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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28888087/modulation-of-transforming-growth-factor-%C3%AE-follistatin-signaling-and-white-adipose-browning-therapeutic-implications-for-obesity-related-disorders
#1
REVIEW
Shehla Pervin, Vineeta Singh, Alexandria Tucker, Javier Collazo, Rajan Singh
Obesity is a major risk factor for the development of diabetes, insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, cardiovascular disease and other related metabolic conditions. Obesity develops from perturbations in overall cellular bioenergetics when energy intake chronically exceeds total energy expenditure. Lifestyle interventions based on reducing total energy uptake and increasing activities including exercise have proved ineffective in the prevention and treatment of obesity because of poor adherence to such interventions for an extended period of time...
September 9, 2017: Hormone Molecular Biology and Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28869034/plasticity-and-function-of-human-skeletal-muscle-in-relation-to-disuse-and-rehabilitation-influence-of-ageing-and-surgery
#2
Charlotte Suetta
In order to study the influence of disuse and aging on skeletal muscle homeostasis, different human models were employed. Effects of chronic disuse were investigated in elderly patients suffering from uni-lateral hip-osteoarthritis, whereas the effect of short-term disuse (4 and 14 days of unilateral lower limb immobilisation) was assessed in healthy young and old individuals. In summary, chronic muscle disuse in the elderly was associated with marked quantitative as well as qualitative neuromuscular impairments...
August 2017: Danish Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28861930/electrical-pulse-stimulation-an-in-vitro-exercise-model-for-the-induction-of-human-skeletal-muscle-cell-hypertrophy-a-proof-of-concept-study
#3
Janelle Tarum, Mattias Folkesson, Philip J Atherton, Fawzi Kadi
Electrical Pulse Stimulation (EPS) of muscle cells has previously been used as an in vitro exercise model. The present study aims to establish an EPS protocol promoting the hypertrophy of human muscle cells, which represents a major physiological endpoint to resistance exercise in humans. We hypothesized that adding a resting period after EPS would be critical for the occurrence of the morphological change. Myoblasts obtained from human muscle biopsies (n = 5) were differentiated into multinucleated myotubes and exposed to 8 h EPS consisting of 2 ms pulses at 12 V with a frequency of 1 Hz...
August 31, 2017: Experimental Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821305/establishment-of-a-decaplex-pcr-capillary-gel-electrophoresis-method-for-the-simultaneous-detection-of-six-kinds-of-genetically-modified-animals
#4
Xiaofei Liu, Songyin Qiu, Xiaolin Li, Dandan Liu, Hongli Jing, Qin Wang, Xiangmei Lin, Dengke Pan, Ningning Shi
This study aimed to establish an event-specific multiplex PCR system using microsatellite markers and fluorescently labeled primers to detect six different genetically modified (GM) animal lines, including human lactoferrin GM cattle, human lysozyme GM cattle, human α-lactalbumin GM cattle, myostatin knockout pigs, phytase GM pigs, and ω-3 fatty acid desaturase gene GM pigs. Four different microsatellite loci for species identification, along with six GM animal-specific fragments, were selected as targets for primer design...
August 18, 2017: Journal of AOAC International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811636/mussel-inspired-polynorepinephrine-functionalized-electrospun-polycaprolactone-microfibers-for-muscle-regeneration
#5
Ying Liu, Guoqiang Zhou, Zhu Liu, Mengyu Guo, Xiumei Jiang, Mehmet Berat Taskin, Zhongyang Zhang, Jing Liu, Jinglong Tang, Ru Bai, Flemming Besenbacher, Menglin Chen, Chunying Chen
Electrospun scaffolds with excellent mechanical properties, high specific surface area and a commendable porous network are widely used in tissue engineering. Improving the hydrophilicity and cell adhesion of hydrophobic substrates is the key point to enhance the effectiveness of electrospun scaffolds. In this study, polycaprolactone (PCL) fibrous membranes with appropriate diameter were selected and coated by mussel-inspired poly norepinephrine (pNE). And norepinephrine is a catecholamine functioning as a hormone and neurotransmitter in the human brain...
