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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684787/the-body-electric-2-0-recent-advances-in-developmental-bioelectricity-for-regenerative-and-synthetic-bioengineering
#1
REVIEW
Juanita Mathews, Michael Levin
Breakthroughs in biomedicine and synthetic bioengineering require predictive, rational control over anatomical structure and function. Recent successes in manipulating cellular and molecular hardware have not been matched by progress in understanding the patterning software implemented during embryogenesis and regeneration. A fundamental capability gap is driving desired changes in growth and form to address birth defects and traumatic injury. Here we review new tools, results, and conceptual advances in an exciting emerging field: endogenous non-neural bioelectric signaling, which enables cellular collectives to make global decisions and implement large-scale pattern homeostasis...
April 20, 2018: Current Opinion in Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684645/challenges-in-pediatric-neuroimaging
#2
REVIEW
Matthew J Barkovich, Yi Li, Rahul S Desikan, A James Barkovich, Duan Xu
Pediatric neuroimaging is challenging due the rapid structural, metabolic, and functional changes that occur in the developing brain. A specially trained team is needed to produce high quality diagnostic images in children, due to their small physical size and immaturity. Patient motion, cooperation and medical condition dictate the methods and equipment used. A customized approach tailored to each child's age and functional status with the appropriate combination of dedicated staff, imaging hardware, and software is key; these range from low-tech techniques, such as feed and swaddle, to specialized small bore MRI scanners, MRI compatible incubators and neonatal head coils...
April 20, 2018: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684620/in-vivo-quantification-of-hydrogen-gas-concentration-in-bone-marrow-surrounding-magnesium-fracture-fixation-hardware-using-an-electrochemical-hydrogen-gas-sensor
#3
Daoli Zhao, Andrew Brown, Tingting Wang, Sayuri Yoshizawa, Charles Sfeir, William R Heineman
Magnesium (Mg) medical devices are currently being marketed for orthopedic applications and have a complex degradation process which includes the evolution of hydrogen gas (H2 ). The effect of H2 exposure on relevant cell types has not been studied; and the concentration surrounding degrading Mg devices has not been quantified to enable such mechanistic studies. A simple and effective method to measure the concentration of H2 in varying microenvironments surrounding Mg implants is the first step to understanding the biological impact of H2 on these cells...
April 20, 2018: Acta Biomaterialia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29682045/cerebrospinal-fluid-egress-from-the-quadripolar-deep-brain-stimulation-electrode-for-anterior-nucleus-of-the-thalamus-for-refractory-epilepsy
#4
Byung-Chul Son, Jin-Gyu Choi, Sang-Woo Ha
Deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the anterior nucleus of the thalamus (ANT) is an effective treatment for refractory epilepsy. Due to the unique location of ANT in the thalamus facing the lateral and third ventricles, transventricular DBS lead placement is an essential part of ANT DBS. However, there is no report regarding hardware problems including impedance variability in transventricular ANT DBS due to limited experience. A 45-year-old male patient with previously effective, bilateral ANT DBS presented with increasing seizure frequency and a shortened battery longevity within 2 years...
April 2018: Asian Journal of Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29682044/twiddler-s-syndrome-a-rare-hardware-complication-in-spinal-cord-stimulation
#5
Byung-Chul Son, Jin-Gyu Choi, Sang-Woo Ha
Twiddler's syndrome is an uncommon hardware complication involving the lead and pulse generators in cardiac pacemakers and defibrillators, deep brain stimulators, and vagal nerve stimulators. However, until very recently, it had not been reported in spinal cord stimulation (SCS). Considering the incidence of hardware complications of spinal cord stimulation, there may be an underreporting of Twiddler's syndrome due to lack of awareness. Two cases of Twiddler's syndrome as a hardware complication of SCS were identified between 2005 and 2015...
April 2018: Asian Journal of Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29680335/the-sigmoid-notch-view-for-distal-radius-fractures
#6
Robin N Kamal, Fraser Leversedge, David S Ruch, Suhail K Mithani, Ilvy H F Cotterell, Marc J Richard
PURPOSE: This study defines the sigmoid notch view of the distal radius. Specifically, we tested the null hypothesis that there is no relationship between the subchondral stripe of bone seen on a sigmoid notch view of the distal radius and the articular surface of the sigmoid notch. METHODS: We used 44 wrist specimens for anatomic and fluoroscopic analysis. We measured the articular depth of the sigmoid notch from its deepest point and classified the shape of the sigmoid notch...
April 18, 2018: Journal of Hand Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679783/radiofrequency-lesioning-through-deep-brain-stimulation-electrodes-in-patients-with-generalized-dystonia
#7
Nobuhiko Takeda, Shiro Hoeisawa, Takaomi Taira, Takakazu Kawamata
BACKGROUND: Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is an established treatment for generalized dystonia. However, the DBS device is sometimes removed owing to hardware complications. Here, we present four cases of generalized dystonia treated with radiofrequency lesioning through the DBS electrodes. CASE DESCRIPTION: The patients were three men and one woman (34 to 44 years old). They had undergone DBS for generalized dystonia. However, they subsequently developed complications, such as infection, and removal of the devices became necessary...
