samad, Sally Ellis, Manica Balasegaram, Margriet den Boer, Suman Rijal, Nathalie Strub-Wourgaft, Fabiana Alves, Jorge Alvar, Bhawna Sharma
BACKGROUND: AmBisome therapy for VL has an excellent efficacy and safety profile and has been adopted as a first-line regimen in Bangladesh. Second-line treatment options are limited and should preferably be given in short course combinations in order to prevent the development of resistant strains. Combination regimens including AmBisome, paromomycin and miltefosine have proved to be safe and effective in the treatment of VL in India. In the present study, the safety and efficacy of these same combinations were assessed in field conditions in Bangladesh...
May 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28520851/infectivity-of-post-kala-azar-dermal-leishmaniasis-patients-to-sand-flies-revisiting-a-proof-of-concept-in-the-context-of-the-kala-azar-elimination-program-in-the-indian-subcontinent
#14
Ricardo Molina, Debashis Ghosh, Eugenia Carrillo, Séverine Monnerat, Caryn Bern, Dinesh Mondal, Jorge Alvar
We compared xenodiagnosis with quantitative polymerase chain reaction in skin biopsies from 3 patients with maculopapular or nodular post-kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis (PKDL). All patients infected sand flies. Parasite loads in skin varied from 1428 to 63 058 parasites per microgram. PKDL detection and treatment are important missing components of the kala-azar elimination program.
July 1, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28498840/a-third-generation-vaccine-for-human-visceral-leishmaniasis-and-post-kala-azar-dermal-leishmaniasis-first-in-human-trial-of-chad63-kh
#15
Mohamed Osman, Anoop Mistry, Ada Keding, Rhian Gabe, Elizabeth Cook, Sarah Forrester, Rebecca Wiggins, Stefania Di Marco, Stefano Colloca, Loredana Siani, Riccardo Cortese, Deborah F Smith, Toni Aebischer, Paul M Kaye, Charles J Lacey
BACKGROUND: Visceral leishmaniasis (VL or kala azar) is the most serious form of human leishmaniasis, responsible for over 20,000 deaths annually, and post kala azar dermal leishmaniasis (PKDL) is a stigmatizing skin condition that often occurs in patients after successful treatment for VL. Lack of effective or appropriately targeted cell mediated immunity, including CD8+ T cell responses, underlies the progression of VL and progression to PKDL, and can limit the therapeutic efficacy of anti-leishmanial drugs...
May 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28370072/expression-profiling-of-sudanese-visceral-leishmaniasis-patients-pre-and-post-treatment-with-sodium-stibogluconate
#16
M A M Salih, M Fakiola, P A Lyons, B M Younis, A M Musa, A M Elhassan, D Anderson, G Syn, M E Ibrahim, J M Blackwell, H S Mohamed
Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) in Sudan caused by Leishmania donovani is fatal in susceptible individuals if untreated. Treatment with sodium stibogluconate (SSG) leads to post-kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis (PKDL) in 58% of patients. Here, Affymetrix microarrays were used to identify genes differentially expressed in lymph nodes (N=9 paired samples) pre- and post-treatment with SSG. Using the Bioconductor package limma, 438 genes from 28 869 post-quality-control probe sets were differentially expressed (Pnominal ≤...
June 2017: Parasite Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28357614/a-mathematical-study-to-control-visceral-leishmaniasis-an-application-to-south-sudan
#17
Indrajit Ghosh, Tridip Sardar, Joydev Chattopadhyay
In this manuscript, we propose and analyze a compartmental model of visceral leishmaniasis (VL). We model the human population with six compartments including asymptomatic, symptomatic and PKDL-infected, animal population as second host and sandfly population as the vector. Furthermore, the non-adult stage of the sandfly population is introduced in the system, which was not considered before in the literature. We show that the increase in the number of host of sandfly population generates a backward bifurcation...
May 2017: Bulletin of Mathematical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28355259/to-evaluate-efficacy-and-safety-of-amphotericin-b-in-two-different-doses-in-the-treatment-of-post-kala-azar-dermal-leishmaniasis-pkdl
#18
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Vidya Nand Rabi Das, Niyamat Ali Siddiqui, Biplab Pal, Chandra Shekhar Lal, Neena Verma, Ashish Kumar, Rakesh Bihari Verma, Dhirendra Kumar, Pradeep Das, Krishna Pandey
BACKGROUND: Post kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis (PKDL) is a skin disorder that usually occurs among patients with a past history of visceral leishmaniasis (VL). Cases are also reported without a history of VL. There is no satisfactory treatment regimen available at present. We aimed to compare the efficacy and safety of amphotericin B in two different doses (0.5mg/kg vs 1mg/kg) in a prospective randomized trial in 50 PKDL patients. METHODS: In this open label study 50 patients with PKDL, aged between 5-60 years were randomized in two groups...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335752/development-of-a-rapid-loop-mediated-isothermal-amplification-assay-for-diagnosis-and-assessment-of-cure-of-leishmania-infection
#19
Sandeep Verma, Ruchi Singh, Vanila Sharma, Ram Avtar Bumb, Narendra Singh Negi, V Ramesh, Poonam Salotra
BACKGROUND: Leishmaniasis is a spectrum of diseases with great relevance to public health. Conventional diagnostic methods are time consuming, needing trained personnel. A robust, rapid and cost effective diagnostic test is warranted for on-time diagnosis and field application. METHODS: We have developed a loop mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay with primers (n = 6) based on Leishmania donovani kDNA for detection of Leishmania infection, using a closed tube to prevent cross-contamination...
March 23, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222162/optimal-combinations-of-control-strategies-and-cost-effective-analysis-for-visceral-leishmaniasis-disease-transmission
#20
Santanu Biswas, Abhishek Subramanian, Ibrahim M ELMojtaba, Joydev Chattopadhyay, Ram Rup Sarkar
Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is a deadly neglected tropical disease that poses a serious problem in various countries all over the world. Implementation of various intervention strategies fail in controlling the spread of this disease due to issues of parasite drug resistance and resistance of sandfly vectors to insecticide sprays. Due to this, policy makers need to develop novel strategies or resort to a combination of multiple intervention strategies to control the spread of the disease. To address this issue, we propose an extensive SIR-type model for anthroponotic visceral leishmaniasis transmission with seasonal fluctuations modeled in the form of periodic sandfly biting rate...
2017: PloS One
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