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seizure, maternal separation

Annamagreth M Mukwenda, Columba K Mbekenga, Andrea B Pembe, Pia Olsson
BACKGROUND: Eclampsia is a major cause of maternal and perinatal mortality that requires advanced care and long hospital stays with uncertain outcomes for mother and baby. Care of eclamptic women is particularly challenging in low-income settings. Standards for medical care for eclampsia are established but the psychosocial needs of women are under-researched. AIM: To explore and describe women's experiences of having had, and recovered from, eclampsia at a tertiary hospital in Tanzania...
October 14, 2016: Women and Birth: Journal of the Australian College of Midwives
William A Grobman, Jennifer Bailit, Yinglei Lai, Uma M Reddy, Ronald J Wapner, Michael W Varner, Steve N Caritis, Mona Prasad, Alan T N Tita, George Saade, Yoram Sorokin, Dwight J Rouse, Sean C Blackwell, Jorge E Tolosa
OBJECTIVE: To estimate the associations between the duration of active pushing during the second stage of labor and maternal and neonatal outcomes. METHODS: We performed an observational study in which data were obtained by trained abstractors from maternal and neonatal charts of deliveries at 25 hospitals over a 3-year period. In this secondary analysis, women with no prior cesarean delivery who had a term, singleton, cephalic gestation and reached complete dilation were analyzed...
April 2016: Obstetrics and Gynecology
Hossein Amini-Khoei, Shayan Amiri, Armin Shirzadian, Arya Haj-Mirzaian, Sakineh Alijanpour, Maryam Rahimi-Balaei, Ali Mohammadi-Asl, Mahsa Hassanipour, Shahram Ejtemaie Mehr, Ahmad Reza Dehpour
Experiencing early-life stress has been considered as a potent risk factor for the development of many of brain disorders, including seizures. Intervening mechanisms through which neonatal maternal separation (MS) alters the seizure susceptibility in adulthood have not been well studied. In the current study, by applying 180 min of MS stress (PND 2-14), we determined the seizure susceptibility and considered the role of the opioid system. Maternal separation increased the seizure threshold, and administration of anticonvulsant/proconvulsant doses of morphine (1 and 30 mg/kg, respectively) reversed the impact of MS...
November 2015: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
Ozlem Akman, Solomon L Moshé, Aristea S Galanopoulou
AIMS: Neonatal status epilepticus (SE) is often associated with adverse cognitive and epilepsy outcomes. We investigate the effects of three episodes of kainic acid-induced SE (3KA-SE) and maternal separation in immature rats on subsequent learning, seizure susceptibility, and consequences, and the anticonvulsant effects of phenobarbital, according to sex, type, and age at early life (EL) event. METHODS: 3KA-SE or maternal separation was induced on postnatal days (PN) 4-6 or 14-16...
February 2015: CNS Neuroscience & Therapeutics
Christine E East, Lisa Begg, Paul B Colditz, Rosalind Lau
BACKGROUND: The use of conventional cardiotocographic (CTG) monitoring of fetal well-being during labour is associated with an increased caesarean section rate, compared with intermittent auscultation of the fetal heart rate, resulting in a reduction in neonatal seizures, although no differences in other neonatal outcomes. To improve the sensitivity of this test and therefore reduce the number of caesarean sections performed for nonreassuring fetal status, several additional measures of evaluating fetal well-being have been considered...
2014: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Amelia S Koe, Michael R Salzberg, Margaret J Morris, Terence J O'Brien, Nigel C Jones
Early life stress causes long-lasting effects on the limbic system that may be relevant to the development of mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE) and its associated psychopathology. Recent studies in rats suggest that maternal separation (MS), a model of early life stress, confers enduring vulnerability to amygdala kindling limbic epileptogenesis. However, the mechanisms underlying this remain unknown. Here, we tested whether hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis hyper-reactivity induced by MS - specifically the excessive secretion of corticosterone following a seizure - was involved in this vulnerability...
April 2014: Psychoneuroendocrinology
R-h Xie, Y Guo, D Krewski, D Mattison, M C Walker, K Nerenberg, S W Wen
OBJECTIVE: To compare infant outcomes between mothers with hypertension treated by beta-blockers alone and by methyldopa alone during pregnancy. DESIGN: Historical cohort study. SETTING: Saskatchewan, Canada. POPULATION: Women who delivered a singleton birth in Saskatchewan during the periods from 1 January 1980 to 30 June 1987 or from 1 January 1990 to 31 December 2005 (women who delivered between 1 July 1987 and 31 December 1989 were excluded because the information recorded on maternal drug use during pregnancy is incomplete) with a diagnosis of a hypertensive disorder during pregnancy, and who were dispensed only beta-blockers (n = 416) or only methyldopa (n = 1000)...