April 18, 2018: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679703/pc-pvt-2-0-an-updated-platform-for-psychomotor-vigilance-task-testing-analysis-prediction-and-visualization
#8
Jaques Reifman, Kamal Kumar, Maxim Y Khitrov, Jianbo Liu, Sridhar Ramakrishnan
BACKGROUND: The psychomotor vigilance task (PVT) has been widely used to assess the effects of sleep deprivation on human neurobehavioral performance. To facilitate research in this field, we previously developed the PC-PVT, a freely available software system analogous to the "gold-standard" PVT-192 that, in addition to allowing for simple visual reaction time (RT) tests, also allows for near real-time PVT analysis, predictions, and visualization in a personal computer (PC)...
April 18, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679412/influence-of-the-medication-environment-on-the-unsafe-medication-behavior-of-nurses-a-path-analysis
#9
Xi Yu, Ce Li, Xueqin Gao, Furong Liu, Ping Lin
AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: To explore the relationship between the medication environment and the unsafe medication behavior of nurses and to analyze its influence path. BACKGROUND: Unsafe medication behavior is the direct cause of medication error. The organizational environment is the foundation of and plays a guiding role in work behavior. Whether the medication environment correlates with the unsafe medication behavior of nurses remains unclear. DESIGN: This study used a correlative design with self-administered questionnaires, and the SHEL model, an acronym of its elements of software, hardware, environment, and liveware, was used as the framework for the medication environment...
April 20, 2018: Journal of Clinical Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679194/posterior-cranial-fossa-and-spinal-local-infections
#10
Federico Bianchi, Gianpiero Tamburrini
OBJECT: The aim of this paper is to review the current knowledge on the management of local infections in posterior cranial fossa (PCF) and spinal surgery; the center of our paper will be the diagnosis and management of infections of the wound, the subcutaneous tissue, and muscle strata. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: Very few papers address the problem of local infections in posterior cranial fossa and spinal surgery. The largest amount of the literature data is indeed centered on how to deal with deep infections, CSF leak, and secondary meningitis or hardware infection...
April 20, 2018: Child's Nervous System: ChNS: Official Journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29677839/spiking-neural-networks-with-unsupervised-learning-based-on-stdp-using-resistive-synaptic-devices-and-analog-cmos-neuron-circuit
#11
Min-Woo Kwon, Myung-Hyun Baek, Sungmin Hwang, Sungjun Kim, Byung-Gook Park
We designed the CMOS analog integrate and fire (I&F) neuron circuit can drive resistive synaptic device. The neuron circuit consists of a current mirror for spatial integration, a capacitor for temporal integration, asymmetric negative and positive pulse generation part, a refractory part, and finally a back-propagation pulse generation part for learning of the synaptic devices. The resistive synaptic devices were fabricated using HfOx switching layer by atomic layer deposition (ALD). The resistive synaptic device had gradual set and reset characteristics and the conductance was adjusted by spike-timing-dependent-plasticity (STDP) learning rule...
September 1, 2018: Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29677091/factors-associated-with-revision-surgery-after-internal-fixation-of-hip-fractures
#12
Sheila Sprague, Emil H Schemitsch, Marc Swiontkowski, Gregory J Della Rocca, Kyle J Jeray, Susan Liew, Gerard P Slobogean, Sofia Bzovsky, Diane Heels-Ansdell, Qi Zhou, Mohit Bhandari
BACKGROUND: Femoral neck fractures are associated with high rates of revision surgery after management with internal fixation. Using data from the Fixation using Alternative Implants for the Treatment of Hip fractures (FAITH) trial evaluating methods of internal fixation in patients with femoral neck fractures, we investigated associations between baseline and surgical factors and the need for revision surgery to promote healing, relieve pain, treat infection or improve function over 24 months postsurgery...
May 2018: Journal of Orthopaedic Trauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29676598/modernising-speech-audiometry-using-a-smartphone-application-to-test-word-recognition
#13
Marianne van Zyl, De Wet Swanepoel, Hermanus C Myburgh
OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to develop and assess a method to measure word recognition abilities using a smartphone application (App) connected to an audiometer. DESIGN: Word lists were recorded in South African English and Afrikaans. Analyses were conducted to determine the effect of hardware used for presentation (computer, compact-disc player, or smartphone) on the frequency content of recordings. An Android App was developed to enable presentation of recorded materials via a smartphone connected to the auxiliary input of the audiometer...