August 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28745831/osteopontin-is-linked-with-akt-foxo1-and-myostatin-in-skeletal-muscle-cells
#6
Peter P Nghiem, Joe N Kornegay, Kitipong Uaesoontrachoon, Luca Bello, Ying Yin, Akanchha Kesari, Priya Mittal, Scott J Schatzberg, Gina M Many, Norman H Lee, Eric P Hoffman
INTRODUCTION: Osteopontin (OPN) polymorphisms are associated with muscle size and modify disease progression in Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD). We hypothesized that OPN may share a molecular network with myostatin (MSTN). METHODS: Studies were conducted in the golden retriever (GRMD) and mdx mouse models of DMD. Follow-up in-vitro studies were employed in myogenic cells and the mdx mouse treated with recombinant mouse (rm) or human (Hu) OPN protein. RESULTS: OPN was increased and MSTN was decreased and levels correlated inversely in GRMD hypertrophied muscle...
July 26, 2017: Muscle & Nerve
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701523/lifelong-exercise-but-not-short-term-high-intensity-interval-training-increases-gdf11-a-marker-of-successful-aging-a%C3%A2-preliminary-investigation
#7
Bradley T Elliott, Peter Herbert, Nicholas Sculthorpe, Fergal M Grace, Daniel Stratton, Lawrence D Hayes
Lifelong exercise is associated with regulation of skeletal mass and function, reductions in frailty, and successful aging. Yet, the influence of exercise on myostatin and myostatin-interacting factors is relatively under examined in older males. Therefore, we investigated whether serum total myostatin, free myostatin, follistatin, and growth and differentiation factor 11 (GDF11) were altered following high-intensity interval training (HIIT) in a group of 13 lifelong sedentary (SED; 64 [6] years) and 11 lifelong exercising (LEX; 62 [6] years) older males...
July 2017: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28557005/sarcopenia-in-alcoholic-liver-disease-clinical-and-molecular-advances
#8
REVIEW
Jaividhya Dasarathy, Arthur J McCullough, Srinivasan Dasarathy
Despite advances in treatment of alcohol use disorders that focus on increasing abstinence and reducing recidivism, alcoholic liver disease (ALD) is projected to be the major cause of cirrhosis and its complications. Malnutrition is recognized as the most frequent complication in ALD, and despite the high clinical significance, there are no effective therapies to reverse malnutrition in ALD. Malnutrition is a relatively imprecise term, and sarcopenia or skeletal muscle loss, the major component of malnutrition, is primarily responsible for the adverse clinical consequences in patients with liver disease...
August 2017: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549989/overweight-in-elderly-people-induces-impaired-autophagy-in-skeletal-muscle
#9
Yaiza Potes, Beatriz de Luxán-Delgado, Susana Rodriguez-González, Marcela Rodrigues Moreira Guimarães, Juan J Solano, María Fernández-Fernández, Manuel Bermúdez, Jose A Boga, Ignacio Vega-Naredo, Ana Coto-Montes
Sarcopenia is the gradual loss of skeletal muscle mass, strength and quality associated with aging. Changes in body composition, especially in skeletal muscle and fat mass are crucial steps in the development of chronic diseases. We studied the effect of overweight on skeletal muscle tissue in elderly people without reaching obesity to prevent this extreme situation. Overweight induces a progressive protein breakdown reflected as a progressive withdrawal of anabolism against the promoted catabolic state leading to muscle wasting...
September 2017: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28493029/age-and-sex-differences-in-human-skeletal-muscle-fibrosis-markers-and-transforming-growth-factor-%C3%AE-signaling
#10
Lewan Parker, Marissa K Caldow, Rani Watts, Pazit Levinger, David Cameron-Smith, Itamar Levinger
PURPOSE: The aim of the study was to determine whether higher fibrosis markers in skeletal muscle of older adults are accompanied by increased expression of components of the canonical TGF-β signal transduction pathway. METHODS: Fourteen healthy young (21-35 years; 9 males and 5 females) and seventeen older (55-75 years; 9 males and 8 females) participants underwent vastus lateralis biopsies to determine intramuscular mRNA and protein expression of fibrogenic markers and TGF-β signaling molecules related to TGF-β1 and myostatin...
May 10, 2017: European Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432282/loss-of-function-myostatin-mutation-increases-insulin-sensitivity-and-browning-of-white-fat-in-meishan-pigs
#11
Chunbo Cai, Lili Qian, Shengwang Jiang, Youde Sun, Qingqing Wang, Dezun Ma, Gaojun Xiao, Biao Li, Shanshan Xie, Ting Gao, Yaoxing Chen, Jie Liu, Xiaorong An, Wentao Cui, Kui Li
Myostatin-deficient mice showed a remarkable hypertrophy of skeletal muscle, with a decreased fat mass and enhanced insulin sensitivity. Currently, it is unclear if the inhibition of myostatin could be used as an approach to treat human obesity and insulin resistance. In this study, we investigated if the inhibition of porcine myostatin has any effect on fat deposition and insulin sensitivity using genetically engineered Meishan pigs containing a myostatin loss-of-function mutation (Mstn -/- ). Our results indicated that, when compared with wild-type pigs, the amount of subcutaneous fat and leaf fat of Mstn -/- pigs were significantly decreased mainly due to the browning of subcutaneous adipose tissue...
