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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424565/invasive-pneumococcal-disease-still-lots-to-learn-and-a-need-for-standardized-data-collection-instruments
#1
T J Marrie, G J Tyrrell, Sumit R Majumdar, Dean T Eurich
Background. Large studies of invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) are frequently lacking detailed clinical information. Methods. A population-based 15-year study of IPD in Northern Alberta. Results. 2435 patients with a mean age of 54.2 years formed the study group. Males outnumbered females and Aboriginal and homeless persons were overrepresented. High rates of smoking, excessive alcohol use, and illicit drug use were seen. Almost all (87%) had a major comorbidity and 15% had functional limitations prior to admission...
2017: Canadian Respiratory Journal: Journal of the Canadian Thoracic Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28417288/troponin-t-elevation-after-permanent-pacemaker-implantation
#2
Xueying Chen, Ziqing Yu, Jin Bai, Shulan Hu, Wei Wang, Shengmei Qin, Jingfeng Wang, Zhe Sun, Yangang Su, Junbo Ge
PURPOSE: The objective of the study is to study the incidence, significance, and factors associated with cardiac troponin T (CTNT) elevation after pacemaker implantation. METHODS: Three hundred seventy-four patients (104 single-chamber pacemakers or ICD, 243 dual-chamber pacemakers, and 27 cardiac resynchronization therapy/cardiac resynchronization therapy defibrillator) who had normal levels of CTNT at baseline and underwent implantation of a permanent pacemaker system were included in this study...
April 18, 2017: Journal of Interventional Cardiac Electrophysiology: An International Journal of Arrhythmias and Pacing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416195/pitavastatin-versus-pravastatin-in-adults-with-hiv-1-infection-and-dyslipidaemia-intrepid-12-week-and-52-week-results-of-a-phase-4-multicentre-randomised-double-blind-superiority-trial
#3
Judith A Aberg, Craig A Sponseller, Douglas J Ward, Vladimir A Kryzhanovski, Stuart E Campbell, Melanie A Thompson
BACKGROUND: People living with HIV-1 infection are at greater risk for cardiovascular disease than seronegative adults. Treatment of dyslipidaemia with statins has been challenging in people with HIV because of an increased potential for drug interactions due to competing cytochrome P450 metabolism between statins and commonly used antiretroviral agents. Neither pitavastatin nor pravastatin depend on cytochrome P450 for primary metabolism. We aimed to assess the safety and efficacy of pitavastatin versus pravastatin in adults with HIV and dyslipidaemia...
April 13, 2017: Lancet HIV
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28406756/myocardial-necrosis-associated-with-clostridium-novyi-infection-in-a-bighorn-sheep-ovis-canadensis
#4
Tony Redford, J Clint Cubberley, Pamela Hengeveld, Erin Zabek, Ann P Britton
We describe a case of myocardial emphysema and necrosis in a bighorn sheep ( Ovis canadensis ), associated with infection by Clostridium novyi , diagnosed through necropsy, histopathology, and fluorescent antibody testing. We documented rapid onset of disease in an apparently healthy wild sheep and discuss our findings in the context of reported clostridial infections in humans, domestic animals, and wildlife.
April 13, 2017: Journal of Wildlife Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28398685/parvovirus-b19-infection-during-pregnancy-and-risks-to-the-fetus
#5
REVIEW
Asher Ornoy, Zivanit Ergaz
Parvovirus B19 infects 1 to 5% of pregnant women, generally with normal pregnancy outcomes. During epidemics, the rate of infection is higher. Major congenital anomalies among offspring of infected mothers are rare, as the virus does not appear to be a significant teratogen. However, parvovirus B19 infection may cause significant fetal damage, and in rare cases, brain anomalies and neurodevelopmental insults, especially if infection occurs in the first 20 weeks of pregnancy. Parvovirus B19 is also an important cause of fetal loss, especially in the second half of pregnancy when spontaneous fetal loss from other causes is relatively rare...