April 20, 2018: International Journal of Audiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29675632/factors-affecting-mortality-and-reoperations-in-high-energy-pelvic-fractures
#14
Peyman Bakhshayesh, Lars Weidenhielm, Anders Enocson
AIM: Factors affecting mortality during the first year following high-energy pelvic fractures has not been reported previously. Nor has surgical complications leading to reoperations been reported in a cohort with only high-energy pelvic trauma patients. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to report and analyse factors affecting outcome, in terms of mortality and reoperations, up to 1 year after the injury in patients with a traumatic pelvic ring injury due to a high-energy trauma...
April 19, 2018: European Journal of Orthopaedic Surgery & Traumatology: Orthopédie Traumatologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29675598/design-of-a-biorthogonal-wavelet-transform-based-r-peak-detection-and-data-compression-scheme-for-implantable-cardiac-pacemaker-systems
#15
Ashish Kumar, Manjeet Kumar, Rama Komaragiri
Bradycardia can be modulated using the cardiac pacemaker, an implantable medical device which sets and balances the patient's cardiac health. The device has been widely used to detect and monitor the patient's heart rate. The data collected hence has the highest authenticity assurance and is convenient for further electric stimulation. In the pacemaker, ECG detector is one of the most important element. The device is available in its new digital form, which is more efficient and accurate in performance with the added advantage of economical power consumption platform...
April 19, 2018: Journal of Medical Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29675306/super-resolution-fluorescence-microscopy-by-stepwise-optical-saturation
#16
Yide Zhang, Prakash D Nallathamby, Genevieve D Vigil, Aamir A Khan, Devon E Mason, Joel D Boerckel, Ryan K Roeder, Scott S Howard
Super-resolution fluorescence microscopy is an important tool in biomedical research for its ability to discern features smaller than the diffraction limit. However, due to its difficult implementation and high cost, the super-resolution microscopy is not feasible in many applications. In this paper, we propose and demonstrate a saturation-based super-resolution fluorescence microscopy technique that can be easily implemented and requires neither additional hardware nor complex post-processing. The method is based on the principle of stepwise optical saturation (SOS), where M steps of raw fluorescence images are linearly combined to generate an image with a [Formula: see text]-fold increase in resolution compared with conventional diffraction-limited images...
April 1, 2018: Biomedical Optics Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29675305/transform-and-multi-domain-deep-learning-for-single-frame-rapid-autofocusing-in-whole-slide-imaging
#17
Shaowei Jiang, Jun Liao, Zichao Bian, Kaikai Guo, Yongbing Zhang, Guoan Zheng
A whole slide imaging (WSI) system has recently been approved for primary diagnostic use in the US. The image quality and system throughput of WSI is largely determined by the autofocusing process. Traditional approaches acquire multiple images along the optical axis and maximize a figure of merit for autofocusing. Here we explore the use of deep convolution neural networks (CNNs) to predict the focal position of the acquired image without axial scanning. We investigate the autofocusing performance with three illumination settings: incoherent Kohler illumination, partially coherent illumination with two plane waves, and one-plane-wave illumination...
April 1, 2018: Biomedical Optics Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29674961/unsupervised-feature-learning-with-winner-takes-all-based-stdp
#18
Paul Ferré, Franck Mamalet, Simon J Thorpe
We present a novel strategy for unsupervised feature learning in image applications inspired by the Spike-Timing-Dependent-Plasticity (STDP) biological learning rule. We show equivalence between rank order coding Leaky-Integrate-and-Fire neurons and ReLU artificial neurons when applied to non-temporal data. We apply this to images using rank-order coding, which allows us to perform a full network simulation with a single feed-forward pass using GPU hardware. Next we introduce a binary STDP learning rule compatible with training on batches of images...
2018: Frontiers in Computational Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29674234/spiking-neural-networks-for-handwritten-digit-recognition-supervised-learning-and-network-optimization
#19
Shruti R Kulkarni, Bipin Rajendran
We demonstrate supervised learning in Spiking Neural Networks (SNNs) for the problem of handwritten digit recognition using the spike triggered Normalized Approximate Descent (NormAD) algorithm. Our network that employs neurons operating at sparse biological spike rates below 300Hz achieves a classification accuracy of 98.17% on the MNIST test database with four times fewer parameters compared to the state-of-the-art. We present several insights from extensive numerical experiments regarding optimization of learning parameters and network configuration to improve its accuracy...
April 6, 2018: Neural Networks: the Official Journal of the International Neural Network Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29673845/fractional-order-pi-%C3%AE-controller-synthesis-for-steam-turbine-speed-governing-systems
#20
Kai Chen, Rongnian Tang, Chuang Li, Junguo Lu
The current state of the art of fractional order stability theory is hardly to build connection between the time domain analysis and frequency domain synthesis. The existing tuning methodologies for fractional order PIλ Dμ are not always satisfy the given gain crossover frequency and phase margin simultaneously. To overcome the drawbacks in the existing synthesis of fractional order controller, the synthesis of optimal fractional order PIλ controller for higher-order process is proposed. According to the specified phase margin, the corresponding upper boundary of gain crossover frequency and stability surface in parameter space are obtained...
April 16, 2018: ISA Transactions
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