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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29342310/temporal-trends-of-sources-of-cigarettes-among-u-s-high-school-students-2001-2015
#1
Hongying Dai, Jianqiang Hao
Introduction: Restricting the supply of cigarettes to youth plays an important role in reducing youth smoking. Methods: The study included data from 8 years of the national Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS) from 2001 to 2015 with 99,572 high school students less than 18 years old. Data were weighted to provide national estimates of the temporal trends of cigarette sources. Each cigarette source was analyzed by a separate multivariable logistic regression model and the linear trend odds ratio (aOR) was adjusted by age, sex, race/ethnicity, and smoking frequency...
January 12, 2018: Nicotine & Tobacco Research: Official Journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29342263/sri-lanka-s-post-tsunami-health-system-recovery-a-qualitative-analysis-of-physician-perspectives
#2
William Collin Schenk, Thuy Bui
Background: The 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami caused significant damage to the health system in Sri Lanka. Rebuilding infrastructure and improving the mental health system were targets of recovery policies. Retrospective analyses of the post-tsunami health system recovery in Sri Lanka lack the perspectives of local stakeholders, including health care providers. Methods: In 2014 we interviewed 23 Sri Lankan physicians from the Eastern and Southern regions. Participants were recruited with snowball sampling...
January 12, 2018: International Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29342221/genotype-by-environment-interactions-affecting-heterosis-in-maize
#3
Zhi Li, Lisa Coffey, Jacob Garfin, Nathan D Miller, Michael R White, Edgar P Spalding, Natalia de Leon, Shawn M Kaeppler, Patrick S Schnable, Nathan M Springer, Candice N Hirsch
The environment can influence heterosis, the phenomena in which the offspring of two inbred parents exhibits phenotypic performance beyond the inbred parents for specific traits. In this study we measured 25 traits in a set of 47 maize hybrids and their inbred parents grown in 16 different environments with varying levels of average productivity. By quantifying 25 vegetative and reproductive traits across the life cycle we were able to analyze interactions between the environment and multiple distinct instances of heterosis...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29342219/the-expression-profile-and-prognostic-significance-of-eukaryotic-translation-elongation-factors-in-different-cancers
#4
Md Khurshidul Hassan, Dinesh Kumar, Monali Naik, Manjusha Dixit
Eukaryotic translation factors, especially initiation factors have garnered much attention with regards to their role in the onset and progression of different cancers. However, the expression levels and prognostic significance of translation elongation factors remain poorly explored in different cancers. In this study, we have investigated the mRNA transcript levels of seven translation elongation factors in different cancer types using Oncomine and TCGA databases. Furthermore, we have identified the prognostic significance of these factors using Kaplan-Meier Plotter and SurvExpress databases...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29342199/a-non-linear-pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic-relationship-of-metformin-in-healthy-volunteers-an-open-label-parallel-group-randomized-clinical-study
#5
Hyewon Chung, Jaeseong Oh, Seo Hyun Yoon, Kyung-Sang Yu, Joo-Youn Cho, Jae-Yong Chung
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to explore the pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic (PK-PD) relationship of metformin on glucose levels after the administration of 250 mg and 1000 mg of metformin in healthy volunteers. METHODS: A total of 20 healthy male volunteers were randomized to receive two doses of either a low dose (375 mg followed by 250 mg) or a high dose (1000 mg followed by 1000 mg) of metformin at 12-h intervals. The pharmacodynamics of metformin was assessed using oral glucose tolerance tests before and after metformin administration...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29342180/increased-prevalence-of-pregnancy-and-comparative-risk-of-program-attrition-among-individuals-starting-hiv-treatment-in-east-africa
