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Occupational medicine

Luke Mease, Reema Sikka, Randall Rhees
Introduction: To analyze the effectiveness and suitability of pupillometer use in military and occupational medicine, specifically when pupil size is measured as part of medical surveillance. Pupil size is the most sensitive physical exam finding in vapor exposure to substances that inhibit acetylcholinesterase, such as nerve agent (chemical warfare) and organophosphates (used in agriculture). Pupillometer use permits real-time, accurate pupil measurements, which are of significant value in occupational setting where exposure to organophosphates is suspected and in dynamic military settings where it may be unclear if service members were exposed to nerve agent or not...
March 14, 2018: Military Medicine
Rashmi Agarwalla, Rambha Pathak, Mitasha Singh, Farzana Islam, Mamta Parashar
Background: Ragpickers are informal workers who collect recyclable materials to earn a small wage on daily basis. They work in vulnerable conditions and awareness regarding occupational and environmental hazard is essential for them. Objective: To study the effectiveness of awareness program on various occupational health hazards among the ragpickers. Materials and Methods: This interventional study was conducted from May through October 2016 among the ragpickers living near field practice area of Department of Community Medicine and those living in slum areas around HAHC Hospital, New Delhi, India...
May 2017: Indian Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine
M N Arslan, Ç Kertmen, I Esen Melez, D O Melez
Traumatic asphyxia is a rare clinical syndrome usually caused by sudden and severe thoracic and/or thoracoabdominal compression. It presents with craniofacial cyanosis, petechiae, and subconjunctival haemorrhages. The present study employed a postmortem retrospective methodology to analyse autopsy findings and accompanying injuries in cases of death due to traumatic asphyxia. Four years of case files from a morgue department at a forensic medicine institute were searched and 53 cases of lethal traumatic asphyxia were found...
March 6, 2018: Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine
Cesare de Gregorio, Dalia Di Nunzio, Gianluca Di Bella
Physical activity comprises all muscular activities that require energy expenditure. Regular sequence of structured and organized exercise with the specific purpose of improving wellness and athletic performance is defined as a sports activity.Exercise can be performed at various levels of intensity and duration. According to the social context and pathways, it can be recreational, occupational, and competitive. Therefore, the training burden varies inherently and the heart adaptation is challenging.Although a general agreement on the fact that sports practice leads to metabolic, functional and physical benefits, there is evidence that some athletes may be subjected to adverse outcomes...
March 13, 2018: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Séverine Sauzé, Céline Chouhan
International literature endorses an organisation of care which links up the hospital and the usual living environment of the elderly person as well as interdisciplinarity in the pathway of these vulnerable patients. The internal medicine and vascular diseases department of Angers university hospital favours these two principles and wishes to strenghten this strategy thanks to the intervention of a dedicated nurse and an occupational therapist. The aim is to prevent the early rehospitalisation of elderly people...
March 2018: Soins. Gérontologie
A-S Le Provost, B Loddé, J Pietri, L De Parscau, L Pougnet, J-D Dewitte, R Pougnet
INTRODUCTION: Suffering at work among health professionals is a hot topic. Medical students, doctors of tomorrow, are far from being spared. Prevalence of anxiety and mood disorders range from 20.3 to 69 % for the former and from 12 to 30 % for the latter. The purpose of this article is to determine these factors by qualitative research, according to medical students' points of view. METHODS: It is a qualitative study using semistructured interviews. The analysis is done according to the Grounded Theory...
2018: Revue Médicale de Bruxelles
Waltraud Ernst
Until recently, the role of patient work in the history of psychiatry has been a neglected dimension. Yet, in the psychiatric institutions that emerged across the world from the late eighteenth century onwards, work and work therapy were prominent features, culminating in the rise of a specialist profession affiliated to medicine - occupational therapy. This article explores the changing meanings of work within varied medical, social, and political contexts.
