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Cognitive antidiabete

Alejo J Nevado-Holgado, Chi-Hun Kim, Laura Winchester, John Gallacher, Simon Lovestone
OBJECTIVE: To investigate medications associated with cognitive function. DESIGN: Population-based cross-sectional cohort study. SETTING: UK Biobank. PARTICIPANTS: UK Biobank participants aged 37-73 years who completed cognitive tests at the baseline visit in 2006-2010. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Cognitive test outcomes on verbal-numerical reasoning test (n=165 493), memory test (n=482 766) and reaction time test (n=496 813)...
November 30, 2016: BMJ Open
Usha Sambamoorthi, Arijita Deb, Steve Zhou, Rahul Garg, Tao Fan, Anders Boss
We examined the real-world utilization and persistence of rapid acting insulin (RAI) in elderly patients with type 2 diabetes who added RAI to their drug (OAD) regimen. Insulin-naïve patients aged ≥65 years, with ≥1 OAD prescription during the baseline period, who were continuously enrolled in the US Humana Medicare Advantage insurance plan for 18 months and initiated RAI were included. Among patients with ≥2 RAI prescriptions (RAIp), persistence during the 12-month follow-up was assessed. Multivariate logistic regression analyses identified factors affecting RAI use and persistence...
2016: Journal of Diabetes Research
Xiangtong Liu, Jason Peter Fine, Zhenghong Chen, Long Liu, Xia Li, Anxin Wang, Jin Guo, Lixin Tao, Gehendra Mahara, Zhe Tang, Xiuhua Guo
The competing risk method has become more acceptable for time-to-event data analysis because of its advantage over the standard Cox model in accounting for competing events in the risk set. This study aimed to construct a prediction model for diabetes using a subdistribution hazards model.We prospectively followed 1857 community residents who were aged ≥ 55 years, free of diabetes at baseline examination from August 1992 to December 2012. Diabetes was defined as a self-reported history of diabetes diagnosis, taking antidiabetic medicine, or having fasting plasma glucose (FPG) ≥ 7...
October 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
Hee Kyong Oh, Se Jin Jeon, Sunhee Lee, Hyung Eun Lee, Eunji Kim, Se Jin Park, Ha Neul Kim, Won Yong Jung, Jae Hoon Cheong, Dae Sik Jang, Jong Hoon Ryu
Swertisin, a plant-derived C-glucosylflavone, is known to have antidiabetic, anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects. In the present study, we investigated in mice the effects of swertisin on glutamatergic dysfunction induced by dizocilpine (MK-801), a non-competitive N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonist. In the Acoustic Startle Response test, their MK-801-induced (given 0.2 mg/kg i.p.) pre-pulse inhibition deficit was significantly attenuated by the administration of swertisin (30 mg/kg p.o.). In the Novel Object Recognition Test, the recognition memory impairments that were induced by MK-801 (0...
October 11, 2016: Journal of Psychopharmacology
Antonella Tramutola, Andrea Arena, Chiara Cini, D Allan Butterfield, Eugenio Barone
Clinical studies suggest a link between peripheral insulin resistance and cognitive dysfunction. Post-mortem analyses of Alzheimer disease (AD) subjects revealed insulin resistance in the brain, suggesting a role of this condition in cognitive deficits observed in AD. In this review, we focus on the glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) signaling pathway, whose role in the brain is collecting increasing attention because of its association with insulin signaling activation. Areas covered: The role of GLP-1-mediated effects in the brain and how they are affected along the progression of AD pathology is discussed...
October 7, 2016: Expert Review of Neurotherapeutics
Seyed Reza Fatemi Tabatabaei, Masome Rashno, Shahab Ghaderi, Majid Askaripour
Diabetes mellitus is one of the most common causes of neuropathy. Although antioxidant and antidiabetic effects of the aqueous extract of purslane (Portulaca oleracea) (AEOP) have been demonstrated before by other researchers, we did not find any study that assessed the psychobiological effects of AEOP in diabetes induced animals. Thirty ovariectomized (OVX) female Wistar rats were randomly divided into 3 groups of control, Dia and Dia+AEOP. The latter group was orally treated by 300 mg/kg of AEOP for 35 days...
2016: Iranian Journal of Pharmaceutical Research: IJPR
Silvija Mihajlovic, Jeremie Gauthier, Erika MacDonald
BACKGROUND: Adverse drug events (ADEs) occurring in hospital inpatients can have serious implications. The ability to identify and prioritize patients at higher risk of ADEs could help pharmacists to optimize their impact as members of the patient care team. OBJECTIVE: To identify risk factors, patient characteristics, and medications associated with a higher likelihood of ADEs in adult inpatients through an overview of reviews on this topic. DATA SOURCES: Systematic reviews and narrative reviews or guidelines identified through a search of MEDLINE and the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (limited to articles published from 1995 to June 4, 2015), as well as a grey literature search...