#6
Charles B Holmes, Constantin T Yiannoutsos, Batya Elul, Elizabeth Bukusi, John Ssali, Andrew Kambugu, Beverly S Musick, Craig Cohen, Carolyn Williams, Lameck Diero, Nancy Padian, Kara K Wools-Kaloustian
BACKGROUND: The World Health Organization now recommends initiating all pregnant women on life-long antiretroviral therapy (ART), yet there is limited information about the characteristics and program outcomes of pregnant women already on ART in Africa. Our hypothesis was that pregnant women comprised an increasing proportion of those starting ART, and that sub-groups of these women were at higher risk for program attrition. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We used the International Epidemiology Databases to Evaluate AIDS- East Africa (IeDEA-EA) to conduct a retrospective cohort study including HIV care and treatment programs in Kenya, Uganda, and Tanzania...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29342163/doxylamine-pyridoxine-for-nausea-and-vomiting-of-pregnancy-randomized-placebo-controlled-trial-prespecified-analyses-and-reanalysis
#7
Navindra Persaud, Christopher Meaney, Khaled El-Emam, Rahim Moineddin, Kevin Thorpe
BACKGROUND: Doxylamine-pyridoxine is recommended as a first line treatment for nausea and vomiting during pregnancy and it is commonly prescribed. We re-analysed the findings of a previously reported superiority trial of doxylamine-pyridoxine for the treatment of nausea and vomiting during pregnancy using the clinical study report obtained from Health Canada. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We re-analysed individual level data for a parallel arm randomized controlled trial that was conducted in six outpatient obstetrical practices in the United States...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29342157/timing-of-maternal-death-levels-trends-and-ecological-correlates-using-sibling-data-from-34-sub-saharan-african-countries
#8
Leena Merdad, Mohamed M Ali
Millennium Development Goal 5 has not been universally achieved, particularly in sub-Saharan Africa. Understanding whether maternal deaths occur during pregnancy, childbirth, or puerperium is important to effectively plan maternal health programs and allocate resources. Our main research objectives are to (1) describe the proportions and rates of mortality for the antepartum, intrapartum, and postpartum periods; (2) document how these trends vary by sub-region; and (3) investigate ecological correlations between these rates and maternal care interventions...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29342149/low-expression-of-il-18-and-il-18-receptor-in-human-skeletal-muscle-is-associated-with-systemic-and-intramuscular-lipid-metabolism-role-of-hiv-lipodystrophy
#9
Birgitte Lindegaard, Thine Hvid, Helene Wolsk Mygind, Ole Hartvig-Mortensen, Thomas Grøndal, Julie Abildgaard, Jan Gerstoft, Bente Klarlund Pedersen, Marcin Baranowski
INTRODUCTION: Interleukin (IL)-18 is involved in regulation of lipid and glucose metabolism. Mice lacking whole-body IL-18 signalling are prone to develop weight gain and insulin resistance, a phenotype which is associated with impaired fat oxidation and ectopic skeletal muscle lipid deposition. IL-18 mRNA is expressed in human skeletal muscle but a role for IL-18 in muscle has not been identified. Patients with HIV-infection and lipodystrophy (LD) are characterized by lipid and glucose disturbances and increased levels of circulating IL-18...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29342099/poly-lactic-acid-pla-based-tear-resistant-and-biodegradable-flexible-films-by-blown-film-extrusion
#10
Norma Mallegni, Thanh Vu Phuong, Maria-Beatrice Coltelli, Patrizia Cinelli, Andrea Lazzeri
Poly(lactic acid) (PLA) was melt mixed in a laboratory extruder with poly(butylene adipate-co-terephthalate) (PBAT) and poly(butylene succinate) (PBS) in the presence of polypropylene glycol di glycidyl ether (EJ400) that acted as both plasticizer and compatibilizer. The process was then scaled up in a semi-industrial extruder preparing pellets having different content of a nucleating agent (LAK). All of the formulations could be processed by blowing extrusion and the obtained films showed mechanical properties dependent on the LAK content...