March 15, 2017: Birth Defects Res
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28386604/hypoxia-determines-survival-outcomes-of-bacterial-infection-through-hif-1alpha-dependent-re-programming-of-leukocyte-metabolism
#6
A A R Thompson, R S Dickinson, F Murphy, J P Thomson, H M Marriott, A Tavares, J Willson, L Williams, A Lewis, A Mirchandani, P Dos Santos Coelho, C Doherty, E Ryan, E Watts, N M Morton, S Forbes, R H Stimson, A G Hameed, N Arnold, J A Preston, A Lawrie, V Finisguerra, M Mazzone, P Sadiku, J Goveia, F Taverna, P Carmeliet, S J Foster, E R Chilvers, A S Cowburn, D H Dockrell, R S Johnson, R R Meehan, M K B Whyte, S R Walmsley
Hypoxia and bacterial infection frequently co-exist, in both acute and chronic clinical settings, and typically result in adverse clinical outcomes. To ameliorate this morbidity, we investigated the interaction between hypoxia and the host response. In the context of acute hypoxia, both S. aureus and S. pneumoniae infections rapidly induced progressive neutrophil mediated morbidity and mortality, with associated hypothermia and cardiovascular compromise. Preconditioning animals through longer exposures to hypoxia, prior to infection, prevented these pathophysiological responses and profoundly dampened the transcriptome of circulating leukocytes...
February 10, 2017: Science Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28386372/thioredoxin-2-protects-against-oxygen-glucose-deprivation-reperfusion-injury-by-inhibiting-autophagy-and-apoptosis-in-h9c2-cardiomyocytes
#7
Yan-Yan Li, Yin Xiang, Song Zhang, Yan Wang, Jie Yang, Wei Liu, Feng-Tai Xue
The aim of this study is to examine the role of thioredoxin-2 (Trx2) in autophagy and apoptosis during myocardial ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury in vitro. We employed the oxygen-glucose deprivation and reperfusion (OGD/R) model of H9c2 cells and used lentiviral infection to overexpress Trx2. H9c2 cell viability and injury assays were conducted using a Cell Counting Kit-8 (CCK-8) and alactate dehydrogenase (LDH) kit. The effects of Trx2 on autophagy and apoptosis were measured by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), western blot, and flow cytometry...
2017: American Journal of Translational Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28369197/risk-of-acute-coronary-heart-disease-after-sepsis-hospitalization-in-the-reasons-for-geographic-and-racial-differences-in-stroke-cohort
#8
Henry E Wang, Justin X Moore, John P Donnelly, Emily B Levitan, Monika M Safford
BACKGROUND: Sepsis is associated with long-term health consequences. We sought to determine the long-term risks of acute and fatal coronary heart disease (CHD) events after sepsis hospitalizations among community dwelling adults. METHODS: We analyzed data from 30,329 participants in the population-based Reasons for Geographic and Racial Differences in Stroke (REGARDS) cohort. Sepsis events included hospitalizations for a serious infection with ≥2 systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) criteria...
March 23, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28363684/effect-of-spironolactone-on-the-risks-of-mortality-and-hospitalization-for-heart-failure-in-pre-dialysis-advanced-chronic-kidney-disease-a-nationwide-population-based-study
#9
Wei-Cheng Tseng, Jia-Sin Liu, Szu-Chun Hung, Ko-Lin Kuo, Yu-Hsin Chen, Der-Cherng Tarng, Chih-Cheng Hsu
BACKGROUND: Spironolactone has been shown to reduce cardiovascular death in patients with mild-to-moderate chronic kidney disease (CKD), but its risks and benefits in advanced CKD remain unsettled. We aimed to assess whether spironolactone reduces cardiovascular mortality and morbidity in pre-dialysis stage 5 CKD patients. METHODS: Using Taiwan's National Health Insurance Research Database from January 2000 to June 2009, we enrolled 27,213 pre-dialysis stage 5 CKD adult patients, in whom 1363 patients were treated with spironolactone (user) and 25,850 were not (nonuser)...
March 18, 2017: International Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28357026/novel-noninvasive-nuclear-medicine-imaging-techniques-for-cardiac-inflammation
#10
REVIEW
Malte Kircher, Constantin Lapa
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Inflammation is a key player in a wide range of cardiovascular and myocardial diseases. Given the numerous implications of inflammatory processes in disease initiation and progression, functional imaging modalities including positron emission tomography (PET) represent valuable diagnostic, prognostic, and monitoring tools in patient management. Since increased glucose metabolism is a hallmark of inflammation, PET using the radiolabeled glucose analog [(18)F]-2-deoxy-2-fluoro-d-glucose (FDG) is the mainstay diagnostic test for nuclear imaging of (cardiac) inflammation...