July 2016: Canadian Journal of Hospital Pharmacy
Carmen Infante-Garcia, Juan Jose Ramos-Rodriguez, Yolanda Marin-Zambrana, Maria Teresa Fernandez-Ponce, Lourdes Casas, Casimiro Mantell, Monica Garcia-Alloza
Epidemiological studies reveal that metabolic disorders, and specifically type 2 diabetes (T2D), are relevant risk factors to develop Alzheimer's disease (AD) and vascular dementia (VaD), the most common causes of dementia. Due to the limited success of available treatments, AD patients are in a tremendous need of new therapeutic options. Natural polyphenols, and concretely Mangifera indica Linn extract (MGF), have been reported to have antiinflammatory, antioxidant and antidiabetic activities. We have analyzed the role of MGF in central complications associated with T2D, after long-term treatment of db/db mice with MGF...
August 18, 2016: Brain Pathology
Caterina Palleria, Christian Leporini, Francesca Maida, Elena Succurro, Giovambattista De Sarro, Franco Arturi, Emilio Russo
Type 2 diabetes mellitus is a complex metabolic disease that can cause serious damage to various organs. Among the best-known complications, an important role is played by cognitive impairment. Impairment of cognitive functioning has been reported both in type 1 and 2 diabetes mellitus. While this comorbidity has long been known, no major advances have been achieved in clinical research; it is clear that appropriate control of blood glucose levels represents the best current (although unsatisfactory) approach in the prevention of cognitive impairment...
July 2016: Frontiers in Neuroendocrinology
Mohammad Reza Ashraghi, Gennaro Pagano, Sotirios Polychronis, Flavia Niccolini, Marios Politis
BACKGROUND: Parkinson's disease is a chronic neurodegenerative disorder characterized by the progressive loss of dopaminergic neurons. The pathophysiological mechanisms underlying Parkinson's are still unknown. Mitochondrial dysfunction, abnormal protein aggregation, increased neuroinflammation and impairment of brain glucose metabolism are shared processes among insulin-resistance, diabetes and neurodegeneration and have been suggested as key mechanisms in development of Parkinson's and cognitive impairment...
June 30, 2016: Recent Patents on Endocrine, Metabolic & Immune Drug Discovery
Rebecca E Hughes, Katarina Nikolic, Rona R Ramsay
HIGHLIGHTS Many AD target combinations are being explored for multi-target drug design.New databases and models increase the potential of computational drug designLiraglutide and other antidiabetics are strong candidates for repurposing to AD.Donecopride a dual 5-HT/AChE inhibitor shows promise in pre-clinical studies Alzheimer's Disease is a complex and multifactorial disease for which the mechanism is still not fully understood. As new insights into disease progression are discovered, new drugs must be designed to target those aspects of the disease that cause neuronal damage rather than just the symptoms currently addressed by single target drugs...
2016: Frontiers in Neuroscience
Hiroyuki Umegaki
It has been established that diabetes mellitus (DM) is a risk factor for dementia, and recent studies have clearly shown that dementia is one of the complications of DM. The increase of cognitively impaired subjects with the progression of aging in the population is an urgent worldwide issue. Due to the pharmacological advancement in the field of DM, we now have many kinds of antidiabetic medications with a wide variety of mechanisms of action and characteristics. It is a good time to review the characteristics of each antidiabetic medication and the evidence related to their prevention of cognitive dysfunction or preservation of cognition...
June 2016: Drugs & Aging
Dalia K Mostafa, Cherine A Ismail, Doaa A Ghareeb
RATIONAL: Epidemiological evidence suggests that individuals with diabetes mellitus are at greater risk of developing Alzheimer's disease, and controversy overwhelms the usefulness of the widely prescribed insulin-sensitizing drug, metformin, on cognition. OBJECTIVES: Through the scopolamine-induced memory deficit model, we investigated metformin influence on cognitive dysfunction and explored underlying mechanisms. METHODS: Sixty adult male Wistar rats were randomly assigned into 5 groups (12 rats each) to receive either normal saline, scopolamine 1 mg/kg intraperitoneally once daily, scopolamine + oral metformin (100 mg/kg/day), scopolamine + oral metformin (300 mg/kg/day) or scopolamine + oral rivastigmine (0...
