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R Perrier, A Pirog, M Jaffredo, J Gaitan, B Catargi, S Renaud, M Raoux, J Lang
On-line and real-time analysis of micro-organ activity permits to use the endogenous analytical power of cellular signal transduction algorithms as biosensors. We have developed here such a sensor using only a few pancreatic endocrine islets and the avoidance of transgenes or chemical probes reduces bias and procures general usage. Nutrient and hormone-induced changes in islet ion fluxes through channels provide the first integrative read-out of micro-organ activity. Using extracellular electrodes we captured this read-out non-invasively as slow potentials which reflect glucose concentration-dependent (3-15 mM) micro-organ activation and coupling...
June 8, 2018: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
Francisco Maciá Pérez, Leandro Zambrano Méndez, José Vicente Berná Martínez, Roberto Sepúlveda Lima
This article presents the design of a field programmable gate array (FPGA)-based prototype of a system on chip (SoC) capable of behaving as one of the nerve centres comprising the neuroregulatory system in humans: the cortical-diencephalic nerve centre. The neuroregulatory system is a complex nerve system consisting of a heterogeneous group of nerve centres. These centres are distributed throughout the length of the spinal cord, are autonomous, communicate via interneurons, and govern and regulate the behaviour of multiple organs and systems in the human body...
June 13, 2018: Computers in Biology and Medicine
Antoine Morice, Florian Ducellier, Pascal Bizot
INTRODUCTION: The indications for total hip arthroplasty (THA) after failed internal fixation of a proximal femur fracture vary. Published studies on this topic are broad-ranging and do not distinguish between intracapsular and extracapsular fractures. This led us to conduct a retrospective analysis comparing the clinical outcomes, radiological outcomes, technical problems and complications between these two types of fractures. HYPOTHESIS: The functional outcomes of THA after an extracapsular fracture will be worse than the ones after an intracapsular fracture...
June 13, 2018: Orthopaedics & Traumatology, Surgery & Research: OTSR
Ákos Kovács, Dániel Dudola, László Nyitray, Gábor Tóth, Zoltán Nagy, Zoltán Gáspári
Single alpha-helices (SAHs) are increasingly recognized as important structural and functional elements of proteins. Comprehensive identification of SAH segments in large protein datasets was largely hindered by the slow speed of the most restrictive prediction tool for their identification, FT_CHARGE on common hardware. We have previously implemented an FPGA-based version of this tool allowing fast analysis of a large number of sequences. Using this implementation, we have set up of a semi-automated pipeline capable of analyzing full UniProt releases in reasonable time and compiling monthly updates of a comprehensive database of SAH segments...
June 13, 2018: Journal of Structural Biology
Sean C Lucan, Andrew R Maroko, Jason L Seitchik, Dong Hum Yoon, Luisa E Sperry, Clyde B Schechter
INTRODUCTION: Studies of neighborhood food environments typically focus on select stores (especially supermarkets) and/or restaurants (especially fast-food outlets), make presumptions about healthfulness without assessing actual items for sale, and ignore other kinds of businesses offering foods/drinks. The current study assessed availability of select healthful and less-healthful foods/drinks from all storefront businesses in an urban environment and considered implications for food-environment research and community health...
June 11, 2018: American Journal of Preventive Medicine
Filippo Arrigoni, Sonia Calloni, Thierry A G M Huisman, Luisa Chiapparini
Conventional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) allows for a detailed noninvasive visualization/examination of posterior fossa structures and represents a fundamental step in the diagnostic workup of many cerebellar disorders. In the first part of this chapter methodologic issues, like the correct choice of hardware (magnets, coils), pro and cons of the different MRI sequences, and patient management during the examination are discussed. In the second part, the MRI anatomy of the cerebellum, as noted on the various conventional MRI sequences, as well as a detailed description of cerebellar maturational processes from birth to childhood and into adulthood, are reported...
2018: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
Vivek Navale, Philip E Bourne
Biomedical research has become a digital data-intensive endeavor, relying on secure and scalable computing, storage, and network infrastructure, which has traditionally been purchased, supported, and maintained locally. For certain types of biomedical applications, cloud computing has emerged as an alternative to locally maintained traditional computing approaches. Cloud computing offers users pay-as-you-go access to services such as hardware infrastructure, platforms, and software for solving common biomedical computational problems...