August 2014: BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology
Peyman Pajand, Mahmoud Elahdadi Salmani, Hooman Shajiee, Hasan Abiri, Iran Goudarzi, Kataneh Abrari
OBJECTIVE(S): Stress induces many homeostatic aberrations which are followed by lifelong allostatic responses. Epilepsy is developed or influenced by different environmental factors, i.e. prenatal stress which makes many contradictory developmental changes in seizure threshold and intensity. We investigated the potential seizure response of the rat offspring to prenatal stress; the stress which was applied to their mothers. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Nine day heterogeneous sequential stress (HSS) model was used before and during the first and before the second pregnancy...
January 2014: Iranian Journal of Basic Medical Sciences
Idrish Ali, Patrick O'Brien, Gaurav Kumar, Thomas Zheng, Nigel C Jones, Didier Pinault, Chris French, Margaret J Morris, Michael R Salzberg, Terence J O'Brien
Early life stress results in an enduring vulnerability to kindling-induced epileptogenesis in rats, but the underlying mechanisms are not well understood. Recent studies indicate the involvement of thalamocortical neuronal circuits in the progression of kindling epileptogenesis. Therefore, we sought to determine in vivo the effects of early life stress and amygdala kindling on the firing pattern of hippocampus as well as thalamic and cortical neurons. Eight week old male Wistar rats, previously exposed to maternal separation (MS) early life stress or early handling (EH), underwent amygdala kindling (or sham kindling)...
2013: PloS One
Tao Xie, Wei-ping Wang, Li-jing Jia, Zhuo-feng Mao, Zhen-zhen Qu, Shao-qun Luan, Min-chen Kan
Maternal seizure has adverse effects on brain histology as well as on learning and memory ability in progeny. An enriched environment (EE) is known to promote structural changes in the brain and improve cognitive and motor deficits following a variety of brain injuries. Whether EE treatment in early postnatal periods could restore cognitive impairment induced by prenatal maternal seizure is unknown. Adult female Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly separated into two groups and were injected intraperitoneally either saline or pentylenetetrazol (PTZ) for 30 days...
August 27, 2012: Brain Research
Gaurav Kumar, Nigel C Jones, Margaret J Morris, Sandra Rees, Terence J O'Brien, Michael R Salzberg
BACKGROUND: Exposure to early postnatal stress is known to hasten the progression of kindling epileptogenesis in adult rats. Despite the significance of this for understanding mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE) and its associated psychopathology, research findings regarding underlying mechanisms are sparse. Of several possibilities, one important candidate mechanism is early life 'programming' of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis by postnatal stress. Elevated corticosterone (CORT) in turn has consequences for neurogenesis and cell death relevant to epileptogenesis...
2011: PloS One
Hope R Ferdowsian, Debra L Durham, Charles Kimwele, Godelieve Kranendonk, Emily Otali, Timothy Akugizibwe, J B Mulcahy, Lilly Ajarova, Cassie Meré Johnson
BACKGROUND: In humans, traumatic experiences are sometimes followed by psychiatric disorders. In chimpanzees, studies have demonstrated an association between traumatic events and the emergence of behavioral disturbances resembling posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depression. We addressed the following central question: Do chimpanzees develop posttraumatic symptoms, in the form of abnormal behaviors, which cluster into syndromes similar to those described in human mood and anxiety disorders? METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In phase 1 of this study, we accessed case reports of chimpanzees who had been reportedly subjected to traumatic events, such as maternal separation, social isolation, experimentation, or similar experiences...
2011: PloS One
Hirohiko Hikichi, Takeshi Murai, Shoki Okuda, Shunsuke Maehara, Akio Satow, Satoko Ise, Miho Nishino, Gentaroh Suzuki, Hiroshi Takehana, Mikiko Hata, Hisashi Ohta
We recently identified 6-(4-methoxyphenyl)-5-methyl-3-pyridin-4-ylisoxazolo[4,5-c]pyridin-4(5H)-one (MMPIP), the first allosteric metabotropic glutamate (mGlu) 7 receptor-selective negative allosteric modulator. In this study, we examined the in vivo pharmacological effects of MMPIP on the central nervous system. MMPIP was distributed into the brain after systemic administration in both mice and rats. Pharmacokinetic study revealed that the half-life of MMPIP in circulation was about 1h in rats. Results of various behavioral studies revealed that MMPIP impaired non-spatial and spatial cognitive performances in the object recognition test and the object location test in mice, respectively...