2017: Current Cardiovascular Imaging Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28348430/influenza-vaccination-for-secondary-prevention-of-cardiovascular-events-a-systematic-review
#11
REVIEW
Marlys H LeBras, Arden R Barry
BACKGROUND: Influenza is a common respiratory infection that may cause complications, including cardiovascular events. Influenza illness has been shown to double the risk of myocardial infarction, with the highest risk among patients with established cardiovascular disease. Vaccination against influenza has been associated with reductions in myocardial infarction, cerebrovascular disease, and death. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the evidence for influenza vaccination as a strategy to reduce cardiovascular events specifically in patients with established cardiovascular disease...
January 2017: Canadian Journal of Hospital Pharmacy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342028/disparities-in-knee-and-hip-arthroplasty-outcomes-an-observational-analysis-of-the-acs-nsqip-clinical-registry
#12
Peter Cram, Gillian Hawker, John Matelski, Bheeshma Ravi, Andrew Pugely, Rajiv Gandhi, Timothy Jackson
BACKGROUND: Disparities in total joint arthroplasty (TJA) have largely been studied in single center studies and using administrative data. Our objective was to investigate differences in TJA outcomes in white men, black men, white women, and black women using a large international registry. METHODS: We used 2010-2013 data from the ACS-NSQIP to identify four groups of adults (white men, black men, white women, black women) who underwent primary total knee arthroplasty (TKA) or total hip arthroplasty (THA)...
March 24, 2017: Journal of Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28341926/risks-associated-with-antiretroviral-treatment-for-human-immunodeficiency-virus-hiv-qualitative-analysis-of-social-media-data-and-health-state-utility-valuation
#13
Louis S Matza, Karen C Chung, Katherine J Kim, Trena M Paulus, Evan W Davies, Katie D Stewart, Grace A McComsey, Marshall W Fordyce
PURPOSE: Despite benefits of antiretroviral therapies (ART), people with HIV infection have increased risk of cardiovascular disease, kidney disease, and low bone mineral density. Some ARTs increase risk of these events. The purpose of this study was to examine patients' perspectives of these risks and estimate health state utilities associated with these risks for use in cost-utility models. METHODS: Qualitative thematic analysis was conducted to examine messages posted to the POZ/AIDSmeds Internet community forums, focusing on bone, kidney, and cardiovascular side effects and risks of HIV/AIDS medications...
March 24, 2017: Quality of Life Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28341822/berberine-restricts-coxsackievirus-b-type-3-replication-via-inhibition-of-c-jun-n-terminal-kinase-jnk-and-p38-mapk-activation-in-vitro
#14
Qian Dai, Di Zhang, Hua Yu, Wei Xie, Rong Xin, Lei Wang, Xiaohui Xu, Xiaomei He, Junzhi Xiong, Halei Sheng, Le Zhang, Kebin Zhang, Xiaomei Hu
BACKGROUND At present, the treatment of coxsackievirus-induced myocarditis remains difficult. Berberine (BBR), an isoquinoline alkaloid isolated from traditional medicine herbs, exhibits significant anti-viral efficacy against various viruses. However, the underlying mechanism by which BBR controls CVB3 infection has not yet been reported. The purpose of this study was to investigate the anti-viral efficacy of BBR against CVB3 infection and its mechanism. MATERIAL AND METHODS In our experiments, the protein levels of VP1 and MAPKs signal pathway were measured by Western blot...
March 25, 2017: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28341580/efficacy-and-safety-of-sildenafil-in-men-with-sexual-dysfunction-and-spinal-cord-injury
#15
REVIEW
Dana A Ohl, Martin Carlsson, Vera J Stecher, Gregory A Rippon
INTRODUCTION: Spinal cord injury (SCI) is estimated to affect approximately 276,000 individuals in the United States. Since 2010, the mean age of individuals at the time of the SCI has been 42 years, with nearly 80% of cases involving men. This means that individuals with SCI generally are young men who typically place a great deal of importance on normal sexual and reproductive function. AIM: To assess the effect of sildenafil treatment on erectile function and the frequency of ejaculation in men with SCI...