January 17, 2018: Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29342062/potential-sex-bias-exists-in-orthopaedic-basic-science-and-translational-research
#11
Jessica Bryant, Paul Yi, Liane Miller, Kacy Peek, Daniel Lee
BACKGROUND: Potential sex bias has been shown in general surgery basic science and translational research, with unequal representation of male and female specimens. Because basic science research forms the foundation for clinical studies on which patient care is based, it is important that this research equally consider both sexes. The purpose of this study was to determine if potential sex bias exists in the basic science and translational orthopaedic literature. METHODS: A systematic review was conducted of all articles published in 2014 in The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery, Clinical Orthopaedics and Related Research, The Bone & Joint Journal, and the Journal of Orthopaedic Research (JOR)...
January 17, 2018: Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery. American Volume
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29342036/trends-in-intraoperative-testing-during-cochlear-implantation
#12
Joshua Cody Page, Matthew D Cox, Blake Hollowoa, Juliana Bonilla-Velez, Aaron Trinidade, John L Dornhoffer
OBJECTIVE: No consensus guidelines exist regarding intraoperative testing during cochlear implantation and wide variation in practice habits exists. The objective of this observational study was to survey otologists/neurotologists to understand practice habits and overall opinion of usefulness of intraoperative testing. STUDY DESIGN: Cross-sectional survey. SETTING: A web-based survey was sent to 194 practicing Otologists/Neurotologists. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Questions included practice setting and experience, habits with respect to electrodes used, intraoperative testing modalities used, overall opinion of intraoperative testing, and practice habits in various scenarios...
January 16, 2018: Otology & Neurotology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29342035/systematic-review-of-hearing-preservation-after-radiotherapy-for-vestibular-schwannoma
#13
Adam R Coughlin, Tyler J Willman, Samuel P Gubbels
OBJECTIVE: To determine the long-term hearing preservation rate for spontaneous vestibular schwannoma treated by primary radiotherapy. DATA SOURCES: The MEDLINE/PubMed, Web of Science, Cochrane Reviews, and EMBASE databases were searched using a comprehensive Boolean keyword search developed in conjunction with a scientific librarian. English language papers published from 2000 to 2016 were evaluated. STUDY SELECTION: Inclusion criteria: full articles, pretreatment and posttreatment audiograms or audiogram based scoring system, vestibular schwannoma only tumor type, reported time to follow-up, published after 1999, use of either Gamma Knife or linear accelerator radiotherapy...
January 16, 2018: Otology & Neurotology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341925/phase-contrast-tomography-at-lab-on-chip-scale-by-digital-holography
#14
REVIEW
F Merola, P Memmolo, L Miccio, M Mugnano, P Ferraro
High-throughput single-cell analysis is a challenging target for implementing advanced biomedical applications. An excellent candidate for this aim is label-free tomographic phase microscopy (TPM). In this paper, some of the methods used to obtain TPM are reviewed, analyzing advantages and disadvantages of each of them. Moreover, an alternative tomographic technique is described for live cells analysis, and future trends of the method are foreseen. In particular, by exploiting random rolling of cells while they are flowing along a microfluidic channel, it is possible to obtain phase-contrast tomography thus obtaining complete retrieval of both 3D-position and orientation of rotating cells...
January 13, 2018: Methods: a Companion to Methods in Enzymology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341801/local-vs-national-epidemiology-of-pedestrian-injury-in-a-mid-atlantic-city
#15
Elizabeth D Nesoff, Keshia M Pollack, Amy R Knowlton, Janice V Bowie, Andrea C Gielen
OBJECTIVE: Understanding pedestrian injury trends at the local level is essential for program planning and allocation of funds for urban planning and improvement. Because we hypothesize that local injury trends differ from national trends in significant and meaningful ways, we investigated city-wide pedestrian injury trends to assess injury risk among nationally-identified risk groups, as well as identify risk groups and locations specific to Baltimore City. METHODS: Pedestrian injury data, obtained from the Baltimore City Fire Department, were gathered through EMS records collected from January 1 to December 31, 2014...