May 23, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28411009/skeletal-muscle-morphology-and-regulatory-signalling-in-endurance-trained-and-sedentary-individuals-the-influence-of-ageing
#12
U R Mikkelsen, J Agergaard, C Couppé, J F Grosset, A Karlsen, S P Magnusson, P Schjerling, M Kjaer, A L Mackey
Muscle mass in humans is inversely associated with circulating levels of inflammatory cytokines, but the interaction between ageing and training on muscle composition and the intra-muscular signalling behind inflammation and contractile protein synthesis and degradation is unknown. We studied 15 healthy life-long endurance runners, 12 age-matched untrained controls, 10 young trained and 12 young untrained individuals. Thigh muscle composition was investigated by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), where non-contractile intramuscular tissue (NCIT) area (fat and connective tissue) was found to be greater in older but lower in trained individuals...
July 2017: Experimental Gerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28406165/myostatin-mediates-abdominal-aortic-atherosclerosis-progression-by-inducing-vascular-smooth-muscle-cell-dysfunction-and-monocyte-recruitment
#13
D Verzola, S Milanesi, M Bertolotto, S Garibaldi, B Villaggio, C Brunelli, M Balbi, P Ameri, F Montecucco, D Palombo, G Ghigliotti, G Garibotto, J H Lindeman, C Barisione
Myostatin (Mstn) is a skeletal muscle growth inhibitor involved in metabolic disorders and heart fibrosis. In this study we sought to verify whether Mstn is also operative in atherosclerosis of abdominal aorta. In human specimens, Mstn expression was almost absent in normal vessels, became detectable in the media of non-progressive lesions and increased with the severity of the damage. In progressive atherosclerotic lesions, Mstn was present in the media, neointima, plaque shoulder and in infiltrating macrophages...
April 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345488/deep-infiltrating-endometriosis-and-endometrial-adenocarcinoma-express-high-levels-of-myostatin-and-its-receptors-messenger-rnas
#14
Patrizia Carrarelli, Lucia Funghi, Pasquapina Ciarmela, Gabriele Centini, Fernando M Reis, Cynthia Dela Cruz, Alberto Mattei, Silvia Vannuccini, Felice Petraglia
Myostatin is a growth factor member of the transforming growth factor β superfamily, which is known to play major roles in cell proliferation and differentiation. The present study investigated the messenger RNA (mRNA) expression of myostatin and myostatin receptors (activin receptor-like kinase 4 [ALK4], transforming growth factor (TGF)-β type I receptor kinase [ALK5] and activin receptor type IIB [ActRIIB]) in endometrium of healthy women during menstrual cycle as well as in benign (endometriosis, polyps) and malignant (endometrial adenocarcinoma) conditions...
January 1, 2017: Reproductive Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339962/fstl3-is-increased-in-renal-dysfunction
#15
Susan Kralisch, Annett Hoffmann, Nora Klöting, Anette Bachmann, Jürgen Kratzsch, Jens-Uwe Stolzenburg, Anja Dietel, Joachim Beige, Matthias Anders, Ingolf Bast, Matthias Blüher, Ming-Zhi Zhang, Raymond C Harris, Michael Stumvoll, Mathias Fasshauer, Thomas Ebert
Background.: Follistatin-like 3 (FSTL3) is a novel cytokine that regulates insulin sensitivity and counteracts activin/myostatin signalling. In the present study, regulation of FSTL3 in renal dysfunction was investigated in both human chronic kidney disease (CKD) and acute kidney dysfunction (AKD). Furthermore, mFSTL3 expression was analysed in insulin-sensitive tissues in a mouse model of CKD. Methods.: Circulating FSTL3 was quantified by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in 581 patients with CKD covering the whole spectrum of estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) categories from G1 to G5...