July 2016: Psychopharmacology
Pinar Soysal, Ali Ekrem Aydin, Saadet Koc Okudur, Ahmet Turan Isik
Detection of orthostatic hypotension (OH) is very important in geriatric practice, since OH is associated with mortality, ischemic stroke, falls, cognitive failure and depression. It was aimed to determine the most appropriate time for measuring blood pressure in transition from supine to upright position in order to diagnose OH in elderly. Comprehensive geriatric assessment (CGA) including Head up Tilt Table (HUT) test was performed in 407 geriatric patients. Orthostatic changes were assessed separately for the 1st, 3rd and 5th minutes (HUT1, HUT3 and HUT5, respectively) taking the data in supine position as the basis...
July 2016: Archives of Gerontology and Geriatrics
Taro Kojima, Masahiro Akishita
Many drugs have been reported to induce not only delirium but also cognitive impairment. Some types of drugs are reported to induce dementia, and prolonged hypotension or hypoglycemia induced by overuse of antihypertensive drugs or oral antidiabetic drugs could result in dementia. Recently, taking multiple drugs with anticholinergic activity are reported to cause cognitive decline and anticholinergic burden should be avoided especially in patients with dementia. Drug-induced dementia can be prevented by avoiding polypharmacy and adhering to the saying 'start low and go slow' ...
March 2016: Nihon Rinsho. Japanese Journal of Clinical Medicine
Hyung Eun Lee, Se Jin Jeon, Byeol Ryu, Se Jin Park, Sang Yoon Ko, Younghwan Lee, Eunji Kim, Sunhee Lee, Haneul Kim, Dae Sik Jang, Jong Hoon Ryu
Swertisin, a C-glucosylflavone isolated from Swertia japonica, has been known to have anti-inflammatory or antidiabetic activities. Until yet, however, its cognitive function is not investigated. In the present study, we endeavored to elucidate the effects of swertisin on cholinergic blockade-induced memory impairment. Swertisin (5 or 10mg/kg, p.o.) significantly ameliorated scopolamine-induced cognitive impairment in the several behavioral tasks. Also, single administration of swertisin (10mg/kg, p.o.) in normal naïve mice enhanced the latency time in the passive avoidance task...
June 1, 2016: Behavioural Brain Research
Syed Mohd Danish Rizvi, Sibhghatulla Shaikh, Deeba Naaz, Shazi Shakil, Adnan Ahmad, Mohd Haneef, Adel M Abuzenadah
At the present time, treatment of two most common degenerative disorders of elderly population i.e., Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM) and Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a major concern worldwide. As there are several evidences that proved strong linkages between these two disorders, the idea of using dual therapeutic agent for both the diseases might be considered as a good initiative. Earlier reports have revealed that oral anti-diabetic drugs such as peroxisome proliferator activated receptor γ (PPARγ) agonists (thiazolidinediones) when used in T2DM patients suffering from AD showed improved memory and cognition...
June 2016: Neurochemical Research
Onno N Groeneveld, L Jaap Kappelle, Geert Jan Biessels
Patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus are at risk for accelerated cognitive decline and dementia. Furthermore, their risk of stroke is increased and their outcome after stroke is worse than in those without diabetes. Incretin-based therapies are a class of antidiabetic agents that are of interest in relation to these cerebral complications of diabetes. Two classes of incretin-based therapies are currently available: the glucagon-like-peptide-1 agonists and the dipeptidyl peptidase-4 -inhibitors. Independent of their glucose-lowering effects, incretin-based therapies might also have direct or indirect beneficial effects on the brain...
January 2016: Journal of Diabetes Investigation
Beatrice Bortolato, Kamilla W Miskowiak, Cristiano A Köhler, Michael Maes, Brisa S Fernandes, Michael Berk, André F Carvalho
BACKGROUND: Cognitive dysfunction in major depressive disorder (MDD) encompasses several domains, including but not limited to executive function, verbal memory, and attention. Furthermore, cognitive dysfunction is a frequent residual manifestation in depression and may persist during the remitted phase. Cognitive deficits may also impede functional recovery, including workforce performance, in patients with MDD. The overarching aims of this opinion article are to critically evaluate the effects of available antidepressants as well as novel therapeutic targets on neurocognitive dysfunction in MDD...
January 22, 2016: BMC Medicine
Mayank Ajmera, Amit Raval, Steve Zhou, Wenhui Wei, Rituparna Bhattacharya, Chunshen Pan, Usha Sambamoorthi
BACKGROUND: Among elderly patients, the management of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is complicated by population heterogeneity and elderly-specific complexities. Few studies have been done to understand treatment intensification among elderly patients failing multiple oral antidiabetic drugs (OADs). OBJECTIVE: To examine the association between time to treatment intensification of T2DM and elderly-specific patient complexities. METHODS: In this observational, retrospective cohort study, elderly (aged ≥ 65 years) Medicare beneficiaries (n = 16,653) with inadequately controlled T2DM (hemoglobin A1c ≥ 8...
December 2015: Journal of Managed Care & Specialty Pharmacy
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