February 2018: Indian Journal of Psychiatry
Carlos Culquichicón, Emanuel Ramos-Cedano, Luis Helguero-Santin, Roberto Niño-Garcia, Alfonso J Rodriguez-Morales
Carrion's disease is a major re-emerging and occupational health disease. This bibliometric study aimed to evaluate scientific production on this disease both globally and in Latin America. SCI-E, MEDLINE/GoPubMed, SCOPUS, ScIELO, and LILACS databases were searched for Carrion's disease-related articles. They were classified according to publication year, type, city and institution of origin, international cooperation, scientific journal, impact factor, publication language, author(s), and H-index. There were 170 articles in SCI-E...
March 1, 2018: Le Infezioni in Medicina
Ainhoa Urtasun, Imanol Nuñez
The neoclassic economic rationale has taken for granted that the effect of effort on health is negative. However, several studies in the field of occupational health and medicine claim that working is clearly better for health than non-working or being unemployed, as some psychological and physical condition may improve with work effort. This paper analyzes the effect of work effort on occupational health. The proposed human capital approach builds upon the classic economic perspective, that assumes a negative effect of effort on health, and extends it by allowing positive effects, as suggested by occupational researchers...
February 28, 2018: Social Science & Medicine
Saras Henderson, Maria Horne, Ruth Hills, Elizabeth Kendall
This study aims to conduct a concept analysis on cultural competence in community healthcare. Clarification of the concept of cultural competence is needed to enable clarity in the definition and operation, research and theory development to assist healthcare providers to better understand this evolving concept. Rodgers' evolutionary concept analysis method was used to clarify the concept's context, surrogate terms, antecedents, attributes and consequences and to determine implications for further research...
March 7, 2018: Health & Social Care in the Community
V Puro, F M Fusco, C Castilletti, F Carletti, F Colavita, C Agrati, A Di Caro, M R Capobianchi, G Ippolito
Orthopoxviruses spill over from animal reservoirs to accidental hosts, sometimes causing human infections. We describe the surveillance and infection control measures undertaken during an outbreak due to an Orthopoxvirus occurred in January 2015 in a colony of Macaca tonkeana in the province of Rieti, Latio, Italy, which caused a human asymptomatic infection. According to the epidemiological investigation, the human transmission occurred after an unprotected exposure. The contacts among wild, captive and domestic animals and humans, together with decreased immunity against Orthopoxviruses in the community, may put animal handlers at risk of infection, especially after the cessation of smallpox vaccination...
March 7, 2018: Zoonoses and Public Health
Jiho Lee, Eunhye Kim, Yongho Shin, Junghak Lee, Jonghwa Lee, Joon-Kwan Moon, Hoon Choi, Wolfgang Maasfeld, Jeong-Han Kim
This study examined dermal and inhalation exposure of agricultural operators to kresoxim-methyl during pesticide mixing/loading and speed sprayer application (10 replicates, each of 3000 L of spray suspension) in an apple orchard and performed risk assessment. For the whole body dosimetry (WBD) exposure protocol, outer clothing, inner clothing, gauze, and nitrile gloves were examined to measure dermal exposure. In contrast, an IOM (institute of occupational medicine) sampler with a glass fiber filter was used to measure inhalation exposure...
March 3, 2018: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
R Shyama Prasad Rao, Ning Zhang, Dong Xu, Ian Max Møller
Motivation: Oxidative stress and protein damage have been associated with over 200 human ailments including cancer, stroke, neuro-degenerative diseases, and aging (Fedorova et al., 2014. Mass Spectrom. Rev., 33, 79-97). Protein carbonylation, a chemically diverse oxidative post-translational modification (PTM), is widely considered as the biomarker for oxidative stress and protein damage. Despite their importance and extensive studies, no database/resource on carbonylated proteins/sites exists...
March 2, 2018: Bioinformatics
Najla Mechergui, Nesrine Chaouech, Hanéne Ben Said, Mejda Bani, Radhia Boujday, Nizar Ladhari
INTRODUCTION: The evaluation of fitness for work can be conducted upon the employer's request even during the employee's sickness absence. AIM: Determine the contribution of conducting medical examinations to assess the working ability of Charles Nicolle hospital's workers who are on sick leave. METHODS: A descriptive and retrospective study included all the medical records, completed over a two-year period (2013-2014), of Charles Nicolle hospital's personnel who were on sick leave and who consulted the service of occupational medicine and professional pathology to undergo a fitness for work evaluation requested by the employer...