March 3, 2017: Nephrology, Dialysis, Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202082/bone-morphogenetic-proteins-and-myostatin-pathways-key-mediator-of-human-sarcopenia
#16
Manuel Scimeca, Eleonora Piccirilli, Francesca Mastrangeli, Cecilia Rao, Maurizio Feola, Augusto Orlandi, Elena Gasbarra, Elena Bonanno, Umberto Tarantino
BACKGROUND: Sarcopenia, osteoporosis and osteoarthritis are the most frequent musculoskeletal disorders affecting older people. The main aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that the balance between BMPs and myostatin pathways regulates the age-related muscle degeneration in OP and OA patients. To this end, we investigated the relationship among the expression of BMP-2/4-7, myostatin and phosphorylated Smads1-5-8 and the muscle quality, evaluated in term of fibers atrophy and satellite cells activity...
February 15, 2017: Journal of Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101649/molecular-mechanism-of-sarcopenia-and-cachexia-recent-research-advances
#17
REVIEW
Kunihiro Sakuma, Wataru Aoi, Akihiko Yamaguchi
Skeletal muscle provides a fundamental basis for human function, enabling locomotion and respiration. Muscle loss occurs as a consequence of several chronic diseases (cachexia) and normal aging (sarcopenia). Although many negative regulators (atrogin-1, muscle ring finger-1, nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-κB), myostatin, etc.) have been proposed to enhance protein degradation during both sarcopenia and cachexia, the adaptation of these mediators markedly differs within both conditions. Sarcopenia and cachectic muscles have been demonstrated to be abundant in myostatin-linked molecules...
January 19, 2017: Pflügers Archiv: European Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28027451/the-use-of-platelet-rich-and-platelet-poor-plasma-to-enhance-differentiation-of-skeletal-myoblasts-implications-for-the-use-of-autologous-blood-products-for-muscle-regeneration
#18
Olga Miroshnychenko, Wen-Teh Chang, Jason L Dragoo
BACKGROUND: Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) has been used to augment tissue repair and regeneration after musculoskeletal injury. However, there is increasing clinical evidence that PRP does not show a consistent clinical effect. Purpose/Hypothesis: This study aimed to compare the effects of the following non-neutrophil-containing (leukocyte-poor) plasma fractions on human skeletal muscle myoblast (HSMM) differentiation: (1) PRP, (2) modified PRP (Mod-PRP), in which transforming growth factor β1 (TGF-β1) and myostatin (MSTN) were depleted, and (3) platelet-poor plasma (PPP)...
March 2017: American Journal of Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932674/metabolic-adaptations-in-skeletal-muscle-after-84-days-of-bed-rest-with-and-without-concurrent-flywheel-resistance-exercise
#19
José M Irimia, Mario Guerrero, Paula Rodriguez-Miguelez, Joan A Cadefau, Per A Tesch, Roser Cussó, Rodrigo Fernandez-Gonzalo
As metabolic changes in human skeletal muscle after long-term (simulated) spaceflight are not well understood, this study examined the effects of long-term microgravity, with and without concurrent resistance exercise, on skeletal muscle oxidative and glycolytic capacity. Twenty-one men were subjected to 84 days head-down tilt bed rest with (BRE; n = 9) or without (BR; n = 12) concurrent flywheel resistance exercise. Activity and gene expression of glycogen synthase, glycogen phosphorylase (GPh), hexokinase, phosphofructokinase-1 (PFK-1), and citrate synthase (CS), as well as gene expression of succinate dehydrogenase (SDH), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEFG), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator-1 (PGC-1α), and myostatin, were analyzed in samples from m...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906065/dystrophin-deficient-dogs-with-reduced-myostatin-have-unequal-muscle-growth-and-greater-joint-contractures
#20
Joe N Kornegay, Daniel J Bogan, Janet R Bogan, Jennifer L Dow, Jiahui Wang, Zheng Fan, Naili Liu, Leigh C Warsing, Robert W Grange, Mihye Ahn, Cynthia J Balog-Alvarez, Steven W Cotten, Monte S Willis, Candice Brinkmeyer-Langford, Hongtu Zhu, Joe Palandra, Carl A Morris, Martin A Styner, Kathryn R Wagner
BACKGROUND: Myostatin (Mstn) is a negative regulator of muscle growth whose inhibition promotes muscle growth and regeneration. Dystrophin-deficient mdx mice in which myostatin is knocked out or inhibited postnatally have a less severe phenotype with greater total mass and strength and less fibrosis and fatty replacement of muscles than mdx mice with wild-type myostatin expression. Dogs with golden retriever muscular dystrophy (GRMD) have previously been noted to have increased muscle mass and reduced fibrosis after systemic postnatal myostatin inhibition...
April 4, 2016: Skeletal Muscle
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