August 10, 2010: European Journal of Pharmacology
Amelia S Koe, Nigel C Jones, Michael R Salzberg
The pathogenesis of mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE), the most prevalent form of refractory focal epilepsy in adults, is thought to begin in early life, even though seizures may not commence until adolescence or adulthood. Amongst the range of early life factors implicated in MTLE causation (febrile seizures, traumatic brain injury, etc.), stress may be one important contributor. Early life stress is an a priori agent deserving study because of the large amount of neuroscientific data showing enduring effects on structure and function in hippocampus and amygdala, the key structures involved in MTLE...
2009: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
Cassandra Kazl, L Tracy Foote, Min-Jung Kim, Sookyong Koh
Prolonged seizures during childhood are associated with behavior problems, memory impairment and school failure. No effective treatment currently exists after seizures to mitigate neuronal injury and long-term neurological sequelae for children with epilepsy. We studied the therapeutic efficacy of early-life environment on seizure-induced behavioral deficits, neuronal injury and the inflammatory reaction using the kainic acid (KA) seizure model. Two rearing conditions, maternal separation for 3 h daily versus maternal care in an enriched environment, were followed by single housing for the former (Deprived) and group housing in an enriched environment for the latter (Enriched)...
August 18, 2009: Brain Research
Ming-Chi Lai, San-Nan Yang, Li-Tung Huang
BACKGROUND: Emerging evidence indicates that early adverse experiences result in the maladaptive development of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and compromise the developing brain to subsequent neurological insults. Well known that mother-infant interaction plays an important role in early environment stimulation, neonatal isolation (NI) paradigm has been used as an early-life stress model in many relevant studies. Further, the effect of seizure on the developing brain is still not clarified despite more susceptibility to seizures of the developing brain...
April 2008: Pediatrics and Neonatology
Aristea S Galanopoulou
Early in development, the depolarizing GABA(A)ergic signaling is needed for normal neuronal differentiation. It is shown here that hyperpolarizing reversal potentials of GABA(A)ergic postsynaptic currents (E(GABA)) appear earlier in female than in male rat CA1 pyramidal neurons because of increased potassium chloride cotransporter 2 (KCC2) expression and decreased bumetanide-sensitive chloride transport in females. Three episodes of neonatal kainic acid-induced status epilepticus (3KA-SE), each elicited at postnatal days 4 (P4)-P6, reverse the direction of GABA(A)ergic responses in both sexes...
February 13, 2008: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Michael Salzberg, Gaurav Kumar, Laureen Supit, Nigel C Jones, Margaret J Morris, Sandra Rees, Terence J O'Brien
PURPOSE: Early life stress has enduring behavioral and neuroendocrine effects, particularly in hippocampus and amygdala. This may be relevant to mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE) that arises from these structures. In rats, we tested the hypothesis that early postnatal stress, in the form of maternal separation (MS), creates vulnerability to limbic epileptogenesis in adult life. METHODS: On postnatal days 2-14, we exposed male and female nonepileptic rats to either MS for 180 min/day, or early handling (EH) and brief separation (15 min/day)...
November 2007: Epilepsia
Heidi K Blume, Christian M Loch, Christopher I Li
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association between maternal socioeconomic status and the risk of encephalopathy in full-term newborns. DESIGN: Population-based case-control study. SETTING: Washington State births from 1994 through 2002 recorded in the linked Washington State Birth Registry and Comprehensive Hospital Abstract Reporting System. PARTICIPANTS: Cases (n = 1060) were singleton full-term newborns with Comprehensive Hospital Abstract Reporting System International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision diagnoses of seizures, birth asphyxia, central nervous system dysfunction, or cerebral irritability...
July 2007: Archives of Pediatrics & Adolescent Medicine
C E East, F Y Chan, P B Colditz, L M Begg
BACKGROUND: Pulse oximetry could contribute to the evaluation of fetal well-being during labour. OBJECTIVES: To compare the effectiveness and safety of fetal pulse oximetry with conventional surveillance techniques. SEARCH STRATEGY: We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group's Trials Register (November 2006), MEDLINE (1994 to November 2006), EMBASE (1994 to November 2006) and Current Contents (1994 to November 2006). SELECTION CRITERIA: All published and unpublished randomised controlled trials that compared maternal and fetal outcomes when fetal pulse oximetry was used in labour, with or without concurrent use of conventional fetal surveillance, compared with using cardiotocography (CTG) alone...
2007: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
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