June 2018: PLoS Computational Biology
Junchen Wang, Xiaohui Zhang, Zhen Sun, Fuzhen Yuan
BACKGROUND: The limited field of view of the X-ray image intensifier makes it difficult to cover a large target area with a single X-ray image. X-ray image stitching techniques have been proposed to produce a panoramic X-ray image. METHODS: This paper presents an efficient intensity-based X-ray image stitcher, which does not rely on accurate C-arm motion control or auxiliary devices and hence is ready to use in clinic. The stitcher consumes sequentially captured X-ray images with overlap areas and automatically produces a panoramic image...
June 14, 2018: International Journal of Medical Robotics + Computer Assisted Surgery: MRCAS
Suneil K Aggarwal, Nicola Delahunty Rn, Leon J Menezes, Richard Perry, Bethany Wong, Markus Reinthaler, Muhiddin Ozkor, Michael J Mullen
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate solid embolization during transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) and correlate this with aortic valve calcification. BACKGROUND: There is a known stroke risk with TAVI, thought partly to be due to dislodgement of native aortic valve particles during implantation. However, to date there is little evidence that aortic valve calcification actually impacts embolic risk. METHODS: Transcranial Doppler (TCD) was performed on consecutive suitable patients undergoing TAVI, using hardware and software enabling differentiation between solid and gaseous emboli...
June 13, 2018: Journal of Interventional Cardiology
Cynthia K McClard, Benjamin R Arenkiel
The brain is a remarkable network of circuits dedicated to sensory integration, perception, and response. The computational power of the brain is estimated to dwarf that of most modern supercomputers, but perhaps its most fascinating capability is to structurally refine itself in response to experience. In the language of computers, the brain is loaded with programs that encode when and how to alter its own hardware. This programmed "plasticity" is a critical mechanism by which the brain shapes behavior to adapt to changing environments...
2018: Journal of Experimental Neuroscience
F Merrikh Bayat, M Prezioso, B Chakrabarti, H Nili, I Kataeva, D Strukov
The progress in the field of neural computation hinges on the use of hardware more efficient than the conventional microprocessors. Recent works have shown that mixed-signal integrated memristive circuits, especially their passive (0T1R) variety, may increase the neuromorphic network performance dramatically, leaving far behind their digital counterparts. The major obstacle, however, is immature memristor technology so that only limited functionality has been reported. Here we demonstrate operation of one-hidden layer perceptron classifier entirely in the mixed-signal integrated hardware, comprised of two passive 20 × 20 metal-oxide memristive crossbar arrays, board-integrated with discrete conventional components...
June 13, 2018: Nature Communications
E J Yates, L C Yates, H Harvey
AIM: To develop a machine learning-based model for the binary classification of chest radiography abnormalities, to serve as a retrospective tool in guiding clinician reporting prioritisation. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The open-source machine learning library, Tensorflow, was used to retrain a final layer of the deep convolutional neural network, Inception, to perform binary normality classification on two, anonymised, public image datasets. Re-training was performed on 47,644 images using commodity hardware, with validation testing on 5,505 previously unseen radiographs...
June 10, 2018: Clinical Radiology
Christoph Müller, Michael Krone, Markus Huber, Verena Biener, Dominik Herr, Steffen Koch, Guido Reina, Daniel Weiskopf, Thomas Ertl
Immersive technologies like stereo rendering, virtual reality, or augmented reality (AR) are often used in the field of molecular visualisation. Modern, comparably lightweight and affordable AR headsets like Microsoft's HoloLens open up new possibilities for immersive analytics in molecular visualisation. A crucial factor for a comprehensive analysis of molecular data in AR is the rendering speed. HoloLens, however, has limited hardware capabilities due to requirements like battery life, fanless cooling and weight...
June 13, 2018: Journal of Integrative Bioinformatics
Bernhard Gruber, Martijn Froeling, Tim Leiner, Dennis W J Klomp
Radiofrequency (RF) coils are an essential MRI hardware component. They directly impact the spatial and temporal resolution, sensitivity, and uniformity in MRI. Advances in RF hardware have resulted in a variety of designs optimized for specific clinical applications. RF coils are the "antennas" of the MRI system and have two functions: first, to excite the magnetization by broadcasting the RF power (Tx-Coil) and second to receive the signal from the excited spins (Rx-Coil). Transmit RF Coils emit magnetic field pulses ( B1+) to rotate the net magnetization away from its alignment with the main magnetic field (B0 ), resulting in a transverse precessing magnetization...