May 2017: La Tunisie Médicale
Samantha E Smith, Victoria R Tallentire, Lindsey M Pope, Anita H Laidlaw, Jill Morrison
OBJECTIVES: To explore the reasons that doctors choose to leave UK medicine after their foundation year two posts. SETTING: All four regions of Scotland. PARTICIPANTS: Foundation year two doctors (F2s) working throughout Scotland who were considering leaving UK medicine after foundation training were recruited on a volunteer basis. Maximum variation between participants was sought. PRIMARY AND SECONDARY OUTCOME MEASURES: Semistructured interviews were coded using template analysis...
March 2, 2018: BMJ Open
Eleni Petkari, Ana I Masedo Gutiérrez, Miguel Xavier, Berta Moreno Küstner
CONTEXT: In university programmes preparing students to work with patients with mental illness, clerkship is proposed as a component that may contribute to the battle against stigma, through bringing students into contact with the patients' reality. Yet, the precise contribution of clerkship remains unclear, perhaps because of the variety of university programmes, clerkship characteristics or types of stigma explored. This is the first systematic meta-analysis of available evidence determining the precise effect size of the influence of clerkship on stigma and the potential moderators...
March 2, 2018: Medical Education
X L Liu, Y L Xiao, H Q Tang, B L Chen, L H Yang, Y L Xiao, S J Lv
Objective: To analyze the status of personnel in occupational disease prevention and treatment institutions in Hunan Province, China, from 1996 to 2015, to predict staff composition using grey model (GM) (1, 1) , and to provide a scientific basis and reference for optimizing human resource planning of occupational disease prevention and treatment in other provinces and regions and promoting the service capacity of the institutions. Methods: The data of the staff in occupational disease prevention and treatment institutions in Hunan Province, China, from 1996 to 2015 were obtained from the established basic information management system...
January 20, 2018: Chinese Journal of Industrial Hygiene and Occupational Diseases
Ewa Zamysłowska-Szmytke, Sylwia Szostek-Rogula, Mariola Śliwińska-Kowalska
BACKGROUND: Balance assessment relies on symptoms, clinical examination and functional assessment and their verification in objective tests. Our study was aimed at calculating the assessment compatibility between questionnaires, functional scales and objective vestibular and balance examinations. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A group of 131 patients (including 101 women; mean age: 59±14 years) of the audiology outpatient clinic was examined. Benign paroxysmal positional vertigo, phobic vertigo and central dizziness were the most common diseases observed in the study group...
February 28, 2018: Medycyna Pracy
Carlos Flores, Erika González, Andrea Verna, Andrea Peralta, Carolina Madariaga, Anselmo Odeón, Germán Cantón
Infection with the orf virus, also known as contagious ecthyma, is recognized as an occupational zoonosis worldwide. It is diagnosed by cutaneous lesions that progress rapidly from macules to papules, vesicles and pustules. The clinical case of a student of veterinary medicine who had had contact with goats, clinically healthy and without apparent lesions, which occured 19 days ago, is reported. She presented two vesicular lesions that coalesced to form a larger lesion surrounded by an erythematous halo. The lesions were compatible with the classical presentation of those produced by the orf virus in humans...
December 2017: Revista Chilena de Infectología: órgano Oficial de la Sociedad Chilena de Infectología
Victoria Jean Earl, Mohamed Khaldoun Badawy
Following nuclear medicine scans a patient can be a source of radiation exposure to the hospital staff, including sonographers. Sonographers are not routinely monitored for occupational radiation exposure as they do not commonly interact with radioactive patients or other sources of ionizing radiation. This review aims to find evidence relating to the risk and amount of radiation the sonographer is exposed to from nuclear medicine patients. It is established in the literature that the radiation exposure to the sonographer following diagnostic nuclear medicine studies is low and consequently the risk is not significant...
February 25, 2018: Journal of Medical Imaging and Radiation Oncology
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