January 17, 2018: Traffic Injury Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341791/population-level-evidence-for-seasonality-of-the-human-microbiome
#16
Christina Korownyk, Fangwei Liu, Scott Garrison
The objective of this study is to determine whether human body odors undergo seasonal modulation. We utilized google trends search volume from the United States of America from January 1, 2010 to June 24, 2017 for a number of predetermined body odors. Regression modeling of time series data was completed. Our primary outcome was to determine the proportion of the variability in Internet searches for each unpleasant odor (about the mean) that is explained by a seasonal model. We determined that the seasonal (sinusoidal) model provided a significantly better fit than the null model (best straight line fit) for all searches relating to human body odors (P <...
January 17, 2018: Chronobiology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341588/human-neuraminidase-isoenzymes-show-variable-activities-for-9-o-acetyl-sialoside-substrates
#17
Carmanah D Hunter, Neha Khanna, Michele R Richards, Reza Rezaei Darestani, Chunxia Zou, John S Klassen, Christopher W Cairo
Recognition of terminal sialic acids is central to many cellular processes, and structural modification of sialic acid can disrupt these interactions. A prominent, naturally occuring, modification of sialic acid is 9-O-acetylation (9-O-Ac). Study of this modification through generation and analysis of 9-O-Ac sialosides is challenging due to the lability of the acetate group. Fundamental questions regarding the role of 9-O-Ac sialic acids remain unanswered, including what effect it may have on recognition and hydrolysis by the human neuraminidase enzymes (hNEU)...
January 17, 2018: ACS Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341454/socioeconomic-deprivation-and-the-burden-of-head-and-neck-cancer-regional-variations-of-incidence-and-mortality-in-merseyside-and-cheshire-north-west-england
#18
B G Taib, J Oakley, Y Dailey, I Hodge, P Wright, R du Plessis, J Rylands, D Taylor-Robinson, S Povall, A Schache, R Shaw, A Dingle, T M Jones
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this longitudinal study is to examine the distribution of head and neck cancer (HANC) disease burden across the region comparing it to national trends. DESIGN: We undertook a retrospective study of routine data combining it with indicators of deprivation and lifestyle at small geographical areas within the nine Local Authorities (LAs) of Merseyside and Cheshire Network (MCCN)for head and neck cancers. Data from the North West of England and England were used as comparator regions...
January 17, 2018: Clinical Otolaryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341402/isotope-substitution-of-promiscuous-alcohol-dehydrogenase-reveals-origin-of-substrate-preference-in-transition-state
#19
Rudolf K Allemann, J Javier Ruiz-Pernia, Louis Luk, Inaki Tunon, Vicent Moliner, Enas Behiry
The origin of substrate preference in promiscuous enzymes was investigated by enzyme isotope labeling of the alcohol dehydrogenase from Geobacillus stearothermophilus (BsADH). At physiological temperature, protein dynamic coupling to the reaction coordinate was insignificant. However, the extent of dynamic coupling was highly substrate-dependent at lower temperatures. For benzyl alcohol, an enzyme isotope effect larger than unity was observed, whereas the enzyme isotope effect was close to unity for isopropanol...
January 17, 2018: Angewandte Chemie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341384/influence-of-spore-and-carrier-material-surface-hydrophobicity-on-decontamination-efficacy-with-condensing-hydrogen-peroxide-vapor
#20
Elisabeth Eschlbeck, Christina Seeburger, Ulrich Kulozik
AIMS: To investigate the influence of surface hydrophobicity of carrier material and bacterial spores of Bacillus subtilis SA 22 and Bacillus atrophaeus (DSM 675) on spore inactivation with condensing hydrogen peroxide gas. METHODS AND RESULTS: Surface hydrophobicity of bacterial spores and carrier material was determined by means of contact angle measurement. Spores of Bacillus subtilis showed water contact angles of 90 °, spores of Bacillus atrophaeus showed water contact angles of 42 °...
January 16, 2018: Journal of Applied Microbiology
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