June 13, 2018: Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging: JMRI
Suqing Gao, Yunping Xu, Dongmei Nie, Zhihui Deng, Wenxu Hong
OBJECTIVE: To list the key points for quality control during HLA-A, B, C, DRB1 and DQB1 allele typing by taking consideration of hardware, software and experimental procedures. METHODS: A total of 10 167 samples from randomly selected healthy blood donors and donor-recipient pairs from Shenzhen were typed for exons 2-4 of HLA-A, B, C, exon 2 of HLA-DRB1, and exons 2 and 3 of HLA-DQB1 by PCR- sequence-based typing. For 56 cases whose forward and reverse sequences were inconsistent, the samples were re-checked by a PCR-sequence specific oligonucleotide probe method...
June 10, 2018: Zhonghua Yi Xue Yi Chuan Xue za Zhi, Zhonghua Yixue Yichuanxue Zazhi, Chinese Journal of Medical Genetics
Angelos Karlas, Josefine Reber, Evangelos Liapis, Korbinian Paul-Yuan, Vasilis Ntziachristos
MSOT has revolutionized biomedical imaging because it allows anatomical, functional, and molecular imaging of deep tissues in vivo in an entirely noninvasive, label-free, and real-time manner. This imaging modality works by pulsing light onto tissue, triggering the production of acoustic waves, which can be collected and reconstructed to provide high-resolution images of features as deep as several centimeters below the body surface. Advances in hardware and software continue to bring MSOT closer to clinical translation...
June 13, 2018: Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology
Claudio N Cavasotto, Natalia S Adler, Maria G Aucar
Today computational chemistry is a consolidated tool in drug lead discovery endeavors. Due to methodological developments and to the enormous advance in computer hardware, methods based on quantum mechanics (QM) have gained great attention in the last 10 years, and calculations on biomacromolecules are becoming increasingly explored, aiming to provide better accuracy in the description of protein-ligand interactions and the prediction of binding affinities. In principle, the QM formulation includes all contributions to the energy, accounting for terms usually missing in molecular mechanics force-fields, such as electronic polarization effects, metal coordination, and covalent binding; moreover, QM methods are systematically improvable, and provide a greater degree of transferability...
2018: Frontiers in Chemistry
A Biazzo, A Manzotti, K Motavalli, N Confalonieri
Introduction: The aim of this paper is to present our experience with femoral press-fit fixation in anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction using bone-patellar tendon-bone autograft. Methods: The patient population was randomly placed in two groups: group A (58 patients), who underwent femoral screw fixation; group B (62 patients), who underwent femoral press-fit fixation. Results: At last follow-up 9.2% of patients were lost; 28% of patients in group A and 64% of patients in group B had excellent International Knee Documentation Committee score (grade A); 66% of patients in group A and 32% of patients in group B had good International Knee Documentation Committee scores (grade B)...
April 2018: Journal of Clinical Orthopaedics and Trauma
Amirhossein Tavanaei, Timothée Masquelier, Anthony Maida
Although representation learning methods developed within the framework of traditional neural networks are relatively mature, developing a spiking representation model remains a challenging problem. This paper proposes an event-based method to train a feedforward spiking neural network (SNN) layer for extracting visual features. The method introduces a novel spike-timing-dependent plasticity (STDP) learning rule and a threshold adjustment rule both derived from a vector quantization-like objective function subject to a sparsity constraint...
June 1, 2018: Neural Networks: the Official Journal of the International Neural Network Society
Wenyuan Li, Igor V Ovchinnikov, Honglin Chen, Zhe Wang, Albert Lee, Houchul Lee, Carlos Cepeda, Robert N Schwartz, Karlheinz Meier, Kang L Wang
The extreme complexity of the brain has attracted the attention of neuroscientists and other researchers for a long time. More recently, the neuromorphic hardware has matured to provide a tool to study neuronal dynamics. Here, we study neuronal dynamics using different sets of settings on a neuromorphic chip built with flexible parameters of neuron models. Our unique setting in the network of leaky integrate-and-fire (LIF) neurons is to introduce a weak noise environment. We observed three different types of collective neuronal activities, each with a clear boundary separating the different types of activity (phase transition)...
June 12, 2018: Neural Computation
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