March 21, 2017: Sexual Medicine Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329325/comparison-of-radial-and-bilateral-internal-thoracic-artery-grafting-in-patients-with-peripheral-vascular-disease%C3%A2
#16
Dmitry Pevni, Yanai Ben-Gal, Rephael Mohr, Nadav Teich, Zvi Raviv, Amir Kramer, Yosef Paz, Benjamin Medalion, Nahum Nesher
OBJECTIVES: The composite T-graft with radial artery (RA) attached end-to-side to the left internal thoracic artery (ITA) provides arterial myocardial revascularization without the increased risk of deep sternal wound infection associated with harvesting 2 ITAs. However, many surgeons are reluctant to use RA in patients with peripheral vascular disease (PVD) due to concerns regarding the quality of the conduit in this subset of patients. The purpose of this study is to compare early- and long-term outcomes of arterial grafting with bilateral ITAs (BITA) to that of single ITA and RA in patients with PVD...
March 2, 2017: Interactive Cardiovascular and Thoracic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329274/trichinella-nativa-outbreak-with-rare-thrombotic-complications-associated-with-meat-from-a-black-bear-hunted-in-northern-ontario
#17
Daniel Dalcin, Dante S Zarlenga, Nicholas C Larter, Eric Hoberg, Daniel A Boucher, Samuel Merrifield, Rachel Lau, Filip Ralevski, Karamjit Cheema, Kevin L Schwartz, Andrea K Boggild
Background: Although trichinellosis is known to cause thrombotic disease, serious thrombotic events are rare and have not been previously associated with Trichinella nativa infection. Methods: Patient interviews and medical chart reviews were conducted on 10 men who became ill following consumption of a common source of black bear meat. Trichinella serology on patient sera as well as PCR and larval identification of the meat samples was conducted. Results: All 10 exposed individuals developed an acute illness clinically compatible with trichinellosis, characterized by fever, abdominal pain, and diarrhea, along with eosinophilia ranging from 0...
February 22, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28328569/mid-term-follow-up-of-minimally-invasive-multivessel-coronary-artery-bypass-grafting-is-the-early-learning-phase-detrimental
#18
Maria Lorena Rodriguez, Harry R Lapierre, Benjamin Sohmer, David Glineur, Marc Ruel
OBJECTIVE: Minimally invasive coronary artery bypass grafting (MICS CABG) through a small left thoracotomy is a novel technique for surgical coronary revascularization, which is increasingly being adopted around the world. This study aimed to describe the characteristics and mid-term outcomes of a series of MICS CABG to identify areas for improvement. METHODS: A prospective longitudinal study was performed on the 306 MICS CABG patients operated on by a single surgeon from 2005 to 2015...
March 22, 2017: Innovations: Technology and Techniques in Cardiothoracic and Vascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327879/antibodies-against-apicomplexa-protozoa-and-absence-sarcocysts-in-heart-tissues-from-horses-in-southern-brazil
#19
Luiza Pires Portella, Gustavo Cauduro Cadore, Luis Antonio Sangioni, Luiz Fernando Vilani Pellegrini, Rafael Fighera, Fernanda Ramos, Fernanda Silveira Flores Vogel
Sarcocystis spp., Neospora spp., and Toxoplasma gondii are Apicomplexa protozoa that can infect horses. This study aimed to investigate the occurrence of antibodies against Sarcocystis spp., Neospora spp., and T. gondii in horses slaughtered in southern Brazil. The presence of histological lesions, tissue cysts, and Sarcocystis spp. DNA in the hearts of these horses was also investigated. A total of 197 paired serum and heart samples were evaluated by serology and direct microscopic examination; 50 of these samples were subjected to histopathological and PCR analyses...
January 2017: Revista Brasileira de Parasitologia Veterinária, Brazilian Journal of Veterinary Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326484/genome-wide-transcriptional-analysis-of-cardiovascular-related-genes-and-pathways-induced-by-pm2-5-in-human-myocardial-cells
#20
Lin Feng, Xiaozhe Yang, Collins Otieno Asweto, Jing Wu, Yannan Zhang, Hejing Hu, Yanfeng Shi, Junchao Duan, Zhiwei Sun
Air pollution has been a major environment-related health threat. Most of the studies on PM2.5 toxicity have verified on the cardiovascular system and endothelial cells. However, researches on PM2.5-induced myocardial-related toxicity are limited. This study aims to fully understand the toxic effects of PM2.5 on human myocardial cell (AC16) and explore its molecular mechanism based on microarray analysis and bioinformatics analysis. Microarray data analysis manifested that PM2.5-induced toxicity affected expression of 472 genes compared with the control group, including 166 upregulated genes and 306 downregulated genes in human myocardial (AC16) cells...
March 22, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
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